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中学英语语法

发布时间:2014-01-02 10:35:00  

英语语法
北京文美文化发展有限责任公司

杰西主讲

Unit 1 一般现在时
? 一、一般现在时的用法

? 1.表示经常发生的动作,存在的状态或

日常习惯。常与every day ,often,always. ? Sometimes 等连用。 ? I go to Britian every year. ? I am a teacher. ? She likes swimming in the hot summer.

2. 表示主语的性格,能力特征
The students of the universities like English very much. My daughter sings very well. My brother works very hard 3. 表示客观事时或普遍真理 The sun rises in the east Two and two is four

第三人称单数的构成
? 1.一般在词尾加s.
? Work-works

live-lives play-plays ? 2. 以 sh.ch.s. o.结尾加-es ? Wash-washes teach-teaches dress-dresses ? 3.以辐音自母加y结尾,变y为i加-es. ? Study-studies fly-flies try-tries

一般现在时否定式
1.在be动词后加not ? Are not=aren?t is not=isn?t ? 2.主语+don?t+动词原形。 ? 主语+doesn?t+动词原形 ? Bill likes parties. ? Bill doesn?t like parties ? We study English hard ? We don?t study English hard.
?

一般现在时疑问式
1. 将be动词提到句首。 ? He is a teacher They are students Is he teacher? Are they students? 2.在句首加Does 或 Do They study English.----Do they study English? He lives in Australia. Does he live in Australia? 。
?

Unit2 特殊疑问句
以what. who .whom. whose .which .when where. why .how引导。除 who 外, 一般加一般疑问句式. ? When does he go to bed? ? Where does she come from? ? Why do you study English? ? How many people are there in you family
?

名词性物主代词
第一人称:mine ours 第二人称:yours 第三人称:his , hers, its , theirs. P15exercises 2. This is pen. That is ,too..3. 3.This scarf. That is too. 4.This is newspaper.That is ,too.

? 5.These

are are ,too. ? 6.These are are .

children. Those
students. Those

感叹句
? 1.How+

形容词+主谓结构( 可 省)。 ? How beautiful the flowers are. ? 2. What+ 名词单数。 ? What a wonderful day it is. ? What+ 名词复数 ? What lovely children. ? What exciting news.

Unit 3 名词
一.规则变化 1.在名词后+s book-books student-students 2.以sh,ch,s,x结尾+es class-classes inch-inches brush-brushes 3.辅音字母+y结尾,变y为i+es. factory-factories family-families ? university-universities

部分以o结尾词+es. Hero-heroes potato—potatoes tomato-tomatoes radio—radios photo—photos piano—pianos ? 4.部分以f 结尾,变f为v+es ? life—lives knife—knives ? leaf--leaves ? *roof—roofs handkerchief--handkerchiefs
?

二。不规则变化 man—men woman—women
? mouse—mice

foot—feet tooth—teeth child—children deer—deer sheep— sheep

Unit 4 不定代词
? 1.some:用在肯定句中,修饰可数名词和不可

数名词。 ? There is some coffee. ? 2.any:用于疑问句和否定句。 ? Is t

here any milk in the bottle? ? I haven?t got any brothers. ? 3.no:作定语,修饰可数不可数。 ? There is no sugar in the box.

Some 也用在下面疑问句中
1.Would you like some coffee? ? 2.Will you lend me some books? ? 二、 可数名词与不可数名词。 ? 1.个体名词:man, teacher, student ? 2. 集体名词:class, team, army. ? *以上两种名词属于可数名词。 ? 3.物质名词:milk cotton air ? 4. 抽象名词:love happiness life
?

Unit 5 现在进行时
? 1.用法:

表示此时此刻正在进行的动作。 ? They are watching TV in the living room. ? He is listening to the radio. ? I am reading English.
?

2.构成
? 主语+be+现在分词
? 现在分词的构成: ? 1)、在动词原形后+ing.

watch-watching talk-talking ? Go-going tell-telling ? 2).重读闭音节,末尾只有一个辅音字母,双 写这一字母+ing
?

? Win-winning

sit-sitting swimswimming begin-beginning ? 3)以不发音e结尾, 去e+ing. ? give=-giving move-moving ? Have-having take-taking

现在进行时与一般现在时的区别
一般现在时表示经常发生的动作,而现在进行时表 示在此时此刻或现阶段正在进行的动作。 ? They always go out on Sundays, but this Sunday they are staying at home. ? 有些动词是不能用于现在进行时的:see ? hear, like, love . Prefer, hate want need mean forget know seem believe
?

to be going to +动词原形 ? 表示主观打算、看法或即将要发生的动作。 ? I am going to make dinner. ? The football match is going to start at eight. ? It is going to rain.
?

常用动词有:go leave come start do visit ? He is not coming. ? When are you going back to you factory ? Mary is leaving for Paris. ? We are inviting Tom to a party.
? 2.现在进行时表将来,

? 4.一般现在时表将来:表示已经安、排计划、

或规定好的动作。 ? The train leaves at five o,clock. ? The boys start school on Monday. ? When does the delegation come here/ ? Our flight leaves at eleven thirty.

? 以上三种表示将来的用法比较
?I

am going to leave next week. (带有主观意向) ? I am leaving next week. ? (已决定这样做并已安排。) ? I leave next week. ? (根据日程表的安排)

Unit 6一般将来时
.用法:表示纯属客观将来 2.构成:will(shall)+动词原形 You will be forty years old next year. Tomorrow will be Sunday. 注意;shall I…… Will you…… 表示征求对方意见 Shall we have a drink? Will you pass me the cup?

