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2013年人教版七年级上册英语语法知识及习题

发布时间:2014-01-03 12:36:42  

七年级上册英语语法知识及习题

英语的十大词类.

英语句子成分:组成句子的各个部分即句子成分。句子成分包括:主语、谓语、宾语、表语、

定语、状语、补足语等。

一、主语(subject): 句子说明的人或事物。

1. Bob has a soccer ball . 鲍勃有一个足球。 (名词) 2.He likes dancing.他喜欢跳舞。(代词)

二、谓语(predicate): 说明主语的动作、状态和特征,谓语一般是动词。 1.We study English. 我们学习英语 2. He is asleep. 他睡着了。

三、表语(predicative):表示主语“是什么”或者“怎么样”,表语前面的动词称为系动词。 “系动词+表语”一块称为谓语。 1. He is a teacher.他是个老师(名词

2. Five and five is ten. 五加五等于十(数词) 3.He is asleep.他睡着了 (形容词)

4.His father is in. 他的父亲在家 (副词)

5.The picture is on the wall. 画在墙上。 (介词短语) 6.That sounds good 那听起来很好。 7.It looks nice . 看上去很好。

常见的系动词有: be, sound(听起来), look(看起来), feel(摸起来,smell(闻起来), taste(尝起来、吃起来), feel(感觉) ...

四、宾语:动作、行为的对象 1.I like China. 我喜欢中国。(名词) 2.You can help me. 你能帮助我。(代词)

3.How many do you need? We need two. 你们需要多少?我们需要两个。(数词) 4. I like playing soccer. 我喜欢踢足球。 (动名词)

5.I want to have an apple. 我想要吃个苹果。 (不定式) 双宾语-----间接宾语(指人)和直接宾语(指物)

Tom’s mother buy him some books. 汤姆的妈妈给他买了一些书。 五、宾补:对宾语的补充,全称为宾语补足语。 We will make them happy. 我们将让他们高兴。(形容词)

His father help him to do his homework. 他的父亲帮他做家庭作业。(带to不定式) 六、定语:修饰名词或代词的词、词组或句子。 1. He is a Chinese teacher. 他是个语文老师。(名词) 2. He is our friend. 他是我们的朋友。(代词) 3. I have three books. 我有三本书。 (数词) 4. He is a good student. 他是个好学生。(形容词)

5.The boy in red is my brother. 穿红衣服的男孩是我的弟弟。(介词短语)

七、状语:用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或 句子。 表示行为发生的时间、地点、原因、

目的、结果、程度、条件、方式等。

1.I go to school at seven o’clock. 我在七点钟上学。 2.He reads the book in the room.他在房间里看书。

3.I don’t like thrillers because they are scary. 我不喜欢恐怖片因为它们太吓人了。

13 冠词 :冠词是置于名词之前。冠词分为不定冠词"a,an"、定冠词"the"和零冠词三种。零冠

词指的是不用冠词的情况。 不定冠词表示“一”,定冠词表示“这个,那个,这些,哪些”。 不定冠词的用法-1

不定冠词有"a和an"两种形式。"a"用在以辅音开头的词前,"an"用在以元音 开头的词前。判断一个词是以元音开头还是以辅音开头,是根据读音而不是根据字母。 用于可数名词的单数形式前,表示"一"

There is a tiger in the zoo. 动物园里有一只老虎。 an apple ,an orange ,an English boy , 你还能写出一些前边用an 的词吗?

