A young officer was at a railway station. On his way home, he wanted to telephone his mother to tell her the time of his train, so that she could meet him at the station in her car. He looked in all his pockets, but found that he did not have the right money for the telephone, so he went outside and looked around for someone to help him. At last an old soldier came by, and the young officer stopped him and said, "Have you got change for ten pence?" "Wait a moment, " the old soldier answered, beginning to put his hand in his pocket, "I'll see whether I can help you. " "Don't you know how to speak to an officer?" the young man said angrily. "Now let's start again. Have you got change for ten pence?" "No, sir, " the old soldier answered quickly. 60. The young officer wanted to telephone his mother to tell her _________. ( ) A. that he was going to visit her B. when his train would leave C. when his train would arrive D. that he was now at the railway station 61. He looked around for help because he _________. ( ) A. didn't have coins for the phone call B. had no money to make the phone call C. didn't have the local money D. wanted to change money 62. The old soldier _________. ( ) A. was glad to help him B. didn't know if he had coins C. didn't want to help him D. was angry 63. The young officer was angry because he thought the old soldier _________. ( ) A. didn't know how to speak to him B. didn't want to help him C. didn't answer him correctly D. was not friendly to him 64. The old soldier in the story was_________. ( ) A. clever B. stupid C. polite D. friendly
December 25 is Christmas Day(圣诞节). Christmas is an important holiday in many countries. On Christmas Day, most families get together for a big dinner. They give presents to each other and visit friends. The Christmas tree is an important part of the Christmas holiday. Most families buy trees. The families decorate(装饰) the tree together. Parents usually tell their children that Father Christmas comes during the night and brings presents to good children. Of course, Father Christmas isn’t real. The parents of the children are really “Father
Christmas”. They put the presents under the tree or into their children’s stocking(长统袜) after the children go to sleep. 41. When is Christmas Day? __________. A. November 25 B. December 25 C. December 24 D. December 26 42. What do most families in America do on Christmas Day? __________. A. They only have a big dinner together B. They have a big dinner, exchange (交换) presents and visit friends C. They just visit friends and exchange presents D.They exchange presents only 43. Who is really ―Father Christmas‖? ___________. A. Their parents B. Their father C. Their mother D. Father Christmas 44. When Christmas Day is coming, the parents __________. A. usually tell their children that Father Christmas isn’t real B. tell their children that Father Christmas comes during the night and brings presents to good children C.sometimes tell their children that Father Christmas comes during the day D.often tell their children that Father Christmas gives presents to poor children 45. When did parents put the presents into their children’s stocking? __________. A. Before the children go to sleep B. After the children go to sleep C. December 26 D. At midnight of December 25
No one knows how man learned to make words. Perhaps he began by making sounds like those made by animals. Perhaps he grunted（发出呼噜声）like a pig when he lifted something heavy. Perhaps he made sounds like those he heard all round him----water splashing（飞溅）, bees humming（嗡嗡作响声）, a stone falling to the ground. Somehow he learned to make words. As the centuries went by, he made more and more new words. This is what we mean by language. People living in different countries made different kinds of words. Today there are about fifteen hundred different languages in the world. Each contains four or five hundred thousand words. But we do not need all these. Only a few thousand words are used in everyday life. The words you know are called your vocabulary. You should try to make your vocabulary bigger. Read as many books as you can. There are plenty of books written in easy language. Your dictionary is your most useful book. 1．What do we mean by language? A．Sounds made by man. B．All the words made by man. C．Different kinds of sound. D．The way man learns. 2．From the passage we know that long long ago ______. [ ] A．no one learned how to make sounds or words B．animals taught to learn the language C．Man learned the language by lifting heavy things, falling to the ground, and so on
D．Man followed a lot of things in nature to make sounds and words 3．What is the number of language spoken in the world today? [ ] A．500 B．5, 000 C．1, 500 D．15, 000 4．In which sentence can the word “contain (s)” be put so that it is a right one? [ ] A．I ______several dictionary B．Sea water______ salt. C．A dog ______four legs D．Mr Smith ______glasses on his nose 5．Which of the following is the best if we want to make our vocabulary larger? [ ] A．To use the words in every day life B．To read more books C．To read easy books D．To look up new words in the dictionary
A Trip to the Forest One day Bob took two of his friends in-to the mountains. They put up their tents (帐篷) and then rode off to a forest to see how the trees were growing. In the afternoon when they were about ten kilometres from their camp(营地), it start-ed to snow. More and more snow fell. Soon Bob could hardly see his hands before his face. He could not find the road. Bob knew there were two roads. One road went to the camp, and the other went to his house. But all was white snow. Everything was the same. How could he take his friends back to the camp? Bob had an idea. The horses! Let the horses take them back! But what would hap-pen if the horses took the road to his house? That would be a trip of thirty-five kilometres in such cold weather! It was getting late. They rode on and on. At last the horses stopped. Where were they? None of them could tell. John looked around. What was that under the tree? It was one of their tents! 1. John and his two friends went to the forest to ____. A. build their camp B. find their way home C. enjoy the mountains in the snow D. watch the trees in the forest 2. They could not find their way back be-cause ____. A. there was only one road to their camp B. they couldn't decide which of the two roads led to their tents C. there were no roads in the mountains at all D. everything was covered by the white snow 3. It is clear that they wanted the horses to take them to ____. A. John's house B. the camp C. the forest D. the mountains 4. The horses stopped because____.
A. it was getting late B. they were tired after running for a long way C. they knew that they had got to the camp D. they had seen John's house 5. The story happened ____. A. on a cold winter day B. on a dark snowy evening C. in a cold camp far from villages D. at night when nothing could be seen
Two farmers were on their way home one evening after a hard day's work. Both were tired. They happened to look up at the sky and saw a black cloud overhead. "Ah!" said one farmer, "tomorrow we shall have rain and the rice will grow well." The second answered, "Nonsense (胡说), the rain will only kill the crops (庄稼)." So they began to quarrel (争吵). Just then a third farmer came along and asked them why they were quarreling. Both farmers explained about the black cloud. "What cloud?" asked the third farmer. They all looked at the sky. The cloud was no longer there. Choose the right answer 1. The two farmers were _____. A. going home B. going to the field C. going to work D. going to see their friend 2. The two farmers _____ on that day. A. had a holiday B. didn't work C. worked hard D. wanted to quarrel with each other 3. When there are black block clouds in the sky, _____. A. it will rain soon B. it will be fine C. it will get hot D. the sun is shining brightly 4. The two farmers fought in words because _____. A. they were hungry B. it rained C. one said the rain would do good to the crops and the other didn't think so D. they both hoped for rain 5. The third farmer came with and said to the other two. He _____. A. wanted to make friends with them B. joined them in the quarrel C. wanted to know why they were quarreling D. had nothings to do 6. How many farmers said that the rain would be helpful? _____. A. None B. One C.Two D. Three
December 25 is Christmas Day(圣诞节). Christmas is an important holiday in many countries. On Christmas Day, most families get together for a big dinner. They give presents to each other and visit friends. The Christmas tree is an important part of the Christmas holiday. Most families buy trees. The families decorate(装饰) the tree together. Parents usually tell their children that Father Christmas comes during the night and brings presents to good children. Of course, Father Christmas isn’t real. The parents of the children are really ―Father
