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unit4words and expressions

发布时间:2014-01-02 11:43:02  

Words and Expressions

1. (标题) virtual: adj.

1) created and existing only in a computer

*I can visit a virtual store and put what I want in my basket at the click of a mouse button.

*Some people spend too much time escaping from reality into the virtual world conjured up on their computer screens.

2) almost what is stated; in fact though not in name

*The officials hear this kind of talk in virtual silence.

*国王处处都受王后的影响,以至于王后成了国家实际上的统治者。

(=The king was so much under the influence of his wife that she was the virtual ruler of the country.)

2. (L. 2) interpret: v.

1) understand (sth. said, ordered, or done)

*The gift is generally interpreted as a bribe.

*She made a gesture, which he chose to interpret as an invitation.

2) give or provide the meaning of, explain

诗有助于阐述人生的意义。

(=Poetry helps to interpret life.)

*The evidence is difficult to interpret.

3) translate what is said in one language into another

(=No one in the tour group spoke Spanish so we had to ask the guide to interpret.)

3. (L. 5) stretch: v. (cause to) become longer, wider, etc. without breaking

*My wool coat stretched when I washed it.

*The child stretched the rubber band to its full extent.

*你已经使我忍无可忍了。

(=You are stretching my patience to limit.)

4. (L. 8) submit: vt.

1) give (sth.) to sb. so that it may be formally considered

*I am going to submit an application for that job in Microsoft.

*Peter submitted his application to the local government.

2) yield (oneself); agree to obey

*Should a wife submit herself to her husband?

*We should submit ourselves to discipline.

Collocation:

submit oneself to 甘受, 服从

submit to 服从于;把…提交给…

submit willingly 心悦诚服

5. (L. 9) edit: vt. revise or correct

*Scholars often edit Shakespeare’s plays.

(=John didn’t finish editing the annual report until the end of last month.)

6. (L. 9) communicate:

1. vi. contact sb. in any way, eap. by speaking to them, writing to them or calling them

(followed by with)

*We can communicate with people in most parts of the world by telephone.

*年轻人有时抱怨无法与父母沟通思想。

(=Young people sometimes complain of not being able to communicate with their

parents.)

2. vt. make (news, opinions, feelings, etc.) known

*The radio stations communicate the storm warnings to the islanders.

*She communicated her ideas to her subordinates.

7. (L. 13) at times: sometimes

*At times, I feel that I want to leave this job.

8. (L. 18) take in:

1) receive, admit

2) include

3) make (clothes) narrower

4) understand

5) deceive

6) see at a glance; see at once

(Directions:) Match the above definitions with the sentences below.

1. The dress was too big, so I took it in. (=3)

2. I didn’t take in what you were saying. (=4)

3. She took in every details of the other woman’s clothes. (=6)

4. Do you mean we should get rid of the stale and take in the fresh? (=1)

5. Don’t be taken in by her promises (=5)

6. This is the total cost of the trip, taking in everything. (=2)

Collocation:

take after 仿效,跟随;相象,在相貌、脾气或性格上相似

take apart 拆开

take back 收回(所说的或所写的事)

take down 拿下,放下

take for 把…视作;误认为

take off 脱掉(衣服等);起飞

take on 从事;开始对付:

take out 取出;弄走

take over 接管

take up 举起;再次开始

9. (L. 18) spit: vt. send (liquid, food, etc.) out from the mouth (used in the pattern: spit sth.(out)

(at/on/onto sb./sth.))

*He’s very ill and spitting (up) blood.

*The baby spat its food out on the table.

*他气呼呼地作了答复。

(=He angrily spat out her answer.)

10. (L. 19) symptom: n.

1) sign of the existence of sth. bad

*The Government must not ignore these symptoms of discontent among their own

supporters.

(=High interest rates are a symptom of a weak economy.)

2) change in the body that indicates an illness

*A cold, fever and headache are the usual symptoms of flu.

*持续地咳嗽可能是非典型性肺炎的症状。

(=A persistent cough may be a symptom of atypical pneumonia.)