___________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

不定冠词的用法-2

用在某些表示数量的词组中: a lot of 许多 a pair of 一双

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定冠词的用法

1) 用于指谈话双方都知道的人或事物 Open the door, please. 请把门打开。

2) 用以复述上文提过的人或事物(第一次提到用“a或an”,以后再次提到用“the”) I have a pencil , the pencil is green . 我有一支铅笔,这支铅笔是绿色的。 3) 用在序数词前

January is the first month of the year. 一月份是一年当中的第一个月。 4) 表示世界上宇宙中独一无二的事物

the sun 太阳 the moon 月亮 the earth 地球 the sky 天空 the world 世界 5) 表示演奏乐器时,乐器的前面要加the

play the piano 弹钢琴 play the violin 拉小提琴 零冠词的用法

1) 专有名词前一般不加冠词

Tom 汤姆 China 中国 Europe 欧洲 2) 月份、周日、节日前一般不加冠词

January 一月份 Sunday 星期日 Christmas Day 圣诞节 Thanksgiving 感恩节National Day 国庆节 May Day 劳动节

比较: ...on a Sunday morning. 在一个星期天的早晨... (表示某一个。) 3)三餐、四季前一般不加冠词

I have lunch at school. 我在学校吃午餐。 4)球类运动不加冠词

play basketball 打篮球 play volleyball 打排球 play football 踢足球

时态概说

在英语中,不同时间发生的动作或存在的状态,要用不同的动词形式来表示,这种动词的不同形式称为时态。

I 今年我14 岁。 I 13 last year.去年我13 岁。

He 他每天都踢足球。 He soccer yesterday.昨天他踢足球了。 英语中共有16 种时态,常用的有9种。

一般现在时

一般现在时表示现在的状态,如:He is 12. She is at home.

表示经常的或习惯性的动作, 如:I go to school at 7:30 every day.

表示主语具备的性格和能力等,如:She likes apples. They know English. 动词的种类

动词分为四种:连系动词, 实义动词, 助动词, 情态动词

1)连系动词:词义不完全,要和后面的表语一块构成谓语。 如 be (am, is are)是,sound听起来,look看起来

She is my sister.

That sounds interesting .听起来很有趣。

2)实义动词,有实际意义的动词,能单独做谓语。如 see, ask, like I like bananas.

3)助动词:本身没有词义,帮助实义动词一起构成否定句,疑问句。如 do,does

I don’t like chicken . Does he like apples ?

4)情态动词;本身具有一定意义,但不能单独作谓语,必须和实义动词一起构成谓语。 can,能,会,must ,必须,情态动词后一定要用动词原形。 I can speak English . I must find it . 我一定要找到它

动词be的用法 be 的用法口诀

我用am,你用are,is连着他,她,它; 单数名词用is,复数名词全用are。 变疑问,往前提,句末问号莫丢弃。 变否定,更容易,be后not莫忘记。 疑问否定任你变,句首大写莫迟疑。 Be动词专项练习 用am, is, are 填空:

1. I ______ a student. ______ you a student? No, I _____ not. 2. The girl______ Jack's sister. 3. The dog _______ tall and fat. 4. The man _______ a teacher.

5. ______ your brother in the classroom?

6. Where _____ your mother? She ______ at home. 7. How _______ your father?

8. Jane and Tom _________ my friends 9. Where _____ my pen ? 10. Where ______ my books ? 11. That ______ my red skirt. 12. Who ______ I?

13. The jeans ______ on the desk. 14. Here ______ a photo of my family . 15. Here ______ some sweaters for you. 16. The black book ______ for Su Yang. 17. This pair of socks______ 20 dollars.

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18. The two cups of milk _____ for me. 19. Some tea ______ in the glass. 20. How much ____ the skirt?

21 How much ______ the trousers ? 22. My sister's name ______Nancy.

23. ______ David and Helen from England? 24. There ______ a girl in the room. 25. You, he and I ______ from China.

句型转换的方法 一.肯定句变否定句

1.句子中有be,在be后加not。

) I am a student. → I am not a student. 2) They are blue . → They aren’t blue. 3) He is Tom. → He isn’t Tom

2.谓语是动词原形,在动词前加don’t。 ) I have a book . → I don’t have a book.

2) They like Chinese . → They don’t like Chinese.

3) We come from China. → We don’t come from China.

3谓语动词是第三人称单数,在动词前加doesn’t,动词用原形。1)She has a basketball. →She doesn’t have a basketball 2)Maria likes China. → Maria doesn’t like China.