Unit 7 一般过去时
一、用法:表示过去某一时刻发生的动作 ? 二、构成:主语+动词过去式 ? 三、过去式的构成 ? (一)规则动词 ? 1. 在动词后+ed ? work-worked help—helped ? stay-stayed call-called
?

y 结尾,变y为i+ed ? study-studied try-tried ? 3.重读闭音节,末尾只有一

个辅音字母双写 这一辅音字母+ed ? plan-planned admit-admitted ? 4.以不发音e结尾,+d ? arrive-arrived live-lived
? 2.辅音字母+

倒装句
? So+be/do/will/did+主语
? She

is French, and so am I. ? They were late, and so were we. ? He went to India last year, and so did she. ? We will have a two-week holiday, so will

Unit 8.形容词比较级
? 一、用法:两者之间进行比较
? 二、构成:规则变化 ? (一)

单音节和部分双音节词 ? 1,+er tall-taller great-greater ? long-longer ? 2. 以e结尾只 +r ? Fine-finer late-later brave-braver

? .重读闭音节末尾只有一个辅音字母,双写这

个辅音字母,再+er. ? big-bigger hot-hotter thin-thinner ? 4.辅音字母+y结尾,变y为 i+er ? Happy-happier busy-busier lucky-luckier

? (二)、多音节和多数双音节词,在词前

+more. ? famous---more famous ? Interesting---more interesting ? difficult---more difficult ? expensive---more expensive

? 三、不规则变化
? good—better

bad—worse ? little—less many—more old—older far—farther ---elder ? ---further ? 注意:older的意思是较老的,说明人的年纪或 事物年代的久远.

? elder的意思是较年长的.
? That

is my elder brother. ? He is two years older than I. ? Farther:较远的 ? Further:进一步的 ? Tom jumps farther than I . ? Have you any further news from the meeting?

比较级的一些其他用法
1,The+比较级….. the+比较级 表示越来越. ? The more ,the better. ? The faster we go, the sooner we arrive ? 2.比较级+and +比较级 表示越来越 ? The bus ran faster and faster.. ? The boy is growing taller and taller.
?

? 比较级的修饰语:much

a lot far a little a

bit. ? She is a bit taller than I. ? Tom did the job far better than Mary. ? The crops are growing far better than last year.

Unit 9 形容词最高级的构成
? 与比较级是相似的
? tall-tallest

brave-bravest ? big-biggest clever-cleverest ? happy-happiest ? famous-most famous ? interesting-most interesting

? 最高级的不规则变化

good-best bad-worst ? Little-lest many much-most ? Late-latest
?

最高级的其它用法
? 1.作表语时可以不加the
? Cotton

shirts are generally cheapest. ? The light by the window is best. ? 2.a most 表示非常常. ? It?s a most difficult question. ? We spent as most happy evening.

unit 10现在完成时的构成。
? 主语+have(has)+

过去分词 ? 过去分词的构成: ? 1.规则动词 (1)。在动词后+ ed ? work—worked look—looked ? (2).以e 结尾直接+ d ? arrive—arrived live—lived ? 辐音字母+y结尾,变y为 i+ed

现在完成时与一般过去时区别
一般过去时强调动作本身,包括时间地点。 I saw Mary an hour ago. She lost her handbag yesterday 现在完成时强调动作的结果或对现在产

生的 影响。I have been to the Great wall. I have seen the film. He has lost her hey. He has gone out.

Unit 11 被动语态
一、定义:主语是谓语动词的承受者 ? The gate is locked at 6:00 every night. ? The English test is marked by Mr.West. ? 二、构成:be+过去分词 ? 1,一般现在时:am,is are +过去分词 ? 2,一般过去时:was,were+过去分词 ? 3,现在进行时: am,is are +being+过去分词
?

现在完成时:have,has+ been+过去分词 ? 5,过去完成时: had+been+过去分词 ? 6.一般将来时:will,shall+be+过去分词 ? 7,情态动词:情态动词+be+过去分词
? 4,

? 三、用法
? 1.当不知道或不必提动作的执行者时。 ? The

cars are made in Japan. ? 2.Football is played all over the world. ? Printing was introduced into Europe

? 2.当强调动作的承受者时
? Thousands

of rivers are polluted in the

country. ? Bill Clinton was elected President of the United States of America in1993.

? 四、带有行为主体的被动结构(by+行为主体)
? The

village was destroyed by a bomb. ? The printing is very valuable. It was painted by Van Gogh.

? Exercise

:Change the following sentences into the passive. ? 1.The students have invited us to a dance. ? We have been invited to a dance. ? 2.A fire might kill the animals. ? The animals might be killed by a fire.

? 3.The

hotel is rebuilding the restaurant. ? The restaurant is being rebuilt. ? 4.The police brought the child home. ? The child was brought home. ? 5.His wife calls him darling. ? He is called darling.

五、被动语态的补充用法。 ? It+被动语态+that.常用于该结构的动词有: ? Say think believe agree feel know report prove suggest. ? It is said that he can speak their language. ? It is reported that he is still alive. ? It is thought that about a million dogs are born each year.
?

Unit12 将来进行时
? 1、用法:
? 表示将来某时正在进行的动作。 ? 2、构成:will

shall +be+V-ing ? When you arrive at the airport, a guide will be waiting for you.He will be wearing a dark green shirt.

将来完成时
1,用法:表示在将来某一时间之前已经完成的动 作。常与by+时间名词连用. ? 2.构成:will shall +have+过去分词 ? I will have retired by the year 2019. ? We shall have finished the work before next Friday. ? You will have changed you mind by tomorrow.
?

Unit 13 过去进行时
一、构成:was were+现在分词 ? 1.He wasn?t thinking about what was happening. ? 2.While we were having breakfast, John was talking on the phone. ? 二、用法: ? 1.表示过去某一时间进行的动作。 ? What were you doing yesterday at 7p.m?
?

? It

was raining all the afternoon. ? 2. 表示一个动作发生时另一个动作正在进行。 ? When I came in ,he was watching TV.

Unit14:过去将来时
1.Was were goin

g to+动词原形 ? It looked like that the was going to stay. ? They were going to leave for Britain. ? 2.was were about to +动词原形 ? I was about to leave for a visit to Japan. ? He was about to quit his job.
?

? 3.was

were due to +动词原形 ? The BA561 was due to arrive. ? 4. 过去进行时表将来 ? I was meeting my sister at the station. ? 5.was were to +动词原形 ? He was to write his best works there.

Unit15 如何将直接引语变成 间接引语
? 直接引语:直接引用别人所说的话。
? He

said:”I like English very much” ? 间接引语:间接转述别人所说的话。 ? He said he liked English very much. ? 如何将直接引语变成间接引语? ? 1.时态的变化

现在变成过去 ? 一般现在变成一般过去. ? He said:”I am tired” ? He said he was tired. ? 现在进行变成过去进行. ? She told me ,?We are meeting him at the pub.” ? She told me they were meeting him at the pub.
?