11. (L. 21) nightmare: n. a terrible dream

*Driving through that snowstorm was a nightmare.

*I had a nightmare about falling off the skyscraper.

12. (L. 26) conversely: adv. in a way that is opposite to sth.

*$1 will buy 100 yen worth of Japanese goods. Conversely, 100 yen will buy $1 worth of American goods.

*You can add the fluid to the powder or, conversely, the powder to the fluid.

13. (L. 33) but then: yet at the same time

*The failure of China’s soccer team looks inevitable. But then, anything can happen in football.

*这个马戏团并不出色,不过观众的要求也并不高。

(=The circus was not a very good one, but then, the audience was not demanding.)

14. (L. 33) jar: v. have a harsh or an unpleasant effect (used in the pattern: jar sth., jar on

sb./sth.)

*The fall jarred every bone in my body.

(=The way he laughs jars on me.)

15. (L. 34) suck in: (usu. passive) involve (sb.) in an activity, an argument, etc., usu. against their

will

*Some teenagers don’t want to get involved with gangs, but they find themselves getting sucked in.

*我不想卷入有关学校改革的辩论。

(=I don’t want to get sucked into the debate about school reform.)

16. (L. 34) keep up with:

1) learn about or be aware of ( the news, etc.)

*Carrie likes to keep up with the latest fashions.

*He didn’t bother to keep up with the latest news. His only concern was to study.

2) move at the same rate as

*My salary doesn’t keep up with inflation.

*他请了位家庭教师,因为他的功课跟不上班上其他同学。

(=He hired a tutor because he wasn’t able to keep up with the rest of the class.)

17. (L. 39) in sight:

1) visible

*No vehicle is in sight.

*哪儿也见不到他。

(=He is nowhere in sight.)

2) likely to come soon

(=Peace was in sight at last after four years of war.)

*An immediate agreement is nowhere in sight.

Collocation:

lose sight of 看不见;失去联系;忘记;没有考虑到 out of sight 看不到,不被看到

18. (L. 42) remark:

1. n. things said or written as a comment

*He closed the discussion with the remark that “he who plays with fire gets burnt”.

(=Mr. Smith approached us and made a couple of remarks about the weather.)

2. v. say, esp. something which one has just noticed; give as an opinion

*A local newspaper remarked that inflation was not to be checked for the time being.

*His fluency with the Chinese language was remarked upon by all his Chinese colleagues.

CF: remark & comment

这两个词都是名词,都有“谈论”、“评论”之意。

remark 是常用词,指议论、评价,常含有一种随便的意味。例如:

I should be pleased to have your remark.

我将很高兴听到你的意见。

Her absence of hair could hardly escape remark.

她没有头发,免不了被人议论。

comment 通常强调批判性的评述。例如:

Some scathing comments were heard from visitors.

从来宾那听到了一些尖刻的批评。

It became a matter of cynical comment among the neighbors.

她成了邻居们冷嘲热讽的话题.

19. (L. 46) emotional: adj.

1) of the emotions

*She is grateful to him for his emotional support while she was in trouble.

*It’s quite difficult to handle emotional problems.

2) having emotions that are easily excited.

*It’s said that the Italians are more emotional than we are.

*他非常易动感情,我离开时他哭了

(=He was very emotional; he cried when I left.)

20. (L. 46) cue: n. anything that serves as a signal about what to do or say

*When he started to talk about the finance, which was our cue to get up quietly and leave.

*The time had come to say good night. At mother’s cue, we all ascended.

21. (L. 49) routine: n. fixed and regular way of doing things

*These two babies have different daily routines.

*请按常规办事。

(=Please do it according to routine.)

22. (L. 50) rely: vi. depend confidently on, put trust in

*He can always be relied upon for help.

*你放心好了,我会早到的。

(=You may rely on my early arrival.)

Collocation:

rely on/upon 依靠; 信任, 信赖

rely upon it 放心

CF: rely, trust & depend

这些词都有“信任”、“相信”的意思。

rely 指完全的信任。例如:

You are the only woman I can rely on.