3)Jane comes from the U.S.A. →Jane doesn’t come from the U.S.A. 练习:将下列句子变成否定句。

1. I am a teacher. → I ______ a teacher.

2. We are students. → We ________ students. 3. Jane is a girl. → Jane ____ a girl.

4. They like English. → They _____ like Chinese 5. I come from China. → I _______ come from China. 6. He likes Chinese. → He_______ like Chinese.

7. Maria comes from Cuba. →Maria______ come from Cuba. 8. We know Maria. → We ________ know Maria

二.肯定句变一般疑问句

句子中有be,把be提到句首

1) I am a student. →Are you a student? 2) They are blue. →Are they blue?

3) He is Tom. →Is he Tom?

2.谓语是动词原形,在句首加do。 1).I have a book . →Do you have a book? 2) They like Chinese . →Do they like Chinese?

3) We come from China. →Do you come from China?

3.谓语动词是第三人称单数,在句首加Does,动词用原形。 1) She has a basketball . →Does she have a basketball? 2) Maria likes China. → Does Maria like China?

3) Jane comes from the U.S.A. →Does Jane come from the U.S.A? 4) She knows Maria. → Does she know Maria? 练习:将下列句子变成一般疑问句。

1. I am a teacher. ____ ____ a teacher? 2. They are students. ______ ______ students? 3. Jane is a girl. ______ ______ a girl?

4. They like English. ____ they like English?

5. I come from China. ____ you come from China? 6. He likes Chinese. ____ he_____ Chinese? 7. Maria comes from America.

_____ Maria _____ from America?

8. We speak Chinese. _____ you_____ Chinese? 三.一般疑问句做肯定,否定回答 1.Are you Maria ? 肯定回答:Yes , I am. 否定回答:No, I’m not.

2.问句和答语的动词保持一致. 1) Are you a student?

肯: Yes, I am. 否: No, I’m not. 2) Is he Jack ?

肯:_______________. 否:_______________. 3) Do they like Chinese?

肯:_______________. 否:_______________. 4) Does she have a basketball ?

肯:_______________. 否:_______________. 3.问句和答语中的主语保持一致。(必须用主格) 1) Is Jane from the U.S.A?

肯:Yes, she is. 否:No,she isn’t. 2) Does Li Hua come from China?

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肯:_______________. 否:_______________. 3) Do Jane and Maria like China?

肯:_______________. 否:_______________. 4) Is this a ruler?

肯:_______________. 否:_______________. 5) Is that a desk?

肯:_______________. 否:_______________. 6) Are these books?

肯:_______________. 否:_______________. 7) Are those pencils?

肯:_______________. 否:_______________. 8) Are these erasers?

肯:_______________. 否:_______________. 9) Is that an orange?

肯:_______________. 否:_______________.

练习:给下列句子做肯定回答或否定回答。 1.Are you a student?

Yes, _____ _______ . No, ______ ________ . 2. Do they like English?

Yes, ______ _________ . No, _______ ________ . 3. Is Jane a girl?

Yes,_______ _________. No, ________ ________ . . 4. Does Maria like China?

Yes, ______ _________ . No, ______ _________. 5. Is Jenny a student?

Yes , ______ _________ No , ______ _________ . 6. Is that a girl?

Yes , ______ _________No , ______ _________. 7. Are those telephones?

Yes , ______ _________ No , ______ _________ . 8. Does Tom know Jane?

Yes , ______ _________ No , ______ _________. 9. Do they come from the U.S.A?

Yes , _________ _________ No , ______ _________. 10. Is this an egg?

Yes , _________ _________ No , ______ _________

四.对划线部分提问.