? 现在完成变成过去完成
? She

said;”I have waited for ages.” ? She said she had waited for ages. ? 过去 时变成过去完成或不变。 ? She said:”I took it home with me. ? She said she had taken it home with him

The teacher said ;”Columbus discovered America in 1492. ? The teacher said Columbus discovered America in 1492. ? 将来时边成过去将来时 ? He said “I will be in Paris on Monday.” ? He said he would be in Paris on Monday
?

2.指示代词、时间状语、地点状语的变化P62 ? 3. 直接引语为祁使句, 变为间接引语时常用: asked sb. to do sth. ? told sb. to do sth. ordered sb. to do sth. ? ?Remember to turn the lights., she said. ? She told me to turn off the lights.
?

4.直接引语为一般疑问句式+if /whether.将一般疑问 句式变为正语序。 ? ‘Is it raining?” ? He asked if it was raining. ? 5.直接引语为特殊疑问句式,将特殊疑问句式变为 正语序。 ? Why do you come so late? ? He asked me why I came so late.
?

Exercise:Change the following into indirect speech. ? 1.What time does the match start? ? 2.Where are you going to spend your holiday? ? 3.Who is going to buy your bike? ? 4.Are you thirty? ? 5.Will you be coming to the party
?

? 6.Remember

to switch off all the lights. ? 7.I will do it tomorrow. ? 8.I have got many friends. ? 9.My son can swim very well. ? 10.I have been waiting for ages.

Unit 16:
? ? He

动词不定式
不带to不定式

? 动词不定式有两种形式:带to不定式

decided not to do it. ? Let?s not decide now. ? 一.动词不定式时态与语态

主动语态 被动语态 ? 一般式 : to make to be made ? 进行式 : to be making ? 完成式: to have made have been made ? I am sorry to have kept you waiting. ? No harm seems to have been made. ? This is a day never to be forgotten.
?

不定式的用法
1、

不定式作目的状语 ? The cats and dogs sleep together to keep warm. ? He went to France to study French. ? 2.不定式作结果状语 ? He arrived at the cinema only to find that he had seen the film before.
?

? He

was too excited to sleep. ? 3.不定式作宾语 ? I asked to see the manager. ? He wants to be left alone. ? 4. .不定式作宾语补足语 ? The doctor advised him to take a good rest. ? I heard him sing in the next room.

We felt the house shake. ? I will have you know that I am a qualified engineer. ? 注意不带的to不定式 ? feel sb. do sth see sb. do sth ? hear sb.do sth make sb.do sth ? let sb.do sth have sb.do sth
?

5. 疑问词+不定式 ? When to start hasn?t been decided. ? I don?t know what/which/who to choose. ? I wondered how/when/where to get in touch with him. ? The difficulty is what to call our dog.
?

? 6.不定式作表语
? Your

mistake was to write the letter. ? This house is to let. ? All I did was to press the button

Unit 17.名词性从句
? 名词性从句即指:主语从句,宾语从句表语

从句。 ? 名词性从句引导词有两类:从属连词that whether if ? 疑问词 who,whose,what,which,when,where,why, ? how

? It

is true that she is an actress.(主语从句) ? I know that Phillips is a good make.(宾语从 句) ? My idea is that we should stick our plan.(表 语从句) ? What I ?d really like is a remote control.(主语 从句)

主语从句
? That

she has achieved such fame surprised her.(主语从句) ? What he did is not yet known. (主语从句) How she wrote that book is a story in itself. ? (主语从句) ? It is said that he?s got married. (主语从句

宾语从句
?I

believe that you can get a good quality stereo(宾语从句) ? Have you considered whether he has signed the contract. (宾语从句) ? Do you have any idea of what you are looking for?. (宾语从句)

表语从句
? The

fact is that we are behind schedule. ? (表语从句) ? The question is whether has signed the contract. (表语从句) ? What worries me most is that my wife is still in hospital. (表语从句)

Unit 18 状语从句
? 1、方式状语从句:常由连词:as

if as as though in a way in the way引导。 ? This fish isn?t cooked as I like it. ? She acts as if /as though she owns the place. ? Lillian was trembling as if /as though he had seen a ghost.

2.让步状语从句:常由连词:although though even if even though not that引导 ? Although you feel very ill right now, This is a common disease. ? Though he has lived for years in London, he writes in German. ? Even though the drugs are good,it is difficult to cure it with drugs alone
?

? 3.结果状语从句:常由连词so…that

such…that引导. ? Mr.Jones was so frightened about having an operation that she cried. ? He is such a marvellous joker that you can?t help laughing.


? 4.目的状语从句:常由连词

so tha t in

order that引导. ? Ships carry lifeboats so that the crew can escape if the ship sinks. ? We carved their names on the stone so that /in order that future generations might know what they had done.

? If

I were a bird, I would fly to you . ? If there were no air, the sky would be black. ? If I were you,I would plant some trees round the house. ? If we didn?t go to their party next week,they would be very angry.

Unit 19虚拟语气
一、.虚拟语气 ? 在英语中,说话人的意图不同,动词需用不同的形 式;称之为语气。 ? 虚拟语气是这些语气中一种,用以表示主观愿望和 假想虚拟的情况。 1.带if 的虚拟条件句 (1).当假设与现在的事实相 反时,其结构是: If+过去式 ……主语+ would+动词原形
?

翻译下列句子
? 1.如果我英语讲的好,我就会去合资企业工

作 ? If my English were good, I would go and work in an joint venture. 2。你处在我的地位上,你会怎么办? What would you do if you were in my place.

? 3.要是不再下雨,我们就去跳舞了。
? If

it were not raining,we would go dancing. ? 4。要不是正忙着打扫屋子,我会去陪你听音 乐的。 ? If I were not busy cleaning the house, I would go and listen to the music with you.

? (2)当假设与过去的事实相反时,其结构是:

if +主语+had+过去分词…..,主语+would have +过去分词. If I had known that you were ill,I would have gone to see you. If I had gone to the meeting last night, I would have seen her.

? (3)非真实条件句主句与从句有时不一致,

这叫错综条件。 ? If you had studied hard,you would take it easy now. ? If the weather had been more favourable, the crops would be growing still better.

