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语法专项--现在完成时(8A-U5~U6)

发布时间:2014-01-02 11:43:17  

现在完成时

八年级英语语法期末复习

-2013-2014上学期

语法专项--现在完成时(U 5 U6):

如果你想说“我已经看过某部电影,所以不想看了”、“某人曾经做过什么事情”等等,该如果表达呢?首先请看下面的句子: (1)I have seen the film. I don’t want to see it again.这部电影我已经看过,不想再看了。 (2)Have you answered all the questions? 所有的问题你都回答了吗? (3)Have you ever looked at a travel brochure?你看过旅游宣传册吗? (4)She has never visited the USA.她从没有过去美国。

观察:以上句子的谓语动词的一个共同特点是_____________________________, 用于表示在以前的某个时间曾经做过的、发生的事情,这种行为对目前有某种影响。我们把这种时态称为“现在完成时”。

一、 现在完成时的概念。

①表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果

She has been ill for three days. (她病了三天了。)

②表示从过去某一时间开始一直持续到现在的动作或状态。

We've known each other since we were children. (我们从小就认识。) I have been a member of the Party for 10 years.

常与现在完成时连用的时间状语有:

1

现在完成时 把下面变否定句、一般疑问句并作肯定和否定回答。

1. I have done my homework.

否定句:_______________________________________

一般疑问句:___________________________________

回答:_________________________________________

2. The plane has arrived.

否定句:_______________________________________

一般疑问句:___________________________________

回答:_________________________________________

三、动词的过去分词构成规则

(1) 规则变化

① 大部分动词在词尾直接加-ed cleaned help helped

② 以不发音的e结尾的,直接加-d

like liked live lived

③ 以辅音字母+y结尾的单词,变y为i再加ed

try tried study studied

④ 重读闭音节词尾只有一个辅音字母的,需要双写最后这个辅音字母再加-ed. plan planned stop stopped

(2) 不规则变化:需根据不规则变化表进行专门记忆

see seen find found

写出下列单词的过去分词形式

work _________ finish ___________ arrive___________

change_________ see___________ have___________

marry__________ visit__________ miss___________

prefer__________ do___________ hear____________

live____________ clean________ study___________

meet___________ be __________ climb___________

plan____________ take_________ stop____________

keep____________ buy_________ spend____________

learn___________ forget__________ bring____________

四、现在完成时用法归纳

1.(此种用法谓语动词用结束性动词) 如: The plane has arrived.

常用的时间状语和副词:already ,yet , ever , never

①already 已经; yet 尚未,仍未,还;强调前不久完成的动作对现在造成的影响,谓语动词使用非延续性动词。already 用于肯定句中,yet 用于否定句和疑问句的句末。

例如:I have already finished my homework. 我已经完成我的家庭作业了。 He hasn’t come yet.他还没有回来。

Has she finished cooking yet? 他做完饭了吗?

练:I have already done my homework. (变为否定句)

___________________________________________

②ever (曾经),句中;never (从不) ,表示否定,强调到目前为止的生活经历。谓语动词用延续性动词。

2

现在完成时 例如:Have you ever climb that mountain? 你曾经爬过那座山吗?

Have you ever been to Shanghai?你曾经去过上海吗?

I have never late for school.我从来没有迟到过。

③already ever与never应位于助动词have/has 之后,主要动词之前。 拓展:before (以前),句尾,独立用

I haven’t met him before. 我以前从来没有见过他。

just (刚刚),用于肯定句中,常用在助动词和过去分词之间。

如:I have just heard the news. 我刚刚听到消息。

跟踪训练

( )1. Have you ______ heard of Disneyland?

A. always B. ever C. never D. sometimes

( )2. I have ________ finished my homework. So I can have a rest now.

A. ever B. already C. never D. yet

( )3. She is a good student, she has _______ been late for school.

A. ever B. already C. never D. yet

( )4. I am very hungry , I haven’t had my breakfast________.

A. ever B. already C. never D. yet

2.完成时可用于表示某时间段里完成的动作,常与today, these days, recently等时间状语连用。如:

Have you seen her these days? 译: _________________________

Have you been to the library today? 译:______________________

Have you read the book recently? 译:_______________________

3.现在完成时表示过去已经开始,持续到现在,可能延续到将来的动作和状态。 常与表示过去某一时刻延续到现在的一段时间状语连用。如:

a. for + 一段时间:for two hours

b. since + 时间点:since 1999, since last year

c. since + 一段时间+ ago: since two days ago

d. since + 从句(用过去时)

e. up to now, till now, until now, so far

f. in the past two years, in the last few days

g. recently, lately

如: Miss Zhao has taught math for five years.

His mother has worked in the shop since 1990.

The Greens have lived in London since three years ago.

[注]:其中在a,b,c,d 这四种结构中,

如:

这本书我已买了一年半了!)

跟踪训练

用since 或者for 填空

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现在完成时

1. I have studied English _______ 5 years.

2. I have studied English _______ 5 years ago.

3. I have studied English _______ 2008.

4. She has taught math _________ 3 years.

5. She has taught math _________ 3 years ago.

6. She has taught math _________ 2010.

4. 短暂性动词怎样和表示一段时间的状语连用。

英语中的短暂性动词,也叫做终止性动词、瞬间动词或非延续性动词,只表示一时的动作,在肯定句式中不能与表示延续的时间状语连用。常见的短暂性动词有:go, come, leave, find, buy, arrive, give, stop, join, marry, die, begin, start, borrow, close, open, lend等。

eg. I have bought this book for three months. (×)

非延续性动词与一段时间连用时可采用下列三种方法:

(1)将非延续性动词转化为延续性动词。

leave- have (has) been away from close- have (has) been closed join- have (has) been (in) begin/start- have (has) been on buy- have (has) had go- have (has) been there die- have (has) dead finish- have (has) been over come (arrive)- have (has) been here

borrow- have (has) kept

begin to work- have (has) worked

open- have (has) been open

get up- have (has) been up

put on – have (has) on

come back- have (has) been back

get to know –have (has) known

(2)时间状语的变化:把表时间的状语“for…”变为“数词+ 时间名词+ago”的短语形式。(即:将时间状语改为过去时间,并用一般过去时代替现在完成时) 如: 他参军五年了。(判断正误)

He has joined the Army for five years. ( )

He has been in the Army for five years. ( )

He joined the Army five years ago. ( )

他离开济南三年了。

He has left Ji’nan for three years. ( )

He has been away from Ji’nan for three years.

