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中考英语语法复习-宾语从句考点

发布时间:2014-01-03 15:48:38  

透析中考英语语法宾语从句考点m

【宾语从句命题趋势】

中考对宾语从句的考查主要集中在以下几个方面:

1. 引导宾语从句的连词和代词选择;

2. 宾语从句的语序;

3. 宾语从句的时态。

【语法回顾】

宾语从句

宾语从句是一种名词性从句,在句中作及物动词的宾语,或介词的宾语,或形容词的宾语。根据引导宾语从句的不同连词,宾语从句可分为三类。

1. 由that引导的宾语从句。That只有语法作用,没有实在的意义,在口语和非正式文体中可以省略。例如:

He said (that) he wanted to stay at home.他说他想呆在家里。

She doesn’t know (that) she is seriously ill.她不知道她病得很严重。

I am sure (that) he will succeed.我确信他会成功。

2. 由连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which和连接副词when, where, why, how引导的宾语从句。这些连接代词和连接副词在宾语从句中充当某个成分。例如:

Do you know who (whom) they are waiting for? 你知道他们在等谁吗?

He asked whose handwriting was the best.他问谁的书法最好。

Can you tell me where the No.3 bus stop is? 你能告诉我3路公共汽车站在哪儿吗? I don’t know why the train is late.我不知道火车为什么晚了。

I can't imagine why he did that thing.我不能想像他为什么做了那件事。

Do you know why we have put off the sports meet till next month? 你知道我们为什么把运动会推迟到下个月吗?

以上两个例句的宾语从句相当于一个特殊疑问句,分别为:why did he do that thing?和Why have you put off the sports meet till next month?由于宾语从句要求陈述句语序,故而在从句中它变成了陈述语序。请看下列两

组句子:

How much does this coat cost? 这件衣服值多少钱?

I want to know how much this coat costs.我想知道这件衣服值多少钱。

Where did you go yesterday? 你昨天去哪儿了?

Please tell me where you went yesterday.请告诉我你昨天去哪儿了。

当疑问代词what,who在特殊疑问句中做主语时,该特殊疑问句本身就是陈述句语序,所以当该句用来做宾语时,语序不需要调整。

What's wrong with you? 怎么了?

He asked the girl what was wrong with her.他问这个女孩怎么回事了。

What's the matter? 怎么了?

He asked the girl what was the matter.他问这个女孩怎么了。

What has happened to him? 他发生什么事了?

We want to know what has happened to him.我们想知道他发生了什么事。

同类句式还有:Who broke the window? 谁打破的窗户?

Who is in the classroom? 谁在教室里?

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What made him so angry.什么使得他如此生气。

3. 由if或whether引导的宾语从句。表示“是否”,二者通常可以互换。例如:

Lily asked if/whether she liked it.莉莉问她是否喜欢它。

I want to know if (whether) he lives there.我想知道他是否住在这儿。

He asked me whether (if) I could help him.他问我是否可以帮助他。

但语义有点区别:

1)whether强调犹豫和选择,多见于书面语中;if 只限于条件,常用于口语。例如: Write and tell me whether I'm to come. 请写信告诉我,我是否该来。

Write and tell me if I'm to come. 如果我该来,请写信告诉我(相当于说:若我不必来,那

就不用费心写信给

我了。)

2)whether可引导各种名词性从名和让步状语从句,if 只能引导宾语从句和条件状语从句。

由if引导的从

句,首先要弄清楚是宾语从句,还是条件状语从句,然后再确定时态。若是引导条件状语

从句,谓语动词

应用一般现在(过去)时代替一般将来(过去将来)时。例如:

If you don't go soon, you’ll be late.如果你不马上去就会迟到。

当if引导一个非真实条件句时,从句的谓语动词应用过去式(如果是be, 则不论主语的人称

和数,一律用

were),主句谓语动词用“would+动词原形”。例如:

If everyone in the country knew first aid, many lives would be saved.如果每个国民都懂得急

救(的知识),许

多生命就会得以挽救。

3)whether和if都可以与or no连用。但if与or not之间常需要用词语隔开,而whether与or not

可连用,也可隔

开。例如:

Can you tell me whether or not the train has left?(=Can you tell me whether the train has

left or not?)你能告诉

我火车是否离开了吗?