Wish常用虚拟语气
虚拟条件句 ? (1)在虚拟条件句中,如含有were,had,should, 可把这些词放到主语前面省略if。 ? Were you not here, none of us would come. ? Should she come here, we would discus the matter with her. ? Had we had enough money, we would have bought it.
? 2。省略if

? 3.虚拟条件句的其他表示法
? 1)。不用if ? Without

solar radiation, animals and plants would die. ? But for your help, I would have been drowned. ? Without your help, I wouldn?t have achieved so much.

2) Wish+动词过去式,表示与现在事实相 反 ? I wish I had a car. ? I wish I were taller than you. ? wish+ would do表示与将来事实相反 ? The weather is awful today, I wish it would be warmer tomorrow. ? wish had done 表示与过去事实相反 ? I wish I hadn?t spent so much money.
?

? 3).在表示建议、命令、有求、愿望等动词后

面的主语从句、宾语从句中谓语一般用 should+动词原形,should可省略。要求这类 从句常见的动词有:demand, desire, insist, order, recommend, require, suggest.

The

doctor suggest that he have a rest. ? It is suggested that trees be planted around the house. ? It is desired that you finish the test on time. ? The government demands that the pollution problem in the city be solved within six months.
?

4)在it is necessary, important, impossible, natural, strange后面的主语从句、宾语从句中,谓语一般用 should+动词原形,should可省略 ? It is absolutely necessary that one obey the law. ? It is important that the experiment results be checked. ? It is natural that a child love its mother.
?

在as if, as though 引出的与事实不符的方式壮 语从句中,从句中的谓语用过去时表示对现 在情况的推测,用过去完成时表示对过去情 况的推测。 The foreign experts speaks Chinese as if he were a Chinese. She told the story as if it happened to her.

is about (high) time+ 从句中表示早该 做而未做的事,从句谓语形式用过去式。 ? It is high time that we began to study. ? It is about time I were going .
? 5)在It

Unit 20 动名词
? .动名词
? 动名词是非谓语动词的一种。

? 动名词可以在句子中作:主语、宾语、表语、

定语等。 ? 动名词可以有时态:一般式和完成式。 ? 动名词有语态: 一般式的被动语态和完成式 的被动态

1.动名词作主语 ? Swimming has its law. ? Learning without practice is no good. ? 动名作主语时有时使用形式主语it ? It?s no good learning without practice. ? It?s worthwhile discussing the questions
?

2. 动名词作表语. ? Our duty is making instruments. ? My favourite summer sport is swimming. ? 3.动名词作宾语. ? They began studying computer last week. ? Have you finished repairing the tape recorder?They got excited on hearing the good news.
?

? 有些动词常要求动名词来作宾语,这些动词

有:suggest, finish, avoid, stop, can?t help, mind, enjoy, require, delay, practice, consider, excuse, escape, miss, fancy, deny, 及短语动词等。 ? 有些动词后两者都可跟,但是意思有差别。 这些动词如下:remember, forget, regret, try, stop, want 等。

? remember

to do sth:记住去做某事 ? Please remember to post the letter for me. ? remember doing sth记得做过某事 ? I remembered posting the leter.

? regret

to do sth遗憾地做某事 ? We regret to inform you that you won?t be able to attend the class. ? regret doing sth.后悔做某事 ? I regretted having done such a thing.

stop to do sth 停下来去做某事 ? Let?s stop to chat a while. ? stop doing sth 停止做某事 ? Stop smoking, please.
?

to do sth 努力去做某事 ? I will work hard and trr to improve . ? try doing sth 试着做某事 ? Let?s try doing the work this way.
? try

? 在英语中有些动词后要求跟不定式作宾语,

这 些 动 词 主 要 有 : want, wish, hope, continue, ma

nage, try, ask, offer, promise, mean, pretend, intend, decide, attempt, learn, desire, agree, choose, determine, expect…等。

? 动名词作定语
? These

passage may be used as listening materials. ? I have a hearing aid. ? The reading room of the library is a large square hall.

动名词有语态: 一般式的被动语态和完成式的被动 态 ? The matter is far from being solved. ? Before being used the recorder should be tested. ? After having been treated the water can be used for raising fish.
?

? 动名词的逻辑主语
? Please

excuse my interrupting you. ? We all thought Xiao Wang?s giving up his job a great mistake.

用所给动词正确形式填空 ? 1.________(read) Japanese is easier than speaking it. ? 2.It is no use _______(ask) him about it. ? 3. It?s no good ______(try) to learn English by _________(read)only. ? 4.It took longer than she expected________(get) a passport.
?

? 5.It

was difficult for them _________(understand)our policy. ? 6.After we had finished ________(eat), he proposed__________(set off). ? 7.In her leisure hours she enjoyed________(read) novels or _______(go) to the park.

? 8.He

never missed ________(attend) evening school. ? 9.She couldn?t help _________(smile) at the words. ? 10.Soon afterwards he gave up________(teach)and joined the army. ? 11.I can?t understand his _______(leave)so suddenly.

Unit 21 分词
分词: ? 一、 分词分为现在分词和过去分词,其区别是: ? 1。现在分词表示正在进行,过去分词表示已经完 成。 ? boiling water 开着的水 ? boiled water 开过的水 ? developing country 发展中国家 ? developed country 发达国家
?

2,现在分词表主动,过去分词表被动。 ? the exploiting people 剥削人的人 ? the exploited people 被剥削的人 ? 二、句法作用 ? 1。做表语 ? They are interested in music.
?

?

The news is exciting.

? 2.做定语
? The

store sells used books only. ? The floating needle of a compass always points north and south. ? 3.做状语 ? Working in the plant, we learnt a lot from the workers.

Given better instructions, the watermelons could have grown bigger. ? Not knowing her address, I can?t visit her personally. ? When heated, ice will be changed into water. ? I sat by the window, watching TV and reading books.
?

4.做补足语,常见的动词有find, get have hear keep make let see notice imagine ? A.做宾语补足语: ? We saw him going away. ? All of us heard somebody singing in the next room. ? We kept them waiting for a long time.
?

B.做主语补足语: ? He was seen going away. ? Somebody was heard singing in the next room. ? 注意分词完成时态: ? Having taught English for ten years, she knows the grammar very well. ? Having been given a wrong number,we couldn?t contact him over phone.
?

? 5.分词做独立主格:分

词或分词短语带有自

己的动作主体。 ? Time permitting, they will start to do a new job. ? The experiment finished, we left the lab and went home.