你是我唯一能指望的女人。

He can be relied on to keep secret.

相信他能保密。

trust 常强调基于没有说服力的证据的信仰产生的信心。例如:

We must try to trust one another. Stay and cooperate.

我们必须试图相互信任。留下来并且相互合作

I don't think I could trust myself to speak to him about it.

我认为我不能对他谈论这件事。

depend 意味着对另一个人的帮助或支持有信心。例如:

It is foolhardy to depend on Middle Eastern countries for our oil supplies.

把我们的石油供应都依赖于中东国家是鲁莽的。

It all depends on how you tackle the problem.

那要看你如何应付这问题而定。

23. (L. 53) abuse:

1. n. 1) wrong or excessive use

*the abuse of power

*alcohol abuse

2) cruel treatment

*The abuse of the helpless prisoner made him bitter.

*human rights abuses

2. vt. 1) put to wrong use; use badly

*He abused his privileges in activities outside his official capacity.

*他辜负了我对他的信任。

(=He has abused my confidence in him.)

2) do cruel things to (a person or animal)

(=I won’t allow you to abuse that dog.)

*The arrested men have been physically abused.

CF: abuse, misuse & mistreat

这些词都是动词,都有“不公正对待”、“伤害”或“滥用”之一。

abuse 最普通,指各种故意的或非故意的、言语上的辱骂或行为上的伤害。例如: He was always abusing people when he was drunk.

他酒醉后总爱骂人。

The serf-owners had the right to beat, abuse or even kill the serfs at will. 农奴主有权任意打马甚至杀掉农奴。

misuse 指不适当的使用,即“误用”、“滥用”,并不一定有目的性。例如:

He misused the idiom.

他把这个成语用错了。

He misused his knife at the table by lifting food with it.

吃饭时他误用刀子拿食物。

mistreat 多用于美国英语,表示苛刻或残暴对待。例如:

The dog’s owner mistreated him terribly.

这条狗遭到主人的虐待。

The magistrate administered a public thrashing to the landlord who had mistreated his

brother.

法官对那虐待兄弟的地主施以公众鞭苔。

24. (L. 54) restore: vt. bring back to a former condition (used in the pattern: restore sth.;

restore sb. to sth.)

*Winning three games restored their confidence.

(=Doing sports every day restored the old man to good health.)

25. (L. 55) arrange: vt.

1) prepare or plan

*A marriage has been arranged between Mr. Brown and Miss White.

*观光局为我们到罗马去的旅行筹备一切。

(=The Tourist Bureau arranged everything for our journey to Rome.)

2) put in order

*I arranged the books on the shelves.

*Before going away, he arranged his business affairs.

Collocation:

arrange for 安排, 准备

arrange with sb. about sth. 与某人商定某事

26. (L. 56) flee: v. run away (from)

*They all fled (from) the burning ship.

(=He killed his enemy and fled the country.)

27. (L. 57) interview:

1. n. 1) meeting at which a journalist asks sb. questions in order to find out their news

*In an exclusive interview with our reporter, the film star revealed some of his personal

affairs.

*Radio interviews are generally more relaxed than television ones.

2) formal meeting at which sb. applying for a job is asked questions, as a way of judging

how suitable they are

*I have been asked to go for an interview for a project I applied for at Harvard University.

*She has had a couple of job interviews, but no offers.

2. vt. ask questions of (somebody) in an interview

*As a journalist, he interviewed many government officials.

*I will be interviewed next week for the chief Executive’s job.

Collocation:

give an interview to sb. 接见某人

have an interview with sb. 会见某人

job interviews (对申请工作者的)口头审查

28. (L. 58) appointment: n.

1) agreement to meet or visit sb. at a particular time (followed by with)

*You can’t see the president of the university unless you make an appointment.

*我已约定下午三时去看牙医。

(=I have an appointment with my dentist at 3pm.)

2) choosing of someone for a position or job

* John took the appointment as director.

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