Christmas‖. They put the presents under the tree or into their children’s stocking(长统袜) after the children go to sleep. ( )41. When is Christmas Day? __________. A. November 25 B. December 25 C. December 24 D. December 26 ( )42. What do most families in America do on Christmas Day? __________. A. They only have a big dinner together B. They have a big dinner, exchange (交换) presents and visit friends C. They just visit friends and exchange presents D. They exchange presents only ( )43. Who is really ―Father Christmas‖? ___________. A. Their parents B. Their father C. Their mother D. Father Christmas ( )44. When Christmas Day is coming, the parents __________. A. usually tell their children that Father Christmas isn’t real B. tell their children that Father Christmas comes during the night and brings presents to good children C. sometimes tell their children that Father Christmas comes during the day D. often tell their children that Father Christmas gives presents to poor children ( )45. When did parents put the presents into their children’s stocking? __________. A. Before the children go to sleep B. After the children go to sleep C. December 26 D. At midnight of December 25 七
One morning, George leaves his house with six donkeys(驴) to the market. After a while, he gets tired and so he gets onto one of the donkeys. He counts the donkeys and there are only five, so he gets off and goes to look for the sixth. He looks for it everywhere but does not find it, so he goes back to the donkeys and counts them again. This time there are six, so he gets onto one of them again and they all start. After a few minutes he counts the donkeys again, and again there are only five . When he is counting again, a friend of his passes(经过), and George says to him ―I leave my house with six donkeys, then I have five, then I have six again, and now I have only five! Look! One, two, three, four, five.‖ ―But, George,‖ says his friend, ―You are sitting on a donkey fool. That is the sixth. And you are the seventh!‖ ( )46. Where is the sixth donkey? __________. A. It is lost(弄丢) on the way to the market B. It makes hide-and-seek(捉迷藏)with its master(主人) C. It goes back home D. George is sitting on it, but he forgets it ( )47. George gets onto one of the donkeys, because __________. A. it is a long way to go to the market from his home B. he is tired C. he has to find the lost one quickly by riding a donkey
D. he likes riding a donkey ( )48. In the sentence ―He counts the donkeys‖, ―count‖ means __________. A. to look after B. to say the names of the donkeys C. to look for D. to say the number of the donkeys ( )49. How does George find his sixth donkey at last? __________. A. He finds it by counting them again and again B. He finds it at home C. He finds that his friend is riding on it D. His friend helps him to count ( )50. In England or America, people often call ________ as a silly(愚蠢的) donkey. A. a young gentleman B. a hard-working man C. a clever boy D. a fool
Leon’s show June 18 Hong Kong pop star Leon Lai will give a personal performance(个人演唱会)at 7:30p.m.from tomorrow to June 21 at Shanghai Gymnasium(体育馆).The show is held for celebrating the opening of the 2004 Huang pu Tourist Festival . Tickets ￥60, ￥90, ￥120, ￥180 Available（可得到）at 66 Jiang ning Road. Address: Shang hai Gymnasium ,111 Caoxi Road Telephone:29189188,29171145 ,29384952, 29197113 ( )51 Leon is __________. A a singer of pop music. B the head of the Shang hai Gymnasium. C a ticket seller D both B and C ( )52 Which is right time to enjoy Leon’s show? A 6:00p.m June 19 B 7:30p.m June 22 C 8:00a.m June 20 D 7:30p,m June 21 ( )53 Leon will give ______performances this time at Shanghai Gymnasium altogether. A eighteen B twenty-one C four D three ( )54 The cheapest ticket for the show costs ______. A 60yuan B 90yuan C 120yuan D no money ( )55 If you want to get tickets, you can_____. A go to No.1111Caoxi Road B go to No.66 Jiang ning Road C telephone to 29189100 D telephone to 29171154
一、CDBAA 二、BBABB 三、BDCBB 四、DDBCA
When did you leave Shanghai?
Next Friday, Alice is leaving for London.
Why are you leaving Shanghai for Beijing?
How should I know? 我怎么知道？
Why should you be so late today? 你今天为什么来得这么晚？
We should help each other.我们应当互相帮助。
1. 用于表示―应该‖或―不应该‖的概念。此时常指长辈教导或责备晚辈。 例如：
You should be here with clean hands. 你应该把手洗干净了再来。
You should go to the doctor if you feel ill.
3.用于表示可能性。should的这一用法是考试中常常出现的考点之一。 例如： We should arrive by supper time. 我们在晚饭前就能到了。
She should be here any moment. 她随时都可能来。
3) What...? 与 Which...?
1. what 与 which 都是疑问代词，都可以指人或事物，但是what仅用来询问 职业。如：
What is your father? 你父亲是干什么的？
What does your father do?
What is your father's job?
---Which is Peter? 哪个是皮特？
---The boy behind Mary. 玛丽背后的那个男孩。
2. What...?是泛指，所指的事物没有范围的限制；而 Which...?是特指， 所指的事物有范围的限制。如：
What color do you like best?（所有颜色）你最喜爱什么颜色？ Which color do you like best, blue, green or yellow?
3. what 与 which 后都可以接单、复数名词和不可数名词。如： Which pictures are from China? 哪些图片来自中国？
David is often arrives late for school.大卫上学经常迟到。
We usually go to school at 7:10 every day.
c.有些频度副词可放在句首或句尾，用来表示强调。如： Sometimes I walk home, sometime I ridea bike.
Never have I been there.我从没到过那儿。
5) every day 与 everyday
1. every day 作状语，译为―每一天‖。如：
We go to school at 7:10 every day.
I decide to read English every day.
2. everyday 作定语，译为―日常的‖。
She watches everyday English on TV after dinner.
What's your everyday activity? 你的日常活动是什么？
1.协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词（Auxiliary Verb）。被协助的动词称作主要动词（Main Verb）。助动词自身没有词义，不可单独使用，例如：He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。
He is singing. 他在唱歌。
He has got married. 他已结婚。
He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。
Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗？
Did you study English before you came here?
I don't like him. 我不喜欢他。
e. 加强语气，例如： Do come to the party tomorrow evening.
He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。
3.最常用的助动词有：be, have, do, shall, will, should, would
7) forget doing/to do与remember doing/to do
1.forget to do忘记要去做某事(未做)；forget doing忘记做过某事(已做) The light in the office is still on. He forgot to turn it off.
He forgot turning the light off.
Don't forget to come tomorrow.
---- The light in the office is still on.
---- Oh，I forgot___.
A. turning it off B. turn it off
C. to turn it off D. having turned it off
由the light is still on 可知灯亮着，即关灯的动作没有发生，
因此用forget to do sth.而forget doing sth 表示灯已经关上了，而自己忘记了这一事实。此处不符合题意。
2.remember to do记得去做某事(未做)；
Remember to go to the post office after school.
Don't you remember seeing the man before?
8) It's for sb.和 It's of sb.
1.for sb. 常用于表示事物的特征特点，表示客观形式的形容词，如： easy, hard,difficult,interesting,impossible等：
It's very hard for him to study two languages.
2.of sb的句型一般用表示人物的性格，品德，表示主观感情或态度的形容词，如：good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。
It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我，你真是太好了。
3.for 与of 的辨别方法：
You are nice. (通顺，所以应用of)。
He is hard. (人是困难的，不通，因此应用for。)
句子：The boy in blue has three pens.
提问：1.Who has three pens?
2.Which boy has three pens?
3.What does the boy in blue have?
4.How many pens does the boy in blue have?
很显然，学生多了更多的回答角度，也体现了考试的灵活性。再如： 句子：He usually goes to the park with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday. 提问：
1.Who usually goes to the park with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday?
2.Where does he usually go with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday?
3.What does he usually do with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday?
4.With whom does he usually go to the park at 8:00 on Sunday?
5.What time does he usually go to the park with his friends on Sunday?
6.When does he usually go to the park with his friends?
He is so funny a boy.
Jim has so big a house.
2.such与不定冠词a、an连用，结构为―such+a/an+形容词+名词‖。如： It is such a nice day.
That was such an interesting story.
He is watching TV in the room.
They were dancing at nine o'clock last night.
There is a boy swimming in the river.
We have fun learning English this term.
They had problems getting to the top of the mountain.
Thanks for helping me.
Are you good at playing basketball？
enjoy doing sth 乐于做某事
finish doing sth 完成做某事
feel like doing sth 想要做某事
stop doing sth 停止做某事
forget doing sth 忘记做过某事
go on doing sth 继续做某事
remember doing sth 记得做过某事
like doing sth 喜欢做某事
keep sb doing sth 使某人一直做某事
find sb doing sth 发现某人做某事
see/hear/watch sb doing sth看到/听到/观看某人做某事
try doing sth 试图做某事
need doing sth 需要做某事
prefer doing sth 宁愿做某事
mind doing sth 介意做某事
miss doing sth 错过做某事
practice doing sth 练习做某
be busy doing sth 忙于做某事
can't help doing sth禁不住做某事
1.主语的第三人称单数形式，即可用―he, she, it‖代替的。如： he,she, it，my friend, his teacher, our classroom, Mary's uncle
The boy wants to be a sales assistant.