分词与不定式在句法案上的区别: ? 1)作定语时的区别: ? 主动态分词作定语表示与谓语动作同时发生;而主 动态的不定式表示在谓语动作之后发生。例如: ? This is a factory producing computers. ? A factory to produce computers is being built.
?

? 被动态的分词表示的动作在谓语动作之前完

成;而被动态的不定式表示在谓语动作之后 发生。例如: ? It is one of the problems solved at the meeting. ? There are many problems to be solved

? 作补足语时的区别:
?

分词和不定式作补足语都表示与谓语录同时 发生,但分词强调“动作进行过程”;不定 式强调“动作发生的事实”。试比较:

现在分词 不定式 ? I saw her doing the experiment. I saw her do the experiment. ? 我看见她在做实验。 我看见她在做实验。 ? She was seen doing experiment. She was seen to do experiment. ? 人们看见她在做实验。 人们看见她在做实 验。
?
?

? 过去分词则表示动作在谓语动作之前完成。

例如: ? We found the work completely done.我们发 现工作全做好了。 ? The work was found completely done. ? 发现工作已完全做好了。

Unit 22 定语从句。
? 定语从句。
?

一个用来修饰名词或代词的句子叫定语从 句。例如: ? The man who told you the news is a friend of mine. ? 定语从句是由关系代词和关系副词来引导的。 关 系 代 词 有 : who, whom, whose, which, that. 关系副词有:when, where, why 等。

1.who代替人,在从句中做主语。 ? Do you know the man who wrote the article? ? What was the name of the man who danced with you last night? ? 2.whom代替人,在从句中做宾语 ? This is the boy whom we were looking for . ? 3.whose代替人,在从句中做定语
?

What is the name of the student whose father works in our lab? ? The building whose roof we can see from here is our department. ? 4.which代替 物,在从句中做主语或宾语 ? That was a fault which could be forgiven. ? I will use the reference book which you borrowed from library。
?

物,在从句中做主语或宾语 ? Who is the man that is lecturing in the classroom. ? Who is the man that talked with you?
? 5.that代替人或

? 6.when表示时间,在从句中做状语。
? We

don?t know the exact time when we needed help. ? The day will come when we will win the final victory. ? 7.where.表示地点,在从句中做状语 ? The house where we used to live has been pulled down.

8.why表示原因,在从句中做状语 ? Do you know the reason why he was so happy? ? 定语从句when, where 相当于“介词+which ? This is the room in which chairman Mao l

ived. ? I will never forget the day on which I became a Party member.
?

注意: ? 1,动词+关系代词引出的定语从句 ? The man to whom you are talking to is the manager of the company. ? The world in which we live is made of matter. ? The famous professor of whom we nave often heard will come to our university .
?

? 2.名词+介词+关系代词引出的定语从句
? There

are nine planets in the solar system, some of which are much larger than our earth. ? There are some new terms in the article,the meaning of which may be difficult to the students.

? 定语从句又分为两种:限制性定语从句和非

限制性定语从句。注意这两种定语从句之间 的区别。限制性定语录从句与先行词之间的 关系密切,一旦去掉从句,主句意思不完整, 甚至在逻辑上不能成立。这种从句和主句之 间一般不能用逗号分开。例如: ? She has a son who is a doctor.

这类从句译成中文时,要把从句译至先行词之前。 “她有一位当医生的儿子”。 ? 非限制性定语从句与先行词之间关系不密切,只 是对先行词作些附加说明。本身也具有独立性。如 果从句去掉,主句的意思仍然完整。从句与主句之 间常用逗号隔开。在非限制性定语从句和主句之间 不用that,只能用which. ? 非限制性定语从句有时修饰前面整个句子。例如:
?

? The

sun heats the earth, which makes it possible for plants to grow. ? The most important form of energy is electric energy, which is widely used in our everyday life. ? Galileo, who made the first telescope, died in 1642.

? Tom

passed all his examinations, which pleased his parents. ? 在这里which代表的是前边整个句子。 ? 在下列情况下,用that 来代替人或物,而 不用who或which. ? 1. 当先行词被形容词最高级所修饰时。例如: ? She is the tallest girl that I know. ? This is the best book that I have read.

2. 当先行词是不定代词 all, everything, anything, nothing, something …等。 例如: ? She told us everything that she knew 3. 3 当先行词被 only, any, no, very 等形容词和序数 词修饰时。例如: ? That is the only way that leads to my home. ? Please give the note to the first man that comes here.
?

在下列情况下省略关系代词: ? 1.关系代词在从句中作宾语时。例如: ? I like the film (that /which) we saw yesterday. ? 2.关系代词在从句中作介词宾语、而介词又在句末 时。例如: ? Here is the key you?ve been looking for. ? 3. 关系代词在从句中做表语时。例如: ? She is not the kind of woman you thought her to be.
?

? Exercises

for noun: ? A.Write C or U after each of the following words: ? 1. knowledge 2. life 3. decision 4. triumph ? 5. information 6. appreciation ? 7. laughter 8. service ? 9.desire 10.sacrifice 11. labo 12.po

pularity

? A.Complete

the following sentences with the words given below using any or some if necessary. ? paper advice progress work expensive permission information ? machinery scenery accommodation

They?ll tell y I don?t think Ann will get the job. She hasn?t got __________. ? 2. you all you want to know. They?ll give you plenty of ____________. ? 3.Tom?s Chinese has improved. He has made ____________.
? 1.

Pronoun ? Exercise One: Put a suitable personal pronoun in each blank: ? 1 My cousin had a pain in her shoulder so ________went to see a doctor about _______. ? 2. When Mary had finished with the magazines _______ took _______ round to her friend and gave ______ to ______ . ? 3.Peter and I asked Susan whether ______ would like to come with ______ when ______ went
?

? 1.I

looked at the new rifle but _______ seemed rather rusty to ______ . ? 2.The dangers involved in travel in outer space may not be obvious to us yet, but ______ should not underestimate _________. ? I knew the effect which air currents would have on the airplane when we passed over th

1.mountains, so _______ was not surprised when _______ made _______ fall sharply and then rise again. ? 2 When I asked Sylvia to help both ________ brother and _______ with _______ computer science problems, she said that she could help ________ Thursday afternoon.
?