I don't care if your car breaks down or not .我不在乎你的汽车是否坏了。

4)下列情况,只用whether作引导词:

引导主语从句、同位语从句、表语从句、让步状语从句。例如:

Whether he comes or not doesn't concern me.他来不来与我无关。

I am in doubt whether I ought to give this plan my approval..我决定不了是否该同意这项计划。

What I want to know is whether you can help me.我想知道的是你是否能帮助我。

Whether we go or stay, the result is the same.不管我们是走还是留,其结果是一样的。

5)与不定式连用:例如:

I don't know whether to accept or refuse.我不知道是该接受还是该拒绝。

6)在介词后作介宾。例如:

I am not interested in whether you like the plan or not.我不在乎你是否喜欢那项计划。

4.think,believe,suppose,imagine,guess等表示“认为”、“猜想”等的动词后的宾语从句

1)否定转移

在以上动词之后的宾语从句中,有时谓语尽管是否定含义,却不用否定形式,而把主

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句中的上述动词变为否定形式,这就叫否定转移。

I don't think the book is worth buying.我认为这本书不值得买。

I don't believe they have finished their work.我相信他们并未完成他们的工作。

I don't suppose he cares.我猜想他们不会介意的。

We don't expect they will have everything done.我们希望他们没有把事全做完。

2)存在这种否定转移现象的句了在作反意疑问句时,具有如下特点:

在宾语从句中,如果主句的谓语动词是think,believe,suppose,imagine,guess等,主句主语是第一人称以外的人称时,反意疑问句应针对主句。

You don't think he can finish his work, do you? 你认为他不能完成他的工作,是吗? He doesn't believe that we have come back,does he? 他认为我们还没回来呢,是吗?

但是如果主句主语是第一人称时,反意疑问词部分的主语和时态要与宾语从句保持一致,并注意否定转移。

I don't think you are an actor,are you? 我认为你不是一个演员,是吗?

I suppose you have been to Beijing,haven't you ?我想你去过北京。是吗?

另外,当think ,suppose,believe,imaging,guess这类表示“认为”、“猜想”的动词作主句谓语时,常会出现一种以疑问词起头的双重疑问句。

What do you think he is? 你认为他是做什么的?

How much time do you suppose I must spend on it? 你认为我得花多少时间来做这件事?

二. 宾语从句的语序

宾语从句的语序应为陈述句的语序。例如:

I hear (that) physics isn’t easy.我听说物理不容易。

I think (that) you will like this school soon.我认为你不久会喜欢这所学校。

Can you tell me how I can get to zoo? 你能告诉我怎么到动物园吗?

Please tell me when we’ll have the meeting.请告诉我我们什么时候开会。

三. 宾语从句的时态

1.若主句为一般现在时或一般将来时,则从句的时态不限可视句子意义使用所需要的任何时态。例如:

We all know chicken can't swim.我们都知道鸡不会游泳。

Don't you think Jim is speaking too quick.难道你不认为吉姆讲的太快了吗?

He says he will come back.他说他会回来。

2.若主句是祈使句,从句谓语动词也可用所需要的任何时态。例如:

Show me which picture is yours.让我看看哪张照片是你的。

Please tell us where we will go.请告诉我要去哪里。

3.若主句是一般过去时,从句必须用过去时态的某一种。例如:

I knew she had swept the floor already.我知道她已经扫过地了。

He asked if I was doing my homework this time yesterday.他问我昨天这个时候是否在做作业。

4.若从句叙述的是客观真理、自然现象或永恒不变的规律时,则不受主句时态的限制,仍用一般现在时。例如:

Our teacher told us light travels much faster than sound.老师告诉我们光传播的速度比声音快得多。

They knew the sun is much bigger than the earth then.他们那时就知道太阳比地球大得多, He said that one and one makes two.他说一加一等于二。

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中考试题讲解与分析

一、连接词

宾语从句的连接词分为三类:

1. 引导陈述句用that(在口语或非正式文体中常常省略)。

2. 引导一般疑问句用if或whether。

注意:下列几种情况通常使用whether:(1)在具有选择意义又有or或or not时,尤其是直接与or not连用时,往往用whether;(2)在介词之后用whether;(3)在不定式前用whether等。

3. 引导特殊疑问句,只需用原来的特殊疑问词。

一Excuse me,could you tell me__________?

——There's a bank on the second floor.You can make it there.[黄冈市]

A where I can change money B how I can get to the bank

C if there's a bank near here D.where the bank is

[答案]A.[解析]考查宾语从句的连词用法。根据上下问可知应选A。

二、语序

在含宾语从句的复合句中,不管主句是陈述句还是疑问句,从句一律是用“连接词+陈述句语序”,其标点符号由主句来决定。

1.--Do you know ______________now?

一In the People's Hotel.[北京市]

A where is Tom working B where did Tom work

C.where Tom is working D.where Tom worked

[答案]C.[解析]考查宾语从句要用陈述句语序。宾语从句要注意两点:①从句用陈述句语序;②前后时态要一致。故排除A、B,D时态不对,故选C。

三、时态

1. 如果主句的谓语动词是一般现在时或一般将来时,宾语从句的时态可视情况使用任何一种相关的时态。

2. 如果主句的谓语动词是过去时态,宾语从句必须使用过去相应的某一种时态。

3. 如果宾语从句表示的是客观事实、普遍真理、自然现象或习惯性动作等,不管主句是用什么时态,从句时态习惯上都用一般现在时。

4. 情态动词could / would用于“请求”,表示委婉、客气的语气时,从句时态不受主句的约束。

Excuse me, could you tell me when __the new Olympic Center? [沈阳市]

A. are we visited B will we visit C we are visited D we will visit

[答案]D。 [解析]考查宾语从句的用法。从句要用陈述句语序,而且时态要与主句一致。从句意看本句不能用被动语态,故排除A、c。本题考查的是以when引导的宾语从句。B没用陈述句语序,故排除,此处could只表委婉的语气,并不表过去。

----Could you tell me whom the radio _________by?

一Sorry,I have no idea.[福州市]

A. invents B invented C is invented D.was invented

[答案]D。[解析]考查宾语从句的时态和语态的用法。从句中的主语是谓语动词动作的承受者,这时应使用被动语态,这样A、B两项可以排除。我们还应考虑到,收音机的“发明”一定是过去的事情,所以该句的时态应是一般过去时,谓语的构成为“was/were+动词的过

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去分词”。

(年河北)I didn’t understand __________, so I raised my hand to ask..

A. what my teacher says B. what does my teacher say

C. what my teacher said D. what did my teacher say

答案为C。本题为宾语从句,由于需要用陈述语序可排除B、D;另外,主句时态为一般过去时,则从句也要用对应的过去时态,故还可排除A。

四、否定转移

当宾语从句表示否定的意义时,若主句主语为第一人称且谓语动词是think / believe / suppose / expect等时,应在主句上加以否定。

五、简化

宾语从句在一定条件下,可以简化为“特殊疑问词+不定式”、“it +形容词+不定式短语”、复合宾语、动词不定式(名词、动名词、形容词或副词、过去分词)短语、名词和过去分词等。

I don’t know what I should do with the letter. (改为简单句)(年山东烟台)

I don’t know what ___________ ___________ with the letter.

