Words and Expressions
1. (标题) virtual: adj.
1) created and existing only in a computer
*I can visit a virtual store and put what I want in my basket at the click of a mouse button.
*Some people spend too much time escaping from reality into the virtual world conjured up on their computer screens.
2) almost what is stated; in fact though not in name
*The officials hear this kind of talk in virtual silence.
(=The king was so much under the influence of his wife that she was the virtual ruler of the country.)
2. (L. 2) interpret: v.
1) understand (sth. said, ordered, or done)
*The gift is generally interpreted as a bribe.
*She made a gesture, which he chose to interpret as an invitation.
2) give or provide the meaning of, explain
(=Poetry helps to interpret life.)
*The evidence is difficult to interpret.
3) translate what is said in one language into another
(=No one in the tour group spoke Spanish so we had to ask the guide to interpret.)
3. (L. 5) stretch: v. (cause to) become longer, wider, etc. without breaking
*My wool coat stretched when I washed it.
*The child stretched the rubber band to its full extent.
(=You are stretching my patience to limit.)
4. (L. 8) submit: vt.
1) give (sth.) to sb. so that it may be formally considered
*I am going to submit an application for that job in Microsoft.
*Peter submitted his application to the local government.
2) yield (oneself); agree to obey
*Should a wife submit herself to her husband?
*We should submit ourselves to discipline.
submit oneself to 甘受, 服从
submit to 服从于；把…提交给…
submit willingly 心悦诚服
5. (L. 9) edit: vt. revise or correct
*Scholars often edit Shakespeare’s plays.
(=John didn’t finish editing the annual report until the end of last month.)
6. (L. 9) communicate:
1. vi. contact sb. in any way, eap. by speaking to them, writing to them or calling them
(followed by with)
*We can communicate with people in most parts of the world by telephone.
(=Young people sometimes complain of not being able to communicate with their
2. vt. make (news, opinions, feelings, etc.) known
*The radio stations communicate the storm warnings to the islanders.
*She communicated her ideas to her subordinates.
7. (L. 13) at times: sometimes
*At times, I feel that I want to leave this job.
8. (L. 18) take in:
1) receive, admit
3) make (clothes) narrower
6) see at a glance; see at once
(Directions:) Match the above definitions with the sentences below.
1. The dress was too big, so I took it in. (=3)
2. I didn’t take in what you were saying. (=4)
3. She took in every details of the other woman’s clothes. (=6)
4. Do you mean we should get rid of the stale and take in the fresh? (=1)
5. Don’t be taken in by her promises (=5)
6. This is the total cost of the trip, taking in everything. (=2)
take after 仿效，跟随；相象，在相貌、脾气或性格上相似
take apart 拆开
take back 收回（所说的或所写的事）
take down 拿下，放下
take for 把…视作；误认为
take off 脱掉（衣服等）；起飞
take on 从事；开始对付：
take out 取出；弄走
take over 接管
take up 举起；再次开始
9. (L. 18) spit: vt. send (liquid, food, etc.) out from the mouth (used in the pattern: spit sth.(out)
*He’s very ill and spitting (up) blood.
*The baby spat its food out on the table.
(=He angrily spat out her answer.)
10. (L. 19) symptom: n.
1) sign of the existence of sth. bad
*The Government must not ignore these symptoms of discontent among their own
(=High interest rates are a symptom of a weak economy.)
2) change in the body that indicates an illness
*A cold, fever and headache are the usual symptoms of flu.
(=A persistent cough may be a symptom of atypical pneumonia.)
11. (L. 21) nightmare: n. a terrible dream
*Driving through that snowstorm was a nightmare.
*I had a nightmare about falling off the skyscraper.
12. (L. 26) conversely: adv. in a way that is opposite to sth.
*$1 will buy 100 yen worth of Japanese goods. Conversely, 100 yen will buy $1 worth of American goods.
*You can add the fluid to the powder or, conversely, the powder to the fluid.
13. (L. 33) but then: yet at the same time
*The failure of China’s soccer team looks inevitable. But then, anything can happen in football.
(=The circus was not a very good one, but then, the audience was not demanding.)
14. (L. 33) jar: v. have a harsh or an unpleasant effect (used in the pattern: jar sth., jar on
*The fall jarred every bone in my body.
(=The way he laughs jars on me.)
15. (L. 34) suck in: (usu. passive) involve (sb.) in an activity, an argument, etc., usu. against their
*Some teenagers don’t want to get involved with gangs, but they find themselves getting sucked in.
(=I don’t want to get sucked into the debate about school reform.)
16. (L. 34) keep up with:
1) learn about or be aware of ( the news, etc.)
*Carrie likes to keep up with the latest fashions.
*He didn’t bother to keep up with the latest news. His only concern was to study.