Our English teacher is from the US.
Their daughter makes her breakfast all by herself.
2.以字母-s, -sh, -ch, -x结尾的名词，词尾加-es。如：
4.以辅音字母加-y结尾的名词，将-y变为-i,再加-es。如： family---families dictionary---dictionaries
5.以字母-f或-fe结尾的名词，将-f或-fe变为-v，再加-es。如： half---halves leaf---leaves
life---lives wolf---wolves shelf---shelves loaf---loaves 但是： scarf---scarves(fes) roof---roofs serf---serfs gulf---gulfs chief---chiefs proof---proofs belief---beliefs II 名词复数的不规则变化 1.将-oo改为--ee。如： foot---feet tooth---teeth 2.将-man改为-men。如： man---men woman---women policeman---policemen postman---postmen 3.添加词尾。如： child---children 4.单复数同形。如： sheep---sheep deer---deer fish---fish people---people 5.表示―某国人‖的单、复数变化。
即―中日瑞不变英法变，其它国把-s加后面‖。如： Chinese---Chinese Japanese---Japanese Swiss---Swiss
Englishman---Englishmen Frenchman---Frenchmen American---Americans Australian---Australians Canadian---Canadians Korean---Koreans
apple tree---apple treesman teacher---men teachers
run→running 跑步 dig→digging挖、掘
There are some birds in the tree.→There aren't any birds in the tree. 但是，若在表示请邀请、请求的句子中，some可以不变。如： Would you like some orange juice?
I have a knife and a ruler.→I don't have a knife or a ruler.
3.a lot of (=lots of)变为many或much。如：
They have a lot of friends.（可数名词）→They don't have many friends. There is lots of orange in the bottle.（不可数名词）
→There isn't much orange in the bottle.
I have been there already.→I haven't been there yet.
in 与 after 都可以表示时间，但二者有所区别。
1.in 经常用于将来时的句子中，以现在为起点，表示将来一段时间。如： He will leave for Beijing in a week. 一周后他会动身去北京。
2.after 经常用于过去时的句子中，以过去为起点，表示过去一段时间。如： He left for Beijing after a week. 一周后他动身去了北京。
不过，如果after后跟的是具体的时刻，它也可用于将来时。如： We will finish the work after ten o'clock.十点后我们会完成工作的。
I'll visit him in a week. 一周后我会去拜访他。
I'll visit him twice in a week. 一周内我会去拜访他两次。
There is a "b" in the word "book". 单词book中有个字母b。
类似的字母还有：c, d, g, j, k, p, q, t, u, v, w, y, z。
She has a small knife. 她有一把小刀。 2.an 用于以元音音素开头的单词前。如： There is an "i" in the word "onion". 单词onion中有个字母i。 类似的字母还有：a, e, f, h, l, m, n, o, r, s, x。 Do you have an umbrella? 你有一把雨伞吗？
a useful book a universe
a one-letter word an hour
an uncle an umbrella
an honest person
1、put on 主要表达―穿‖的动作。如：
He put on his coat.他穿上了他的外套。
You'd better put on your shoes.你最好穿上你的鞋子。
The old man wears a pair of glasses.老人戴着一副眼镜。
The girl is wearing a red skirt.那女孩穿着一条红色的短裙。
Please dress the children right now.请立即给孩子们穿上衣服。 dress 也可作不及物动词，表示衣着的习惯。如：
The woman always dresses in green.那位妇女总是穿绿色的衣服。
4、be in 表示穿着的状态。如：
John is in white today.约翰今天穿白色的衣服。
The man in black is a football coach.
19) a little, a few 与 a bit (of)
a little, a few 与 a bit (of) 都有“一些、少量”的意义。他们的区别:
1. a little 意为―一些、少量‖，后接不可数名词。如：
There is a little water in the bottle. 瓶子里有一点水。
He is a little shy. 他有些害羞。
2. a few 意为―一些、少数‖，后接复数的可数名词。如：
There are a few people in the room. 房间里有一些人。
3. a bit 意为―一点儿‖，后接形容词。如：
It's a bit cold. 有点冷。 a bit of 后接不可数名词。如： He has a bit of money. 他有一点儿钱。 4. a little和a few表肯定意义，little和few表否定意义；如： There is a little soda in the glass. 杯子里有一点儿汽水。 There is little soda in the glass. 杯子里几乎没有汽水了。 I have a few Chinese friends. 我有一些中国朋友。 Few people like him. 几乎没有人喜欢他。 5. a little = a bit of, 后接不可数名词； a little = a bit = a little bit = kind of, 后接形容词，意为“有
1、like 作动词，表示一般性的―爱好、喜欢‖，有泛指的含义。如： Do you like the color?你喜爱这种颜色吗？
like 后可接不定式（like to do sth），也可接动词的-ing分词（like doing sth），有时意思不尽相同。如：
She likes eating apples.她喜爱吃苹果。（习惯）
She likes to eat an apple.她喜爱吃一粒苹果。（平常不喜欢吃） like 与 would 连用，后接不定式，表示愿望或客气的请求。如： Would you like a cup of tea?您愿意喝杯茶吗？
―喜欢某人做某事‖可以用结构―like sb to do sth/doing sth‖。如：They all like me to sing/singing English songs.
She is friendly to us like a mother.她对我们友好，就像母亲一样。 It looks like an orange.它看起来像个桔子。
A. What does he look like? 他长相如何？(指一个人的外貌特征)
B. What is he like? 他人怎么样？ (指人的性格特点)
C. The boy like Peter is over there. (句指外貌相似)
D. A boy like Peter can't do it. (指性格相似)
21) stop to do sth 与 stop doing sth
1. stop to do sth 意为“停下来去做某事”。如：
The students stop to listen to their teacher.
2. stop doing sth 意为―停止做某事‖。如：
The students stopped talking. 学生们停止了谈话。
与它们相反的句式是：go on to do sth ―继续做某事（与刚才一事不同）‖ 和 go on doing sth ―继续做某事（与刚才同一件事）‖。如：
He finishes his homework and goes on to study English.
They went on playing games. 他们继续玩游戏。
22) tell, speak, say 与 talk
1. tell 意为“告诉、讲述”，指某人把某一件事、一条信息传送给别人或讲 述一件事。如：
He tells me that he wants to be a teacher.
Father always tells interesting stories to us.
tell sb sth 意为―告知某人某事‖。如：
He told me something about his past. 他告诉我一些他的往事。 tell sb to do sth 意为―告诉某人去做某事‖。如：
David told his son to do the homework. 大卫要他的儿子去做作业。
2. speak 意为―说话、讲话‖，后面主要接语言。如：
He can speak English and a little Chinese.
speak to 意为―和.....讲话、谈话‖。如：
Can I speak to Mr Zhang? 我能和张先生讲话吗？
speak of 意为―提到、说起‖。如：
The book speaks of my hometown. 那本书提到我的家乡。
3. talk 意为―谈话、讲话‖，如果只有一方对另一方说话时，一般用 talk to； 如果双方或多方交谈，多用 with。如：
Please talk to him right now. 请立即同他谈话。
He is talking with his friend. 他在和朋友交谈。
talk about 意为―谈论......‖。如：
They are talking about the movie. 他们在谈论那部电影。
have a talk with 意为―与......交谈‖。如：
Can I have a talk with you? 我可以和你交谈吗？
4. say 意为―说‖。如：
Can you say it in English once more? 你能用英语再说一遍吗？ say to 意为―对......说‖。如：
He said to his students that they would have a test.
It is said that... 意为―据说‖。如：
It is said that he could stay under the water for a long time. 据说他能呆在水里很长时间。
23) Excuse me! 与 I'm sorry!
1. Excuse me! 意为“打搅了！对不起！”，一般是为了与陌生人搭话，或者要打断对方所说（做）的事。如：
Excuse me, is there a hotel in the neighborhood?