口诀:一选二变三问号:

一选是分析句意,先选疑问词,代替划线部分(划线部分去掉),二变是把剩余部分变成一般疑问句(疑问词作主语时除外),第三步加上问号。 练习 :对划线部分提问

___________________________________ _________________________________ __________________________________ ___________________________________

___________________________________

_________ _________ your name? is our English teacher. _________ is your English teacher?

_________ _________ are you? _________ _________ is it? _________ _________ your telephone number? _________ cap is this? _________ is your favorite movie star ? 五.同义句转换.

1.Please give Jane the book.

Please _______ the book _______ Jane. 2. This is my book. This book is _______ 3. He has short hair. _______ _______ is short.

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4. My ruler is not long. My ruler is_______

5. This jacket is not new. This jacket is _______ 6.My English teacher is old .

My English teacher is not _________. 六.单复数转换.

1.将下列句子变成复数.

It is a box . _______ ________ ________ ______ .

This is a ruler. _______ ________ ________ _______. That is an eraser. _______ ________ ________ _______.

He is a student. _______ ________ ________ _______. 2.将下列句子变成单数。

1.They are pencils. _______ ________ ________ ______ . 2.These are erasers. _______ ________ ________ ______ . 3.They are boys. _______ ________ ________ ______ . 4. They are girls . _______ ________ ________ ______ ..

5.Those are books. _______ ________ ________ ______ .. 6.These are desks. _______ ________ ________ ______ . 7.These are boxes. _______ ________ ________ ______ .. 8.Those are cars. _______ ________ ________ ______ .

六. 仿照例句改写下列句子。 She is in the classroom .

否定句: She is not in the classroom. 一般疑问句: Is she in the classroom? 回答:Yes, she is. (No, she isn’t) 1. I am a student .

否定句:____________________________________ 一般疑问句:________________________________ 肯、否定回答:_____________________________ 2. This is my book.

否定句:_____________________________________ 一般疑问句:__________________________________ 肯、否定回答:________________________________ 3. They are on the desk.

否定句:___________________________________ 一般疑问句:_______________________________ 肯、否定回答:_____________________________

.

4. The pen is red.

否定句:___________________________________ 一般疑问句:_______________________________

肯、否定回答:_____________________________八.改写句子

否定句:____________________________________ 一般疑问句:________________________________ 肯、否定回答:_____________________________ 变单数:________________________________

划线部分提问:________________________________ 否定句:_____________________________________ 一般疑问句:__________________________________ 肯、否定回答:________________________________ 变复数:____________________________________ 划线部分提问:________________________________ 否定句:___________________________________ 一般疑问句:_______________________________ 肯、否定回答:_____________________________ 变复数:____________________________________ 划线部分提问:________________________________

动词have , has 的用法

用法一. have强调所属关系,主语常为人或物。意为“有”

当主语是第三人称单数,并且只有当句子为肯定句时,动词“有”用has,当主语不是第三人称单数时,以及否定句和疑问句中用一律用have 一.用have或has填空: 1. She__________ some balls.

2. They___________ a nice garden.

3. Miss Li doesn’t__________ an English book. 4. What does Mike___________? 5. My father_________ a story-book。

6. My parents don’t___________ any nice pictures. 7. David’s friends___________ a basketball. 8. David__________ some jackets.

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二.仿照例句句型转换:

①变一般疑问句 Do you have a baseball ? ②肯定回答 Yes ,I do . ③否定回答 No , I don’t .

④否定句 We don’t have a baseball . ⑤对划线部分提问 What do you have ? ①变一般疑问句 Does David have a ruler ?(注意has变成 have) ②肯定回答 Yes , he does . ③否定回答 No , he doesn’t

④否定句 David doesn’t have a ruler . (注意has变成 have) ⑤对划线部分提问 What does David have? (注意has变成 have) 练习:

①变一般疑问句______________________________ ②肯定回答 ______________________ ③否定回答 ______________________ ④否定句 ________________________

⑤对划线部分提问_____________________________ ①变一般疑问句______________________________ ②肯定回答 ______________________ ③否定回答 ______________________ ④否定句 ________________________

⑤对划线部分提问_____________________________ 3.Our school has a library.