? Key:

1. she, it 2. she, them, them, him/ her 3. she, us, we 4. he, them ? 5. it, me 6. we, them 7. I, they, it 8. my, me, our, us
?

? Exercise

Two ? Underline the pronoun errors. Write the correct form at the end of each sentence. If there is no error, write none.

? 1.The

supervisor kept watching him and me closely. ? 2. The letter was addressed to both Carlos and she. ? 3. Seeing Lucy and me, the manager came right over. ? 4. We know they and their excuses all too well.

? 1.

There is nothing us waiters can do. ? 2. Before helping Joyce and I, the clerk made us wait an hour. ? 3 The mayor appointed strangers, forgetting we old friends. ? 4. It was her who missed the test.

1.Are you, I and John late? ? 2. He hoped the passenger would be Mary and indeed it was she ? B. ? 1. These are my boots; where are your?s? ? 2. We put ours in the savings account ? 3. Where is that cassette of their?s?
?

1. Do you put “Your?s truly” at the end? ? 2. It?s already too late to apply. ? 3. There?s the whistle; its time to quit. ? Key: A. 1. none 2. she, her 3. none 4. they ,them 5. us , we 6.I, me ? 7. we, us 8. her, she 9. you, I and John, you, John and I 10. none
?

1. your?s, yours 2. none 3. their?s, theirs 4. Your?s truly , ? Yours truly 5. none 6. its , it?s
? B.

? 反身代词
? 1.Fill

in each blank with one of the following: ? yourself herself itself oneself himself themselves beside ? themselves for themselves (all) by myself

1. --Did you make that dress _________? ? ---Yes, I made i

t __________. ? 2. She is always _________ , no matter wha the circumstances. ? 3. The children were ___________ on the night before the start of their holiday. ? 4. The Smiths kept plenty of fish ___________. ? 5. It?s no good trying to persuade ___________ that you are right, Tom.
?

1. The hotel ___________ is quite nice but it?s in rather an isolated place. ? 2.I suppose one should guard __________ against that sort of trick. ? 3. Suit ________, Jane. You can take it or leave it. ? 4. Jane always prides __________on her academic background. ? She was, the boss knew, his best secretary and always loyal to _______
?

? Key:

1. yourself, (all) (by) myself herself 3. beside themselves ? 4. for themselves 5. yourself 6. itself oneself ? 8. yourself 9. herself 10. himself

2.
7.

冠词的用法
Fill in the blanks with a or an where necessary. ? 1. ______ telephone is ______ very important means of communication. ? 2. ______ mothers often tell ______ small children ______ stories before bedtime. ? 3. I?ll pay you ______ thousand ______ year. It?s not _______enormous salary but after all you are _____ completely unskilled worker.
?

You?ll get ______shock if you touch _____ live wire with that screwdriver. Why don?t you get _____ screwdriver with _____ insulated handle? ? 2.I?m not ______ wage-earner; I?m _______ self-employed man. I have ______ business of my own. ? 3. Then you?re not _____ worker; you?re ______ capitalist!
? 1.

? 1.

I have _____ hour and _____ half for lunch. I only have _____ hour --- barely for ______smoke and _____ cup of coffee. ? 2. It travels at just under ______thousand miles _____ hour ? 3.I have never known such ______hot weather.

? Key:

1. A, a 2. x, x, x, 3. a, a, an, a 4. a, a, a, an 5. a, a, a; 6. a, a 7. an, a; x, an, x, a,

? Insert

a or an where necessary. ? 1. I had very bad night; I didn?t sleep wink(眨眼;打吨). ? 2.This man has honesty that we all appreciated. ? 3. Mr. Brown had vision of new and happier Europe. ? It?s time you had holiday. You haven?t had day off for

? 1.

There is hourly service of buses in this route. ? 2. It is great honor to be invited to such gathering. ? 3. I wouldn?t climb mountain for $1,000! I have horror of heights ? Children usually learn the difference between right and wrong at early age.

? 1.

He had square nose, gray hair and brown skin. She had never seen so handsome man. ? 2. However great disaster he suffered, John never gave up. ? 3.Many shipwrecked sailor has been rescued by our brave coastguards ? 4. Such urgent need requires prompt action.

1. so urgent need requires prompt action. ? 2. This is as lovely picture as I have ever seen. ? 3. I don?t think you realize what serious crisis this is. ? 4. You can hardly hope to succeed where many greater man has failed ? How serious crime had been committed was not realized until much later.
?


? Key:

1. a very bad night, a wink ? 2. an honesty ? 3. a vision of a new and happier Europe ? 4. a holiday, a day off, a month ? 5. an hourly service ? 6. a great honor, such a gathering ? 7. a mountain, a horror ? 8. at an early age

? 9.

a word 10. a boy ? 11. a big problem, not too big a problem 12. a square nose, so handsome a man ? 13. However great a disaster ? 14. Many a shipwrecked sailor ? 15. Such an urgent need ? 16. So urgent a need ? 17. as lovely a picture ? 18. What a serious crisis

? 19.
? ?

many a greater man 20. How serious a crime

Fill in the blanks with a or the where necessary ? 1. After _______ lunch, we went for _______ walk by ______ sea. ? 2. _____ steam-engine was invented before ______ internal combustion engine. ? 3._____ bat, they say, judges distances by ______ kind of echo-location. ? 4.He goes to _______church every Sunday; _______ church he usually goes to have ______
?

? 1.

eats for over _______ thousand. ? 2.This is ______ most useful reference book I have on this subject. ? 3.We have ______ good market in _______ town where we buy our ______ fruit and ______ vegetables. ? 4. _____ prison in this town is ______ grimlooking building.

1. _____ youngest boy has just started going to ______ school; ______ eldest boy is at _____ college. ? 2. _____ dead no longer need ______ help. We must concern ourselves with _____ living. ? 3John became _____ manager and ______ secretary of the company at ______ same time. ? Key: 1. x, a, the 2. The, the 3. The, a 4. x, the, x, a 5. the ? 6. a, the, x, x 7. The, a 8. The, x; the, x 9. The, x, the 10. the, x, the
?

Insert a or the where necessary:
? 1.Horse

is noble animal and faithful servant

of man. ? 2. Chess is game which requires great skill and patience. ? 3. The stranger went to school to complain about behavior of one pupils. ? 4. Dinner was good, but I did not enjoy speeches that came after it.