Excuse me, could I say something? 打搅一下，我能说一些吗？
2. I'm sorry! 意为―对不起！‖，表示道歉。如：
I'm sorry, Mr Zhang. I won't do it again.
24) 表示时间的 in、on 与 at
in, on 与 at 都可以和表示时间的词（组）连用。
1. in 表示时间的一段或较长的时间。如：
in the morning 在上午 in May, 2004 在2004年五月 in a week 在一周之内（后）
It's Sunday, I can finish it in two days.
Rome was not built in a day. 罗马不是在一天内建起来的。
2. on 主要指在具体的一天。如：
on Sunday 在星期天 on May Day 在―五一‖节
on a hot afternoon 在一个炎热的下午
He arrived in Beijing on April 26,2004.
3. at 表示时间的一点或比较短的时间。如：
at 8:00 在八点 at noon 在中午
I always get up at 6:00 every morning. 我总是每天早晨六点起床。 It's always warm at this time of year. 每年的这个时候总是暖和的。
Other 及其相近的词（组），如 others, the other, the others, another,
any other 等，一直是中学生朋友们比较困扰的问题，平常的考试、作业中经常出错。下面是它们的一些用法：
1、other 指其余的人或物，所有格是 other's，复数形式是 others;the other
指―两个人或物中的另一个‖，其复数形式是 the others;others相当于―other + 名词”，所以不能充当定语，修饰名词。others指整体中去掉一部分后剩余的部分，但不是全部的，即 some...others （一些...其余的人...）;the others 强调整体中除去一部分后剩余的全部，即some...the others.
2、another泛指三个以上的不定数目中的―另外一个‖。由 an 和 other 合 并构成，所以不能和冠词连用。another 修饰单数名词，比如：another pencil.
3、any other 指除去本身以外的“任何其他的人或物”，后面要用名词的单数形式。
26) look 短语
1.look at 朝......看 (look at=have a look at)
Please look at the map of China.请看中国地图。
2.look for 寻找
The old man is looking for his dog. 老人在寻找他的狗。
3.look like 看起来像
Nancy looks like her mother. 南希看起来像她母亲。
4.look the same 看上去一样
Li Ping and Li Jing look the same. 李萍和李晶看上去一样。
5.look up 查找
Please look up the word in the dictionary.请在词典中查找这个单词。
6.look over 仔细检查
The doctor looked over Mary carefully. 医生仔细检查了玛丽。
7.look after 照顾，照看
You must look after your old father. 你必须照顾你的老父亲。
8.look around 到处寻找、查看
We looked around, but we found nothing strange.
1.too用于肯定句和疑问句，一般放在句尾，其前常加逗号。如： We are in the same school, too. 我们也在相同的学校。
Do you play soccer every day, too? 你也每天踢足球吗？
Sandra is also a Korean student. Sandra 也是一个韩国学生。
They don't know the answer, either. 她们也不知道答案。
4.as well as也有―也‖的意思。如：
We have great mushroom pizza as well as soda.
He is a happy boy as well.
It's a hard(adj.) question. (=difficult) 这是一个难的问题。
The boy studies very hard(adv.). 那男孩学习非常努力。
句子结构：It's hard for sb to do sth 做某事对某人来说是难的。如： It's hard for him to finish the work. 完成那项工作对他来说很难。 注意区分：hard work 困难的工作
work hard 努力工作
3. hardly是频度副词，表示否定的意思。（=almost not）通常用在形容词、 副词和动词之前。如：
I can hardly see it. 我几乎看不到它。
29) sometime,sometimes,some time与some times
记忆：sometimes(有时)some times(好几次)sometime(某一次)some time(一段) 口诀：分开是一段，相连为某时。分开s是倍次，相连s为有时
2.sometimes是频度副词，指―有时‖、―不时‖的意思（=at times）。I get up very late on Sunday morning.
3.some time是名词词组，指一段时间（一些时间或若干时间）。如： 她花了一些时间去完成作业。
David exercises every morning. 大卫每天早晨进行锻炼。
Swimming exercises the whole body. 游泳能使身体得到全面的锻炼。
It's good to do eye exercises every day.
Please do more exercise from now on. 从今以后请多做运动吧。 I have lots of homework to do tonight.今晚我有很多的作业要做。
31) maybe与may be
Maybe he can answer the question. 也许他能回答那个问题。 He maybe is from the USA, too. 他可能也来自美国。
He may be from the USA, too. 他可能也来自美国。
She may be our English teacher. 她可能是我们的英语老师。
We are in the same class. 我们在同一个班级。
结构：the same as 与......一样 如：
His mark is the same as mine. 他的分数和我的分数一样。
2.different译为―不同的‖，其后的可数名词应为复数形式。如： We are in different classes. 我们在不同的班级。
结构：be different from 与......不同 如：
This sweater is different from that one. 这件毛衣与那一件不同。 different的名词形式为difference, 复数形式为differences。
1.want sth. 想要某物
They want some help. 他们需要一些帮助。
2.want sb. to do sth. 想要某人去做某事
My father wants me to help him on the farm.我父亲要我在农场上帮他。
3.want to do sth. 想要做某事
I want to study English in England. 我想要在英国学习英语。
4.want doing 需要...
Your sweater wants washing.你的运动衣该洗了。
34) be good(bad) for、be good at的相关用法
1.be good for 对......有益
Doing morning exercises is good for your health. 做早操对你们的建康有益。 2.be good at 擅长于...... Li Ping is good at basketball. 李平擅长于篮球。 = Li Ping is good at playing basketball. 李平擅长于打篮球。 be good at = do well in 如： I'm good at math. = I do well in math. 我擅长于数学。 3.be good to 对......好 Parents are always good to their children.
35) how many与how much
1.how many表示―多少‖，对数量提问，后面接可数名词的复数形式。如： ---How many people are in your family?你家里有几个人？
---How many classes do you have every day?你们每天上几节课？
2.how much也是表示―多少‖，但它对不可数名词进行提问。如： ---How much milk is there in the bottle?瓶子里有多少牛奶？
---How much is the yellow T-shirt?那件黄色的T恤衫多少钱？
Can you go to the park with me? 你能和我一起去公园吗？
Don't write with the red pen. 不要用那支红色的钢笔写字。
Climate varies with the time of the year.气候随着时令的不同而不同。
The girl with long hair is my classmate. 长头发的女孩是我的同学。
They were angry with hard work. 他们因为艰难的工作而生气。
play with 与......一起玩
be angry with 对......生气
talk with 与......交谈
get on well with与......相处融洽
37) a lot of(lots of)与many,much
1.a lot of意为―许多、大量‖,相当于lots of.它既可以修饰可数名词，又
I have a lot of friends in China. 我在中国有很多朋友。
The old man has lots of money. 那位老人有很多的钱。
Do you have many beautiful skirts? 你有很多漂亮的裙子吗？
There is much water in the lake. 湖里有大量的水。
4.a lot of（=lots of）用在肯定句中，而many，much不受限制。如果将一个含有a lot of（=lots of）的肯定句改为否定句或疑问句，要将它们 改为many或much。如：
We can see a lot of birds in the tree.
—We can't see many birds in the tree. 我们在树上看不到很多鸟儿。 He wants lots of soda.
—Does he want much soda? 他需要许多汽水吗？
He needs some help. 他需要一些帮助。
Can you help me? 你能帮帮我吗？
help sb (to) do sth 帮助某人做某事
=help sb with sth 帮助某人做某事
如：They want to help the boy carry the heavy box.
=They want to help the boy with the heavy box.
The boy draws very well. 男孩画得很好。
I'm not feeling well. 我觉得不舒服。
1.ago意为―以前‖，表示从此刻算起的若干时间之前，常用于过去时的句子 中。如：He took a photo a week ago. 他一周前照了一张相片。
a.从过去某一时刻算起的若干时间以前，用于过去完成时的句子中。如： The boy had already seen the comedy before.
He's read this novel before. 他以前读过这部小说。
Do you need to stay at home? 你要呆在家里吗？
He needs to go.