①变一般疑问句______________________________ ②肯定回答 ______________________ ③否定回答 ______________________ ④否定句 ________________________

⑤对划线部分提问_____________________________ ①变一般疑问句______________________________ ②肯定回答 ______________________ ③否定回答 ______________________ ④否定句 ________________________

⑤对划线部分提问_____________________________

用法二. Have和has除了意思为“有”外,还可以表示“吃或喝”

1.吃早饭 __________ 2.吃午饭 ____________ 3.吃晚饭____________ 用法三Have也可以和表示某种活动的名词连用,意为“举行”

7.上课 _________________ 8.举行生日聚会_______________________ 句型转换

1. I have some fish for lunch every day.

①变一般疑问句______________________________ ②肯定回答 ______________________ ③否定回答 ______________________ ④否定句 ________________________

⑤对划线部分提问_____________________________ 2.Lily has apples for dinner.

①变一般疑问句______________________________ ②肯定回答 ______________________ ③否定回答 ______________________ ④否定句 ________________________

⑤对划线部分提问_____________________________

(三) 动词like 的用法 仿照例句句型转换: ①变一般疑问句 Do they like ice cream? ②肯定回答 Yes , they I do . ③否定回答 No , they don’t .

④否定句 they don’t like ice cream . ⑤对划线部分提问 What do they like ? 2.She likes vegetables.

①变一般疑问句Does she like vegetables? (注意likes变成like) ②肯定回答 Yes , she does . ③否定回答 No , she doesn’t .

④否定句 She doesn’t like vegetables (注意likes变成like) ⑤对划线部分提问 What does she like ? 练习:

①变一般疑问句______________________________ ②肯定回答 ______________________

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③否定回答 ______________________ ④否定句 ________________________

⑤对划线部分提问_____________________________ ①变一般疑问句______________________________ ②肯定回答 ______________________ ③否定回答 ______________________ ④否定句 ________________________

⑤对划线部分提问_____________________________ ①变一般疑问句______________________________ ②肯定回答 ______________________ ③否定回答 ______________________ ④否定句 ________________________

⑤对划线部分提问_____________________________ ①变一般疑问句______________________________ ②肯定回答 ______________________ ③否定回答 ______________________ ④否定句 ________________________

⑤对划线部分提问_____________________________

句型转换专项训练

1. Her phone number is 2345167.(提问) ________ ________ phone number? 2. I am Jim Green.(同义句) ______ _______ _______ Jim Green. 3. 提问) ________ _______ in English? 4. This is Jim’s card. (同义句) _____ _____ is Jim’s.

5. Her family name is Green. (同义句) Her ________ ________ is Green. 6. They are Lucy and Lily. (同义句) _______ _______ ______ Lucy and Lily.

7. My last name is Green and first name is Jim. (同义句) ___________________________. 8. He’s in Class One. (提问) ________ ________ ______ he in? 9. This is a nice flower. (同义句) _______ _______ ______ nice .

10. That’s my pencil case.(变否定句) _______ _______ my pencil case. 11. Is this your dictionary? (变复数句) ______ _______ your _________? 12. Are you a teacher? (做肯定回答) _______ , ______ _______. 13. 提问) ________ ________ five and two ? 14. 提问) ________ ________ ______ the pencil ?

15. Lily is my friend and Lucy is my friend , too. (同义句) Lucy and Lily _______ _______ ______. 16. This is a girl. (变复数句) ______ _______ ________ girls.

17. These are my friends. (变否定句) _______ _______ my friends.

18. Mrs Green is Kate’s mother. (同义句) Kate is _______ _______ ______ . 19. Those are Tom’s photos. (变单数句) ______ _______ Tom’s photo. 20. Thank you for your photos. (同义句) _______ _______ your photos. 21. Those are Kate’s pens. (同义句) _______ _______ ______ Kate’s . 22. She’s my aunt’s daughter. (变复数句) ______ my aunt’s ________ . 23. . (提问) ________ ________ that woman ?