2) move at the same rate as
*My salary doesn’t keep up with inflation.
(=He hired a tutor because he wasn’t able to keep up with the rest of the class.)
17. (L. 39) in sight:
*No vehicle is in sight.
(=He is nowhere in sight.)
2) likely to come soon
(=Peace was in sight at last after four years of war.)
*An immediate agreement is nowhere in sight.
lose sight of 看不见；失去联系；忘记；没有考虑到 out of sight 看不到，不被看到
18. (L. 42) remark:
1. n. things said or written as a comment
*He closed the discussion with the remark that “he who plays with fire gets burnt”.
(=Mr. Smith approached us and made a couple of remarks about the weather.)
2. v. say, esp. something which one has just noticed; give as an opinion
*A local newspaper remarked that inflation was not to be checked for the time being.
*His fluency with the Chinese language was remarked upon by all his Chinese colleagues.
CF: remark & comment
I should be pleased to have your remark.
Her absence of hair could hardly escape remark.
Some scathing comments were heard from visitors.
It became a matter of cynical comment among the neighbors.
19. (L. 46) emotional: adj.
1) of the emotions
*She is grateful to him for his emotional support while she was in trouble.
*It’s quite difficult to handle emotional problems.
2) having emotions that are easily excited.
*It’s said that the Italians are more emotional than we are.
(=He was very emotional; he cried when I left.)
20. (L. 46) cue: n. anything that serves as a signal about what to do or say
*When he started to talk about the finance, which was our cue to get up quietly and leave.
*The time had come to say good night. At mother’s cue, we all ascended.
21. (L. 49) routine: n. fixed and regular way of doing things
*These two babies have different daily routines.
(=Please do it according to routine.)
22. (L. 50) rely: vi. depend confidently on, put trust in
*He can always be relied upon for help.
(=You may rely on my early arrival.)
rely on/upon 依靠; 信任, 信赖
rely upon it 放心
CF: rely, trust & depend
You are the only woman I can rely on.
He can be relied on to keep secret.
We must try to trust one another. Stay and cooperate.
I don't think I could trust myself to speak to him about it.
It is foolhardy to depend on Middle Eastern countries for our oil supplies.
It all depends on how you tackle the problem.
23. (L. 53) abuse:
1. n. 1) wrong or excessive use
*the abuse of power
2) cruel treatment
*The abuse of the helpless prisoner made him bitter.
*human rights abuses
2. vt. 1) put to wrong use; use badly
*He abused his privileges in activities outside his official capacity.
(=He has abused my confidence in him.)
2) do cruel things to (a person or animal)
(=I won’t allow you to abuse that dog.)
*The arrested men have been physically abused.
CF: abuse, misuse & mistreat
abuse 最普通，指各种故意的或非故意的、言语上的辱骂或行为上的伤害。例如： He was always abusing people when he was drunk.
The serf-owners had the right to beat, abuse or even kill the serfs at will. 农奴主有权任意打马甚至杀掉农奴。
He misused the idiom.
He misused his knife at the table by lifting food with it.
The dog’s owner mistreated him terribly.
The magistrate administered a public thrashing to the landlord who had mistreated his
24. (L. 54) restore: vt. bring back to a former condition (used in the pattern: restore sth.;
restore sb. to sth.)
*Winning three games restored their confidence.
(=Doing sports every day restored the old man to good health.)
25. (L. 55) arrange: vt.
1) prepare or plan
*A marriage has been arranged between Mr. Brown and Miss White.
(=The Tourist Bureau arranged everything for our journey to Rome.)
2) put in order
*I arranged the books on the shelves.
*Before going away, he arranged his business affairs.
arrange for 安排, 准备
arrange with sb. about sth. 与某人商定某事
26. (L. 56) flee: v. run away (from)
*They all fled (from) the burning ship.
(=He killed his enemy and fled the country.)
27. (L. 57) interview:
1. n. 1) meeting at which a journalist asks sb. questions in order to find out their news
*In an exclusive interview with our reporter, the film star revealed some of his personal
*Radio interviews are generally more relaxed than television ones.
2) formal meeting at which sb. applying for a job is asked questions, as a way of judging
how suitable they are
*I have been asked to go for an interview for a project I applied for at Harvard University.
*She has had a couple of job interviews, but no offers.
2. vt. ask questions of (somebody) in an interview
*As a journalist, he interviewed many government officials.
*I will be interviewed next week for the chief Executive’s job.
give an interview to sb. 接见某人
have an interview with sb. 会见某人
job interviews （对申请工作者的)口头审查
28. (L. 58) appointment: n.
1) agreement to meet or visit sb. at a particular time (followed by with)
*You can’t see the president of the university unless you make an appointment.
(=I have an appointment with my dentist at 3pm.)
2) choosing of someone for a position or job
* John took the appointment as director.