He doesn't need to go.
Does he need to go?
Yes, he does./No, he doesn't.
He needn't go.
Need he go?
Yes, he need./No, he needn't.
1.decide to do sth 决定去做某事
They decide to fly kite on weekend.他们决定在周末去放风筝。
2.decide on doing sth 决定做某事
They decide on flying kites.他们决定放风筝。
3.decide on sth 就某事决定......
Betty decided on the red skirt. 贝蒂选定了那条红裙子。
结构：make a decision，意为―做决定‖。如：
He has made a decision. 他已经做一个决定了。
43) too many,too much与much too
There are too many students in our class. 我们班上有太多的学生。
We have too much work to do. 我们有太多的工作要做。
The box is much too heavy, so I can't carry it.
We can carry the heavy box. 我们可以搬得动箱子。
Who can sing an English song? 谁会唱英文歌？
2.表示惊讶、不相信等态度，主要用于否定句和疑问句中。如： Can it be true? 这会是真的吗？
You can't be serious? 你不会当真吧？
Can I smoke here? 我可以在这儿吸烟吗？
Can I go with him?我可以跟他一起去吗？
■当不知道或没有必要指出动作的执行者时，常用被动语态，这时往往不用by短语。 The front window in the classroom was broken yesterday. 昨天，教室的前窗被打破了。(不知谁打破的)
They have been poorly paid. 他们的工资太低。(没必要指出工资是谁付的) ■突出或强调动作的承受者，如果需要说出动作的执行者，用by短语。 The time-table has been changed. 时间表已变动了。(要突出的是―时间‖)
These books are written especially for children. 这些书是专门为孩子们写的。(强调的是―‖这些书)
You are requested to make a speech at next meeting. 请您在下次会议上作个发言。
It is said that she is going to be married to a foreigner. 据说她要嫁给一个外国人。
It is generally considered impolite to ask one’s age, salary, marriage, etc. . 问别人的年龄、工资、婚姻状况等通常被认为是不礼貌的。
The notion is especially opposed to by those who have invested much in the area. 这个提议特别遭到了那些在本地区投资很大的人的反对。(因those的定语太长了，若用它作主语，主语与谓语就相距太远而显得句子松散。)
由―助动词be + 动词的过去分词‖构成。助动词be 有时态、人称和数的变化。
(1) 一般现在时：am/is/are +过去分词。如： Rice is grown in south China. 华南种植水稻。 (2) 一般过去时：was/were+过去分词。如： The glass was broken yesterday. 这块玻璃是昨天打烂的。 (3) 现在进行时：am/is/are being +过去分词。如： The project is being carried out. 这个计划正在执行中。 (4) 过去进行时：was/were/being +过去分词。如： This road was being built this time last year. 这条路去年这个时候还在修建。 (5) 一般将来时：will be +过去分词。如： The cars will be sent abroad by sea. 这些汽车将由水路运往国外。 (6) 过去将来时：would be +过去分词。如： The manager said the project would be completed by the end of the year. 经理说这个工程在年底前将会完成。
(7) 现在完成时：have/has been +过去分词。如：
This novel has been translated into several languages. 这本小说已被译成了几种语言。
(8) 过去完在时：had been +过去分词。如： When I got to the theatre, I found the tickets had already been sold out. 我到达剧院时，发现票已卖完了。
被动语态由―be+过去分词‖，其中的助动词 be 根据情况可使用各种不同时态。如：
She is respected by everyone. 她受到大家的尊重。(一般现在时) The book will be reprinted soon. 这本书很快会重印。(一般将来时) The road is being repaired. 路正在修整。(现在进行时) They have been given a warning. 他们受到警告。(现在完成时)
The rules must be obeyed. 这些规章制度必须遵守。 They shouldn’t have been told about it. 这事是不应当告诉他们的。 三要注意非谓语动词的被动语态
1.不定式一般式的被动语态。由―to be+过去分词‖构成。如： She asked to be given some work to do. 她要求给她一些工作做。 He was the last person to be asked to speak. 他是最后被邀请发言的人。 2.不定式完成式的被动语态。由―to have been+过去分词‖构成。如： I should like to have been told the result earlier. 我本想让人把结果早点告诉我的。
3.现在分词一般式的被动语态。由―being+过去分词‖构成。如： I saw him being taken away. 我看见有人把他带走了。 Being protected by a wall, he felt quite safe. 有墙作保护，他感到很安全。 4.现在分词完成式的被动语态。由―having been+过去分词‖构成。如： Having been invited to speak, I’ll start making preparations tomorrow. 因为邀请我去讲话，我明天就得做准备。
The subject having been opened，he had to go on with it. 话题已经开始了，他不得不谈下去。
5.动名词一般式的被动语态。由―being+过去分词‖构成。如： She likes being looked at. 她喜欢被人瞧。 He hates being made a fool of. 他讨厌被别人愚弄。 This question is far from being settled. 这个问题远没解决。 6.动名词完成式的被动语态。由―having been+过去分词‖构成。如： Jenny’s not having been trained as a dancer is her one regret. 杰妮没受过舞蹈的专业训练是她感到遗憾的事。
After having been instructed to drive out of town, I began to acquire confidence. 在接到把车开出城的指令后，我开始信心十足了。
The door remained locked. 门仍然锁着。
James got beaten last night. 詹姆斯昨晚被打了。 How did that window get opened? 那个窗户是如何打开的？
The window was broken. 窗户破了(表状态)。/ 窗户被打破了(表动作) The window got broken. 窗户被打破了(表动作)
1.不及物动词没有被动语态。因为不及物动词没有宾语，所以若将其用于被动语态则没有主语，故不能用于被动语态。但是值得注意的是，有些英语中的不及物动词，译成汉语时却可能是―及物‖的，很容易出错，这类动词如：take place(发生)，happen(发生)，come about(发生)，break out(爆发)，appear(出现)，disappear(消失)，last(持续)，arise(出现，发生)等：
Influenza usually breaks out in winter. 流感通常发生在冬季。 Use this money when the need arises. 有需要时就使用这笔钱。 2.英语中的静态动词(如have, lack, fit, hold, suit, resemble 等)通常不用于被动语态：
My shoes don’t fit me. 我的鞋不合适。 The young man lacks experience. 这个年轻人缺乏经验。
1.谓语为连系动词时，不用被动语态。如：He looked fine. 他气色好。The food tastes delicious. 这食物味道很好。 2.谓语为不及物动词(短语)时，不用被动语态。如：The war broke out in the end. 战争终于爆发了。 I happened to meet him there. 我碰巧在哪儿见到了他。 3.宾语为不定式、动词的-ing 形式或从句，表示主语的一些想法、爱好或愿望时，一般不用被动语态。如：
He decided to go with us. 他决定跟我们一起去。I want to buy a computer. 我想买一台电脑。
4.宾语是相互代词、反身代词、同源宾语等时，一般不用被动语态。如： We should help each other. 我们应该相互帮助。We live a happy life here. 我们在这儿过着幸福的生活。
He thinks of himself too much. 他对自己想得太多。 5.宾语是处所、地点时，一般不用被动语态。如： We will reach the station in two hours. 我们再过两个小时就会到站了。 He has gone to London now. 他去伦敦了。 6.谓语部分(动词与宾语) 是一个不可分割的动词短语时，一般不用被动语态。如：
The ship set sail this morning. 这艘轮船今天早晨起航了。 He saw the doctor yesterday evening. 他昨天晚上看了医生。
那里的人缺乏食物。正：People there lack food. 误：Food is lacked by people there.
他有一台电脑。正：He has a computer.误：A computer is had by him.
他当时正在洗澡。正：He was taking a bath. 误：A bath was being had by him. 我的鞋不适合。正：My shoes don’t fit me. 误：I am not fitted by my shoes. 这架钢琴花了她6000美元。正：The piano cost her 6000 dollars.
误：She was cost her 6000 dollars. 误：6000 dollars was cost her.
这件衣服他穿很合适。正：The coat suits him very well. 误：He is well suited by the coat.