? 1An

important aspect in developing motivation(动力, 促动因素) is setting of goals. ? 2. He got bronchitis(支气管炎) and was taken to hospital. I expect they?ll send him home at end of week.. Have you rung hospital to ask how he is? ? 3. Didn?t you hear that news over radio this morning?

Flute ( 长 笛 ) is my favorite instrument. ? 2. We have very good train service from here to city center and most people go to work by train. You can go by bus, too, of course, but you can?t get season ticket on bus. ? 3. Everywhere man has cut down forests in order to cultivate ground, or to use wood as fuel or as building material.
? 1.

? Key:

1. The horse, a noble animal, a faithful servant ? 2. a game 3. the school, the behavior, the pupils ? 4. The dinner, the speeches 5. the setting of goals

? 6.

the hospital, at the end of the week 7. the radio 8. The flute ? 9. have a, the city center, get a, on the bus ? 10. the ground, the wood

Fill in the blanks

with the where necessary:
? 1______Thames,

_______ Seine and _______ Rhine are famous rivers. ? ______Samuel Johnson who was a professor of Columbia University was not ______ Samuel

1. Johnson who was a famous English river ? 2. ______ Andes are in South America, and _______ Alps are in Europe. ? 3. ______wool of which this suit is made comes from ______ Australian sheep. ? 4. ______ wool is one of _____ chief exports from ______ Australia.
?

? 1.He

remembers ______ London of ______ past and says it was gayer than ______London of ______ today. ? 2.______ Gulf of Mexico and ______ Caribbean Sea are really part of ______ Atlantic Ocean. ? 3.Macy?s (商店名) is on ______ 34th Street between _____ Broadway and ______Seventh Avenue.

? 1.Mr.

Jenkins reads _____ Daily Telegraph but his wife reads ______Times. ? 2. Frank is a student at ______ Liverpool University. ? Key: 1. The, the, the 2. The, the 3. The, the 4. The, the 5. x, the, x ? 6. the, the, the, x 7. The, the, the, 8. x, x, x, 9. the, the, 10. x

both, all 及each, every 的用 法
1. The rice was good that I ate _______ . ? 2. ________ house needed repairing ? 3. Have you read ________ book? ? 4. Several prisoners escaped but they were _________ caught. ? 5. __________ lesson was spoilt by John.
?

? __________

tires

on

the

car

needed

repairing. ? 1. There was not much soap, so I used __________. ? 2. It was not until the 18th century that man realized that _________ of the brain was involved in the working of the mind.

Complete the following with every, everyone / everybody, every one, each or all: ? 1. ---Did you see _________ film that was on last week? ? ---Yes, we saw _________ of them. ? 2. The men carried two suitcases _________. ? 3. ________ were surprised at his ability. ? 4.________man was given his individual assignment.
?

? 1.

He _________but died of his wound. ? 2. ________ of the fast train has gone. ? 3. The teacher gave a list of five books for home reading. __________is to be finished in two weeks.

? 1.

He is _________the worse for taking this medicine. ? 2. I?m going to give a party to which _________ is invited. ? 3. ________ of the Minister was invited to state his views and ______ of them did so. ? Key: it all 2. The whole 3. the whole 4. all 5. The whole 6. All the ? 7. it all 8. the whole

?.

every; all / every one 2. each 3. All 4. Each 5. all 6. Every one ? 7. Every one 8. all 9. everyone 10. Each, every one

时态练习
1. The employers _________( start) negotiations as soon as the men ________(return) to work. ? 2. The Government _________ (have) to decide what to do about these naval bases before the present treaty________ (expire)(期满) ? 3What he _________(do) when he ________(leave) school? ? As soon as there _________(be) even a temporary break in the weather, the climbers
?

? 1.

______(renew) their attempts to reach the summit. ? 2.Ma

ny familiar faces ________(be) absent from Parliament when the new session _______ (open) next Thursday. ? 3.If we ________(not leave) soon. The party ________(be) over by the time we_______(get) there.

1. If you ________(wait) for another hour before you ________(make) up your mind, it _______(be) too late. ? 2. When Concord ( 协 和 式 客 机 ) ________(come) into service, the journey from New York to London ________(take) only three hours twenty minutes. ? 3.How popular supersonic travel ________(become) once Concord _______ (be) in service.
?

1. If you _________(not tell) him the truth now, he simply _________ (keep) on asking you until you ________(do). ? Key: 1. will start, return 2. will have, expires 3. will (be) do, leaves 4. is, will renew ? 5. will be, opens 6. don’t leave, will be, get 7. wait, make, will be ? 8. comes, will take 9. will(supersonic travel) become , is ? 10. don’t tell, will (simply) keep on, do
?

Put the verbs in the brackets into be going to or will do forms: ? 1. ---Where are you off to with that ladder? ? ---I ________(have) a look at the roof; it?s leaking and I think a tile has slipped. ? 2. ---Here are the matches; but what do you want them for? ? ---I ________(make) a bonfire (篝火) at the end of the garden; I want to burn that big heap of ? rubbish.
?

? -Well,

be careful, If the fire gets too big it ________(burn) the apple trees. ? 1. ---I?m afraid I?m not quite ready. ? ---Never mind. I ________ (wait). ? 2. ---Do you have to carry so much stuff on your backs? ? ---Yes, we do. We ________(camp) out and ________(cook) our own meals, so we have to carry a lot.

? 1.

Where are all those children off to with baskets? ? ---They _______(pick) blackberries. They probably ________(come) back at six with their baskets crammed (塞满) and then their mothers ________(start) making jam. ? 2. Ladies and gentlemen, my friends and I ________(present) you with a puzzling problem.

We would like each of you to try to solve it, so please pay attention for the next few minutes. ? 1. George and Paul find an injured man lying by the roadside. ? Paul: I _______(stay) with him. George, you go back and get help. ? George: All right. I _________(try) to get a doctor back. ? 2. Mrs. Smith: Your cold?s worse, Ann. Go back to bed and I _______(ring) the school and tell them you can?t come.
?

1Mrs. Smith was just picking up the receiver when her husband came downstairs. “Ann?s not well,” she said. “I ________(ring) the school and say that she can?t come.” ? 2. ---No, I?m not going away for the weekend. I?m staying at home. I _______ (start) building ? my garage. The bricks have come at last. ? ---You _______(do) it all by yourself?
?