He left Ji’nan three years ago.

(3) 句子模式的变化。用句型“It is + 一段时间+ since从句”(从句中的谓语动词用非延续性动词的一般过去式表示)如:

The old man died two years ago.

= The old man has been dead for two years.

= It is two years since the old man died.

跟踪训练

句型转换。

1. I have borrowed a new book from the school library.

I _________ _________ a new book from the school library for two days. 4

现在完成时

2. She has gone there.

She _________ ________ there _________ yesterday.

3. The film has begun.

The film __________ ___________ ___________ __________ five minutes.

4. The boy has come back.

The boy _________ ___________ _________ for an hour.

5. The man in a hat has left.

The man in a hat _________ _________ __________ _________ half an hour ago.

6. He has already died.

He ____________ ____________ ____________ for twenty years.

7.The young man has joined the League.

The young man ____ ____ ________ __________ member _______ two years. The young man ____ ________ _______ _______ League ______ two years ago.

5. have been to/ have gone to/ have been in 三种结构的区别

(1)have been to 去过某地(现已离开),可以与ever, never, once, twice等连用。

(2)has gone to 去某地了,说话时某人已离开此地,在去某地的路上或已在某

地,总之现在还未回来。此句型一般用于第三人称。

(3) have been in 表示已在某地呆了多久,若该地为小地方则用at。 翻译:

你以前去过北京吗?___________________________

吉姆已经去了伦敦。___________________________

格林一家在中国已经两年了。_____________________

单项选择

( )1. I have ________ Beijing three times.

A. been to B. gone to C. been in D. been at

( )2.---Where is Mike?

---He has _______ London .

A. been to B. gone to C. been in D. been at

( )3. Tony has never _______ China. He looks forward to coming to China

A. been to B. gone to C. been in D. been at

( )4.Lucy has ________ China for 5 years.

A. been to B. gone to C. been in D. been at

( )5.The teacher has ________ the village to teach the poor students for 10 years.

A. been to B. gone to C. been in D. been at

6. 现在完成时与一般过去时的区别:

(1) 侧重点不同:现在完成时是与现在有关的时态,属现在时态范畴,它侧重于过去的动作对现在造成的影响。而一般过去时是一种过去时态,侧重于表示过去的动作,与现在无关。如:

Yesterday I went to the zoo. (仅说明昨天去了动物园,与现在无关)

Li Lei has read the book. (说明李磊了解那本书的内容)

(2)连用的时间状语不同:一般过去时常与ago, yesterday, last…, in 2000, just now等连用。而现在完成时与already, yet, still, just, so far, in the last/ past…, before, ever, never, since…, for…等时间状语连用。

[注] 现在完成时不可与yesterday, last week, two days ago等过去时间状语连用。 综合训练

5

现在完成时 单项选择

( )1. Miss Gao isn’t here. She ________ to the bus station to meet Mr. Brown.

A. go B. has gone C. has been D. would go

( )2. – How clean the bedroom is!

- Yes, I am sure that someone _______it.

A. cleans B. cleaned C. has cleaned D. had cleaned

( )3. Prison Break is the best American TV player that I _____ these years.

A. watch B. will watch C. have watched D.was watching

( )4. I’m not hungry because I ______ lunch already.

A. have B. had C. am having D. have had

( )5. – How long have Mr and Mrs Smith________?

- For more than twenty years.

A. married B. had married C. got married D. been married

( )6. In the past few years there ______ great changes in my hometown.

A. have been B. were C. had been D. are

( )7. — ________ you ______ the film Harry Potter Ⅱ?

— Not yet. I’ll see it this Sunday.

A. Did, see B. Are; seeing C. Have, seen D. Do, see

( )8. The Smiths moved to China ten years ago and ______ here since then.

A. has lived B. was living C. live D. have lived

( )9. – Will you watch the World Cup match this year?

- No, but I ________ several World Cup matches since I was a small child.

A. had seen B. see C. was seeing D. have seen

( )10. I won’t return the book to the library because I ______ reading it.

A. wasn’t finish B. don’t finish C. won’t finish D. haven’t finished

( )11. – How many times _______ you ______ the Great Wall?

- Only once. I _______ there three years ago.

A. did, go to, have gone B. had, gone to, went

C. have, been to, went D. have, been to, have gone

( )12. - _______ you ______ the magazine from the school library yet? - Yes, I ______ it for two weeks.

A. Have, borrowed, have kept B. Have, borrowed, have borrowed

C. Did, borrowed, borrowed D. Did, borrow, have kept

( )13. Premier Zhou (周总理) ______ for many years, but he still lives in the

hearts of Chinese people.

A. died B. had died C. has been died D. has been dead

( )14. Her mother _______ in the factory. She _____ there since it opened.

A. is working, worked B. works, worked

C. works, has worked D. worked, has worked

( )15. – Hi! Jim! Nice to meet you!

- Hi, it’s one year since I last ______ you.

A. saw B. see C. seeing D. have seen

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