People believed that she is honest. 大家相信她是诚实的。 It’s believed that she is honest. 大家相信她是诚实的。 She is believed to be honest. 大家相信她是诚实的。
比较上面两类被动句型可以发现，一类是―it+be+过去分词+that从句‖，另一类则是―主语+be+过去分词+不定式‖(其中的―主语‖为前一类句型中that从句中的主语)，通常可用于这两类被动句型的动词有assume, believe, expect, fear, feel, know, presume, report, say, suppose, think, understand等，比较(同时注意其中时态和动词形式的变化)：
It’s known that he was a good singer. / He is known to have been a good singer. 大家知道他曾是位优秀的歌手。
It’s reported that he was driving fast. / He is reported to have been driving fast. 据说他当时车开得很快。
(1) It is said that…句式 It is said that honesty is the best policy. 人们说诚实是上策。 It is said that thirteen is an unlucky number. 据说13是一个不吉利的数字。 It is said that those who eat the most are the least healthy. 据说吃得最多的人身体最差。
It’s supposed to be very good. 据说它质量很好。 It’s expected that the war would end soon. 预计战争不久即可结束。 It is reported that another earth satellite has been put into orbit. 据报道又有一颗卫星上天了。
(2) There is said that…句式 There is said to be plenty of oil off our coast. 据信我们近海有大量石油。 注：其他类似表达还有：
There is supposed to be a train at 9:30. 九点半应有一班火车。 There are known to be thousands of different species of beetles. 据了解，有成千上万种不同的甲虫。
(3) sb / sth is said that…句式：其意为―据说‖， Mr. Brown is said to have died of liver cancer. 据说布朗先生死于肝癌。 注：其他类似表达还有：
The strike is expected to end soon. 估计罢工不久就可结束。 He is believed to have already got out of the country. 据信他已离开这个国家。
1.连系动词(如look, sound, smell, feel, taste, prove)要用主动表被动，因为连系动词为不及物动词，没有被动语态形式。The building looks very beautiful.这座建筑看上去很美。Your idea proved to be wrong. 你的想法证实是错的。
2.当open, close, shut, lock, move, read, wash, clean, cook, cut, wear, carry 等用作不及物动词且表示主语的某种属性时，通常用主动形式表示被动意义：The door won’t shut. 这门关不上。The book sells quickly. 这书销售得快。 3.有的动词本身含有被动意味，通常用主动形式来表示被动含义。如： Her coat caught on the nail. 她的大衣被钉子钩住了。Her eyes filled with tears. 她眼睛里充满了眼泪。 4.不定式to blame, to let作表语时，常用主动表被动Who is to blame? 该怪谁呢？The house is to let. 此屋出租
The book is difficult to understand. 这书很难懂。The music isn’t pleasant to listen to. 这音乐不好听。 The picture is interesting to look at. 这幅画看起来挺有趣的。
convenient, dangerous, difficult, easy, hard, impossible, interesting, nice, pleasant, safe, tough, tricky, unpleasant 等。 6.不定式用于某些动词(如have, have got, get, want, need等)的宾语后作定语时，如果不定式的逻辑主语就是句子的主语，通常用主动形式表示被动意义。如：Do you have time to help us? 你有时间帮助我们吗? I have some clothes to wash. 我有一些衣服要洗。I want something to drink. 我想喝点什么
比较：I have something to type. 我有些东西要打(字)。(指自己打字)
I have something to be typed. 我有些东西要打(字)。(指请人打字) 7.在 too…to do sth 和…enough to do sth这两个结构中，若句子主语与其后不定式为to do sth被动关系，则该不定式通常用主动形式表示被动意义(有时也可直接用被动式)The writing is too faint to read. 这笔迹太模糊，看不清。
These boxes are not strong enough to use [to be used] as a platform. 这些箱子不够牢，不能用作站台。
8.be worth 后的动名词要用主动表被动。如： This movie is worth seeing. 这部影片值得一看。 She’s not worth getting angry with. 犯不上跟她生气(from www.yygrammar.com)。
注：与worth相似的worthy却不一样，其后不接动名词而接不定式(若接动名词则其前应有介词of)，且要用被动式表示被动含义：This book is worthy to be read [of being read]. 这本书值得一读。 9.在need, want, require等少数表示―需要‖的动词后的动名词用主动形式表示被动意义。如：
The house needs cleaning. 房子需要打扫了。These children require looking after. 这些孩子需要照看。 This wall requires repairing. 这面墙需要修理了。
The house needs to be cleaned. 房子需要打扫了。These children require to be looked after. 这些孩子需要照看。
(1) 连用动词用主动表被动：尤其是表示―……起来‖的系动词，如sound(听起来), taste(吃起来), smell(闻起来), feel(摸起来), look, seem(看起来)等，尽管它在汉语意思含有被动意味，但英语却要用主动形式表示被动含义。如：
误：Silk is felt soft and smooth.
正：Silk feels soft and smooth.
误：He is not such a fool as he is looked.
正：He is not such a fool as he looks.
(2) 某些不及动词用主动表被动：用作不及物动词的open, close, shut, read, write, translate, wash, clean, lock, sell, wear, cut, cook等，当主语是物，且因该事物本身具有某一固有特点使得谓语动词能以某种方式得以实现或难以实现时，用主动形式表示被动含义。如：
The book sells well. 这本书卖得不错。 The window won’t open. 窗子打不开了。 This shirt will wear very long. 这衬衫可以穿很久。 This cheese doesn’t cut easily. It’s too soft. 这乳酪不容易切，太软了。 (3) 关于let, blame：不定式to blame, to let等作表语时，用主动表示被动。如：
This house is to let. 此房出租。 Nobody is to blame for it. 谁也不该埋怨。 (4) 几个表示―需要‖的动词：在表示―(某物)需要‖的need, want, require等后的动名词用主动形式表示被动含义。如(www.yygrammar.com)：
The house wants painting(= to be painted). 房子需要油漆了。 The floor requires washing(= to be washed). 地板该洗了。 (5) 关于be worth doing sth：在be worth后的动名词用主动表示被动。如： His suggestion is worth considering. 他的建议值得考虑。 This clock is hardly worth repairing. 这个钟几乎不值得修了。
■ 某些系动词，如feel, look, seem, appear, taste, sound, smell, prove, remain等用主动形式表示被动意义；主语通常是事物，且表示该事物本身具有某一固有特征。。如：
The material feels very soft. 这种料子摸起来很柔软。误：The material is felt very soft. The music sounds beautiful. 这音乐听起来很美妙。误：The music is sounded beautiful.
■ 表示主语由内在品质或性能，使得主语得以实现或不能实现，用主动表示被动，常见的这类动词有：write, read, clean, sell, wash, cook, open, close, lock等。
1. 同well, badly, easily等副词连用。如：The cloth washes easily. 这布很好洗。
The book sells well. 那本书很畅销。The pen writes smoothly. 这支笔很好写。 2. 谓语动词用否定式。如： The window won’t open. 这扇窗开不了。The door won’t lock. 这门锁不上。 3. 主语+谓语(blow, wear等) +主补。如：The door blew open. 门被风吹开了。 ■ 某些日常用语，cook, bake, make, print, pack, build, work out等动词用于进行时态时，可用主动形式表示被动意义。如：The fish is cooking. 鱼正在煮。The book is printing. 那本书正在印刷中。The plan is working out. 计划正在制订。
1. 在―be+形容词+fit to do‖句型中。如： English words are difficult to remember. 英语单词很难记。
注：常用于此句型形容词有easy, hard, difficult, heavy, light, comfortable等。
2. 在作补语的形容词后作状语的不定式。如： We found the book easy to understand. 我们觉得这本书的容易懂。 3. 在This /That /These /Those be后的名词后的不定式。如： This is a difficult problem to solve. 这是一个很难解决的问题。 4. 在―there be/have/with sth. to do(有……要……) ‖结构中。如： I have a lot of work to do. 我有许多事要做。 5. 在―疑问代词+不定式‖结构。如： The question is what to do next. 问题是接下来做什么。 6. 在―be to blame/seek/let‖结构中。如： The house is to let. 此房出租。 He is to blame for this. 他因此事应受到责备(www.yygrammar.com)。
■ 在表示―需要‖的need, want, require，及be worth后的动词-ing形式，用主动形式表示被动含义。如：
The floor needs sweeping. 这地需要打扫了。 That picture is worth looking at. 那幅画值得看。
1.take place等能用于被动语态吗 Great changes __________ in China since 1978. A. have taken place B. took place C. have been taken place D. were taken place
此题应选A。首先要排除C，D，因为take place(发生)是不及物动词，所以不能用被动语态；另一方面，因为句子中的since 1978，所以句子宜用现在完成时A。
place 发生 / happen 发生 / come about 发生 / breakout 爆发 / appear出现 / disappear 消失 / last 持续等)。
他出什么事了?误：What was [is] happened to him?正：What has happened to him?