答案与解析:答案为to do。当主句谓语动词是know,learn,forget,remember等,其后接疑问词(连接代词/副词)引导的宾语从句,且该从句的主语与主句的主语一致时,宾语从句可简化成“疑问词(连接代词/副词+不定式(短语)”结构,故空白处填to do。

六、注意点

if / when既可以引导宾语从句,也可以引导状语从句,应注意它们在两种从句中的意思和用法的不同。if / when引导宾语从句时,意思分别为“是否”和“何时”,此时它们的时态根据具体情况而定。if和when引导状语从句时,意思分别为“如果”和“当……的时候”,此时如果主句是一般将来时,从句部分则用一般现在时。

七、综合考查

--Did Mr White tell you________-?

--Yes. He said he went there in 2003. [福州市]

A. when he traveled to Tibet B. how he goes to Wuhan

C. Where he spent his holidays D. why did he visit Kunming

[答案]A。 [解析]考查宾语从句。when询问时间,how询问方式,where询问地点,why询问原因。由答语“He said he went here in 2003.”可知,前面应是询问动作发生的时间。

中考试题演练:

【2012四川凉山】( ) 1. — Could you please show me _____.

—Sure, no problem.

A. how I can use the computer

B. how can I use the computer

C. what I can use the computer【2012绵阳市】2. —What about going to the South Lake for a picnic next weekend?

—OK. But I’m not sure________ it will rain.

A. why B. where C. when D. whether

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【2012四川自贡】3. --Can you tell me ?

-- By doing more exercises and speaking.

A. how I can improve my English B. how do I deal with my English

C. what's wrong with my English

【2012四川雅安市】4. I want to write to my aunt, but I don’t know_____.

A. What her e-mail address was B. What was her e-mail address

C. What her e-mail address is D. What is her e-mail address

【2012四川宜宾】4. I wanted to know ______ last weekend.

A. what Mary does B. what does Mary do

C. what Mary did D. what did Mary do

【2012天津】5. —Can you tell me ________?

— With Lucy’s help.

A. when you did it so well B. when did you do it so well

C. how you did it so well D. how did you do it so well

【2012浙江杭州】6. — Could you tell me ________?

— Of course.

A. where's there a good place to eat B. where's there’s a good place to eat

C. where is a good place to eat D. where a good place to eat

【2012浙江湖州】7. — Excuse me. could you tell me ______?

—In the supermarket.

A. where 1 can buy this kind of CD player B. where can I buy this kind of CD player

C. if I can buy this kind of CD player D. if can I buy this kind of CD player

【2012浙江丽水】8. —Hello, Jack. Haven't, seen you for long. I am calling to check _________ you are.

— Very well. I'm glad you called.

A. how B. what C .where D. who

【2012浙江宁波】34. — Can you guess _________the new Nike sports shoes?

—Yes. Maybe he asked his grandpa to pay for them, I think.

A. how he paid for B. where lie bought

C. when he paid for D. why he bought

【2012浙江衢州】9. — Can you tell me _______?

— He is in the library.

A, where was Jack B. where Jack was

C, where is Jack D. where Jack is

【2012浙江温州】10, — Can you tell me______ to travel to Dalian?

— About two hours by plane.

A. how much it costs B. what I should take

C. how long it takes D. which is the best season

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【2012重庆市】11. -Could you tell me ?

-By searching the Internet.

A. how you got the information B. why you got the information

C. how did you get the information D. why did you get the information

【2012贵州六盘水】12. I wonder ___________ .

A. where does he live

B. how old he is

C. what is he doing?

D. how soon will he come hack

【2012贵州黔东南州】13. ---Could you tell me________________?

-- Near a park.

A. where does Jim live B. where Jim lives

C. when will Jim come back D. when Jim will come back

【2012贵州铜仁】14. —Could you tell me________________?—Yes, you can go there by bus.

A. how can I get to the Miao King City B. where is the Miao King City

C. how I can get to the Miao King City D. where the Miao King City is

【2012山东日照】15. These animals are in danger. We should think ________ to protect

them.

A. what can we do B. what we can do C. how can we do D. how we can do

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