24. a , is , family , this , of , photo , David’s(连词成句)___________________________ 25. My books are in the bag. (变一般疑问句) ______ ______books in the bag ?

26. His baseball is under the chair. (变复数句) _______ ______ ________ under the chair . 27. Your keys are next to the door. (变单数句)Your______ _______ next to the door. 28. The sweater is on the bed. (变一般疑问句) ______ ______ ________ on the bed ? 29. I need a hat. (变否定句) I _______ _______ a hat.

30. There are some apples on the tree. (变一般疑问句) ______ ______ ________ apples on the tree ?

31. I know your pen is black. (变否定句) I _______ _______ your pen______ black . 32. Are those bananas green?(做肯定回答) ________ , ________ ________. 33. 提问) ________ ________ on the bed ?

34. We can see a bird in the tree. (变一般疑问句) ______ ______ ________ a bird in the tree ? 35. We have seven classes every day. (变否定句) We _______ _______ seven classes every day . 36. He has two basketballs. (变一般疑问句) ______ ______ ________ two basketballs ? 37. She has a brother. (变复数句) ______ ________ a brother .

38. Is there a map of China in your class? (同义句) _______your class _______ a map of China ? 39. He has a computer game. (变否定句) He _______ _______ a computer game .

40. Mary does homework at home. (变一般疑问句) _______ Mary _______ homework at home? 41. Sue has a sports collection. (变一般疑问句) ______ Sue ______ a sports collection ? 42. I have seven balls. (变否定句) I _______ _______ seven ball. 43. Jim likes sports. (提问) ________ ________ Jim _______ ?

44. 提问) ________ ________ Lucy play the guitar ? 45. This game is relaxing. (同义句) _______ is _______ ________ game .

46. Terry has eight balls. (提问) ________ ________ balls ________ Terry have ?

47. 提问) ________ ________ she ________ for breakfast ? 48. This is a strawberry . (变复数句) ______ ________ ________ ________.

49.

Mother has French fries and ice cream. (变否定句) Mother _______ _______ French fries and ice cream .

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50.

51. 52. 53.

54.

55. They don’t like hamburgers. (变一般疑问句) ______ they ______ hamburgers ? 提问) ________ ________ Sandra Clark ? 提问) ________ ________ hamburgers ? Does he like ice cream?(变肯定句) He ______ ___________. Tom likes salad and ice cream.(变否定句) Tom ______ ______ salad _______ ice cream. My brother plays sports in the morning. (变一般疑问句) ______your brother______ sports in

the morning?

56. 提问) ________ ________ shirts _______ you want?

57. 提问) ________ ________ ________ the pants ?

58. Can I help you? (同义句) _______ can I ______ _______ ________?

59. How much is this dress? (变复数句)How much ________ ________ ________?

60. 提问) ________ ________ you_______ to buy?

61. 提问) ________ ________ ________ you ________ ?

62. 提问) ________ ________ is only 30 dollars ?

63. Those are my socks. (同义句) ______ _____ are _____.

64. 提问) ________ ________ her birthday ?

65. 提问) ________ ________ ________ Susan ?

66. We have football game at our school. (提问) ________ ________ you _______ football game ?

67. 提问) ________________________________ ?

68. Bob likes music. (变否定句) Bob ______ _______ music .

69. Joe can speak Chinese. (变一般疑问句) ______Joe ______Chinese ?

70. 提问) ________ ________ your brother ________ ?

71. She can sing.(用dance变选择疑问句) ________ she sing _______ dance?

72. 提问) ________ ______help you ?

73. His parents have lunch (提问) ________ ______ _______ his parents have lunch ?

74. He likes math best. (同义句)______ ______ ______ is math.

75. 提问) ________ ______ Joe ______ Chinese ?

76. It’s Saturday today. (提问) ________ ______ is it today ?

77. 提问) ________ ______ _______ he play football ?

78. We go and see him.(变祈使句) ______ ______ and see him.

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