每四年举行一次选举。误：Elections are taken place every four years. 正：Elections take place every four years.
我不知道这事是怎么发生的。误：I don’t know how this thing was come about. 正：I don’t know how this thing came about.
夜里起了一起火灾。误：A fire was broken out during the night. 正：A fire broke out during the night. —Have you moved into the new house? —Not yet. The rooms __________. A. are being painted B. are painting C. are painted D. are being painting
You are wanted on the phone. 有人给你打电话。(一般现在时) When was the building completed? 这座大楼什么时候建成?(一般过去时) You won’t be allowed to take so much luggage with you. 不会准你带这么多行李。(一般将来时)
A new railway is now being built. 一条新铁路正在修建。(现在进行时) The roads were being widened. 道路当时正在加宽。(过去进行时) Such a thing has never been heard of before. 这种事以前从未听说过。(现在完成时)
The work must be finished at once. 这工作必须马上完成。 The method can still be improved upon. 这方法还可以改进。 My umbrella may have been left on the train. 我的伞可能忘在火车上了。 ■含有双宾语的主动句变被动句时，可分别将其中的一个宾语变为主语，另一个不动，但变间接宾语为主语的情况较多。
主动：Tom gave me a present on my birthday. 我生日那天汤姆送我一件礼物。 被动：I was given a present by Tom on my birthday.
A present was given to me yesterday.
1. 在下列动词后，通常在间接宾语前用介词to：bring, give, hand, lend, offer, pass, sell, show, take,通tell等。 2. 在下列动词后，一般在间接宾语前用介词for：build, buy, cook, cut, choose, do, fetch, find, fix, get, keep, make, order, paint, play, sing等。
主动：Mother made me a new skirt. 母亲给我做了件衬衣。被动：A new skirt was made for me. 3. 由于某些动词与介词有习惯搭配，既不用to也不用for, 而用别的介词。如:
People all over the world know the Great Wall. 世界上的人都知道长城。 The Great Wall is known to people all over the world. （不用by短语） 4. 有时用间接宾语作主语讲不通或不习惯，必须用直接宾语作主语。如： Tom wrote me a letter．误：I was written a letter by Tom．正：A letter was written to me by Tom．
类似的动词还有：return, send, pass, hand, sell, teach等。
■含复合宾语（宾语+宾补）的主动句改为被动句时，一般把主动句中的宾语改为主语，而宾语补足语保留在谓语动词后面成为主语补足语。如： We always keep the classroom clean. 我们总是保持教室清洁。 The classroom is always kept clean. 教室总是保持清洁的。 They asked me to help them. 他们叫我帮助他们。I was asked to help them. 我被他们叫去帮忙了。
We saw them playing football. 我们看到他们在踢足球。They were seen playing football. 他们被人看见在踢足球。
1. 在see, watch, hear, notice, listen to, look at, make, feel等动词后作宾语补足语的动词不定式都不带to，但改成被动语态后要加上to。
We often hear her sing. 我们经常听到她唱歌。She is often heard to sing. 经常有人听到她唱歌。
We called him an ass. 我们叫他傻瓜。
误：As ass was called him. 正：He was called an ass.
The patient is being operated on. 病人正在动手术。 His request was turned down. 他的要求遭到拒绝。
注：这类短语动词常见的还有agree to, ask for, laugh at, listen to, look after, think of, talk about, call on等。常用的由―及物动词+副词‖构成的短语动词有bring about, carry out, find out, give up, hand in, make out, pass on, point out, put away, put on, put off, take off, think over, work out, turn out, sell out, use up look up (查询) (www.yygrammar.com)等。 2. ―动词＋副词＋介词‖构成的短语动词，变成变动语态时，要把它们作为一个整体看待。如：
The poor were looked down upon then. 那时穷人被人瞧不起。 He was looked up to by everyone他被人们所敬仰。 注：这类短语动词还有：get out of, look out of, get on with，get along with, catch up with, keep up with等。 3. ―动词+名词+介词‖构成的短语动动词，变被动语态时，既可将短语动词后的宾语作为被动句的主语，也可将短语动词中的名词作为被动句的主语。如：
You must pay attention to your pronunciation. 你必须注意你的发音。 Your pronunciation must be paid attention to. Attention must be paid to your pronunciation.
注：这类短语动词常见的还有catch sight of, make use of, make fun of,make friends with, set fire to, take care of, take hold of, take part in, take notice of, keep an eye on等。
■当主动句的主语是nobody, no one等含有否定意义的复合不定代词时，被动句中将其变为anybody，作by的宾语，并将谓语动词变为否定的被动语态。如：
Nobody can lift this stone. 谁也拿不起这块石头。
误：The stone can be lifted by nobody. 正：The stone can not be lifted by anybody.
■当否定句中的宾语是anything, anybody, anyone等不定代词时，在被动句中应将其分别变为nothing, nobody, no one作主语，并将谓语动词变为肯定的被动语态。如：
They haven’t done anything to make the river clean.
误：Anything hasn’t been done to make the river clean. 正：Nothing has been done to make the river clean.
■以who为主语开头的疑问句，变被动时，用by whom放在句首： Who wrote this novel? 这部小说是谁写的？
误：Who was this novel written by? 正：By whom was this novel written? ■主动句中完成进行时态时，相应的被动句变为完成时态。如：
He has been using this dictionary for ten years. 这本词典他用了十年了。 This dictionary has been used for ten years. 带双宾语动词的被动语态有何规律
主动：He answered me the question. (正)
被动：I was answered the question by him. (正)
被动：The question was answered me by him. (误)
主动：He gave her some money. (正)
被动：She was given some money by him. (正)
被动：Some money was given (to) her by him. (正)
主动：He wrote her a letter. (正)
被动：A letter was written (to) her by him. (正)
被动：She was written a letter by him. (少见)
主动：They refused me admittance. (正)
被动：I was refused admittance by them. (正)
被动：Admittance was refused me by them. (少见)
I don’t know him，but he __________ to have a lot of money. A. says B. said C. is said D. is saying
此题应选 C。这是一类比较特殊的被动语态。试比较以下各组句子： 据说他是一个诚实的人。
a. People say that he is an honest man. b. It is said that he is an honest man. c. He is said to be an honest man.
a. People say that tortoises live longer than elephants. b. It is said that tortoises live longer than elephants. c. Tortoises are said to live longer than elephants.
a. People believe that he has left. b. It is believed that he has left. c. He is believed to have left.
a. They think that he has made great progress. b. It’s thought that he has made great progress. c. He is thought to have made great progress.(www.yygrammar.com)
■ It be +过去分词+that…句型
It is said that…据说…… It is reported that…据报导…… It is supposed that…据推测…… It is hoped that…希望…… It is well known that…众所周知…… It is generally considered that…普遍认为…… It is suggested that…有人建议……
It is said that he has been to Japan. 据说他去过日本。 He is said to have been to Japan.
■ be +过去分词+to do…结构(www.yygrammar.com)
The meeting is scheduled to take place next week. 会议定于下周举行。 All are supposed to come to the meeting on time. 所有人都应该按时到会。 初二英语教学反思
Teaching contents: Television viewing habits and Speak up: Which TV programmes do you like? Teaching aims: Let students talk about the types of TV programmes they like in English. Teaching tools: tape recorder and media players.