? -No,

my nephew ________(help) me. I suggested it to him yesterday and he was quite enthusiastic. ? Key: 1. am going to have 2. am going to make; will burn ? 3. will wait 4. are going

to camp, cook ? 5.are going to pick, will (probably) come, will start

? 6.are

going to present / will present 7. will stay; will try ? 8. will ring 9. am going to ring ? 10.am going to start; Are (you) going to do; is going to help /will help

Put the verbs in the brackets into their proper forms:
1. She ________(be) here just now, but she ________(go). ? 2. Ann ________ (think) the garage _______ (be) empty, so she _______ (turn) off the lights. ? “Hey,” ________ (shout) Paul from under the car, “I?m sorry , Paul,” _______(say) Ann, “I_______ (not know) you ________(be) there.”
?

1. When I first ________(come) to this house, it _________(be) a very quiet area. But since a school _______( build) here, it _________(become) very noisy. ? 2. --You _______(apply) for the job? ? ---I _______(write) to them last month, but they ________(not, answer) yet. ? 3. ---Kim, you _______(have) a good trip?
?

--Yes, the flight ________(be) lovely, one of the best I ________(have), but it ________(take) ages to get into the plane. First they _______ (think) that one of us _______ (be) a hijacker(劫机者), and they ________(search) us all for weapons. The one engine of the plane ________(go) wrong. We finally ________ (take) off an hour later. ? 1. ---You ________(be) to the theater recently?
?

-Yes, I _________(go) to the Beijing opera last night. ? ---You _________(like) it? ? ---Yes, but I ____________(not see) very well. I _________(be) right at the back. ? 1. ---You __________(see) Peter lately? I __________ (call) his flat several times but ________ ? (get) no answer.
?

-Oh, he __________(be) in Paris for the last two months. He __________(fly) there for a ? conference and then ___________(decide) to stay for another six weeks. ? ---You _________(hear) from him? ? ---Yes, I __________(get) a letter shortly after he _________ (arrive).
?

1. -Tom __________(meet) Paul at lunch time and __________(say), “I __________(not see) ? you at the bus this morning. You __________(miss) the bus? ? ---“I__________(not miss) it,” __________(reply) Paul. “I __________(not miss) a bus ? for years. But this morning George __________(give) me a lift.”
?

1. When I _________(buy) my new house I ___________(ask) for a telephone. The Post Office ? _________(tell) me to wait, but I __________(wait) a year now and phone still ________ ? (not come). ? 2. Peter _________(try) to come in quietly but his mother _________ (hear) him and _________ ? (call) out. “Where you _________(be)? You supper _________ (be) in the oven for an hour.”
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? 1.

--When you __________(begin) school? ? ---I _________(begin) school when I ________ (be) five. I _________(go) to a primary school first. I ________(stay) there for six years and then I _________(go) to a comprehensive school.

1. You __________(be) to Cambridge? ? ---Yes, I __________(be) there last month. ? ---How you __________

(get) there? ? ---My brother __________(take) me in his car. ? 2.---When I _________(be) seventeen I ________ (start) my university course. ? ---When you __________(get) your degree? ? ---Oh, I _________(not get) my degree yet; I?m still at the university. I only _________(be) there for two years.
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1. We ________(live) in this house since 1970, that is to say, ever since my father _________(die). He _________(come) to this country twenty years ago. He _________(be) born in South America, and __________(live) there until he _________(get) married. ? 2. Although we _________(be) in this village six years so far, we _________(not get) to know many people yet. But our next neighbors _________ (be) very helpful when we first _______ ? (move) in.
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1.I ________(receive) John?s invitation yesterday, and __________ (accept) it at once. I ______ ? (not see) him several weeks. ? Key: 1. was, has gone ? 2. thought, was, turned, shouted, said, didn’t know, were ? 3.came, was, was built, has become ? 4. Have (you) applied; wrote, haven’t answered
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did(you) have; was, have had, took, thought, was, searched, went, took ? 6. Have (you) been; went; Did (you) like; didn’t see, was ? 7. Have (you) seen, called, got; has been, flew, decided; Have (you) heard; got, arrived ? 8. met, said, didn’t see, Did (you) miss; didn’t miss, replied, haven’t missed, gave
?

bough, asked, told, have waited, hasn’t come ? 10. tried, heard, called, have (you) been, has been ? 11. did (you) begin; began, was, went, stayed, went ? 12. Have (you) been; was did (you) get; took
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started, did (you) get; haven’t got, have (only) been ? 14. have lived, died, came, was, lived, got ? 15. have been, haven’t got, were, moved
? was,

将下列句子译成英文
? 1.
? 2. ? 3. ? 4.

我半年多没有看电影了. 他于是2000年入伍,参军已三年了. 这是我第一次用电脑写文章. ---我买了一本汉英字典.

? --在哪儿买的? ? ---学校旁边的书店. ? 1.

---你看见约翰了吗? ? ---没有.他可能在教室里. ? ---我去过那里,里面没有人. ? 2. 出车祸后,皮特先生一直在医院里. ? 3. 我已醒了好长时间了.

? 1.

--你常去度假吗? ? ---不常去,已有五年没有度假了. ? 2. 我希望等我们明年夏天回来时,他们已 经修好这条路. ? 3. 他把业余时间都花在种树上.他说到明 年年底,他将完两千棵树. ? Key: 1. I haven?t seen a film for more than half a year. / It?s been half a year since I last saw a film.

He joined the army in 2000. He has been in the army for three years ? 3.This is the first time I?ve written an essay on the computer. ? 4 ---I?ve bought a Chinese-English dictionary. ? ---Where did you get it? ? ---The bookstore next to our school.
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? 3.

-Have you seen John? ? ---No. Perhaps he is in the classroom. ? ---I?ve been there. Nobody was in. ?

4. Mr. Pitt has been in hospital since his accident. ? 5. I?ve been awake for a long time.

6 ---Do you often go on holiday? ? ---No, it?s five years since I went on holiday. ? 7. I hope they will have repaired this road by the time we come back next summer. ? 8. He spends all his spare time planting trees. He says that by the end of next year he will have planted 2,000.
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