2．我觉得本堂课中，对本课的话题的导入做得比较好。即从 What’s the weather like today?→(It’s rainy.) What do you like to do on rainy days?→(Watching TV.) What is your favourite TV programmes?→ Why do you like the TV programmes about??
2． 课堂节奏过慢，从A2到A3过渡的问题设计虽然比较好，但花的时间太长，以致在进行Speak up的口头训练时，学生开放性的口头表达时间不够。 针对以上不足之处，我觉得今后在教学中应从以下几方面来提高：
2、 英语阅读教学的指导与优化。 3、 有效提高学生阅读能力的探索与总结。
1、 英语阅读教学的研究步骤 1） 英语阅读教学方法的选择——实施阅读教学的前提
2） 英语阅读教学方法的运用——实施阅读教学的关键步骤 A、提出阅读教学的方法——引导、确定研究课题
One day a farmer and his son decided to sell their horse at the village market , seven miles 1 from their home . When they left the farm , a neighbour called to them: ― 2 are you both walking when you have a horse ? ‖When they heard this , the son rode and the farmer 3 by his side . When they went on for two miles , two women came up and one of them said: ―Look at that boy .He’s younger 4 his father , but the old man has to walk .‖Then the father asked his son to get 5 and he climbed up the horse himself . They were nearly half way there when two men came up and asked: ―Why does that poor boy have to walk . ‖ Isn’t your horse strong enough to carry you both?‖ 6 the boy climbed onto the horse too , and they both rode on . They rode on for a while when some children shouted: ―Look at that poor horse . It 7 to carry two big men .Why don’t you carry your horse for a change ? ‖And that was exactly what they did in the 8 .So they tied the horse to a pole（杆）,and they carried the pole over their shoulders（肩）。Then they 9 it all the way to the market . The people at the market had never seen like that before . They laughed about the farmer and his son who tried to please everybody. I’m not 10 if you think they are both very clever.
（）1. A. long B. far C. behind D. away
（）2. A. What B. When C. Why D. what
（）3. A. ran B. sang C. walked D. went
（）4. A. than B. as C. so D. but
（）5. A. of B. down C. up D. on
（）6. A. And B. Or C. But D. So
（）7. A. hasB. have C. must D. must have
（）8. A. finish B. over C. end D. ended
（）9. A. sold B. brought C. took D. carried
（）10. A. afraid B. sure C. sorry D. idea
1. D 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. B 6. D 7. A 8. C 9. D 10. B 野，调整视角，进行深入思考，通过案例拓展，培养学生横向、纵向等创造思维及综合分析问题的能力。 2、 应用实例 3、
1、The world 79 many interesting sounds. Some are unpleasant to our ears while 80 are very pleasant to hear. In a single day you probably hear 81 sounds. All sounds are different. Some 82 loud ,some sounds are high, others are low ,some sounds are useful. 83 Sound we can not talk or listen to each other. The ringing of the alarm clock wakes people up .the hooting of a car warns people of danger. 2、阅读下列短文，掌握其大意，然后从A、B、C、D四个选项中选择最佳答案。 There is nobody in the world the same 41 you；you are unique(独特唯一
的)!Everybody is 42 from everyone else．That is good! 43 it makes the world an interesting place． There are people taller 44 you, and shorter than you．Maybe your hair is the same color as your friend’s hair, but maybe it is longer than 45 . Another difference is your hair may be straight, hers may be curly. I am sure you have some friends who are 46 than you. And you also have some friends, they are as 47 at sports as you. But there are also people around you who are not good at some things. 48 does your best friend look like? Do you both 49 to finish your homework at school? Do you both want to wear the same clothes every day? I think 50 some ways you are the same, but in many other ways you are different. So say loudly to the world, ―I am who I am – I’m unique!‖ 41．A．with B．as C．of D．from 42．A．better B．different C．smart D．good 43．A．Because B．So C．Although D．But 44．A．after B．than C．then D．in front of 45．A．her B．she C．hers D．she’s 46．A．smart B．smarter C．smartest D．a smart 47．A．bad B．better C．well D．good 48．A．Where B．What C．How D．How often 49．A．like B．enjoy C．would like D．going 50．A．through B．by C．in D．on
3、 Mark lived in a village far away. One day he became very ill and everyone thought he would 1 soon. They sent for a doctor. Two days 2 the doctor came and looked over the sick man. 3 asked for a pen and some paper to write down the name of the medicine. But there was no pen 4 paper in the village, because no one could write. The doctor 5 up a piece of burnt wood from the fire and wrote the name of the medicine on the 6 of the house. ― Get this medicine for him.‖ he said, ―and he will soon get 7 .‖ Mark’s family and friends did not know 8 to do. They could not read the strange words. Then a young man 9 an idea. He took off the door of the house, put it on his carriage(马车) and drove to the nearest 10 . He bought the medicine there, and Mark was soon well again. ( )1.A. wake B.cry C.moved D.die ( )2.A. late B.later C.ago D.before ( )3A. The sick man B.Mark C.The doctor D.The farmer ( )4.A.and B.or C.then D.also ( )5.A.picked B.held C.made D.looked ( )6.A.wall B.window C.ground D.door ( )7.A.well B.worse C.bad D.good ( )8.A.when B.what C.where D.whick ( )9A.thought B.hit C.caught D.had ( )!0. A.shop B.farm C.hospital D.village keys: DBCBADABDC 4、 Peter and Mike were in 1 class．Peter was born in a 2 family．But Mike’s father was a businessman(商人)and got 3 money．When Peter got into trouble(困难)he always helped him． Peter liked to have sports．He was good at 4 ．He ran 5 than any others in their class It was Sunday．Mike and Peter went to a forest to have a picnic．Mike took a lot of food there．It was a 6 ay．The birds were singing and there were all kinds of flowers．They ate and drank then went 7 in the river．They had a good time．Suddenly they heard a great noise．They found it was a tiger behind a big tree．They were both very 8 ．Peter put on his shoes quickly and was going to run away．Mike stopped him and said：‖It’s no use for us．The tiger runs 9 faster than us．Let’s find a way．‖―It doesn’t matter．‖said Peter．‖I’m 1 0 I'll run faster than you．‖ 1．A．same B．different C．difference D．the same 2．A．rich B．happy C．poor D．bad 3．A．many B．lot C．any D．much 4．A．ran B．running C．run D．runs
5．A．fast B．faster C．fastest D．best 6．A．sun B．rain C．rained D．sunny 7．A．fish B．to fishing C．fishing D．fished 8．A．happy B．afraid C．sad D．exciting 9．A．more B．much C．many D．1ittle 10．A．afraid B．worried C．sure D．glad
1—5 DCDBB 6—10 DCBBC 5、根据短文内容在A、B、C、D四个选项中选出可以填入空白处的最佳答案（10分）
We were going to play a team from a country school .They didn’t come 1 the match nearly began .They looked 2 than we thought .The wore dirty T-shirts and blue jeans and looked like farm boys .We thought they 3 saw a basketball before .We felt that we didn’t 4 any practice to play with such a team .It was very late so they couldn’t have any time to practice .The match began ,one of our boys 5 the ball and he tried to give it to another one . But from out of nowhere a boy in a T-shirt 6 the ball and he quickly and beautifully got the ball into our basket and had two points .They 7 us .They had another two points in a minute .Soon it was all over .The country team 8 the match .Of course we knew that there was still another team 9 than any good team .But the important lesson we learn this time was : One can’t tell a man or a team by the 10 .
（）1、A. when B. so C. until D. at
（）2、A. stronger B. younger C. worse D. better
（）3、A. never B. often C. sometimes D. always
（）4、A. have B. make C. use D. need
（）5、A. got B. played C. took D .carried
（）6、A. caught B. changed C. held D. stopped
（）7、A. surprised B. frightened C. admired D. smiled
（）8、A. lost B. won C. got D. had
（）9、A. worse B. less C. better . D more
（）10、A. T-shirt B. appearance C. name D. points
1—5 CCADA 6—10 AABCB