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初中英语八种时态归纳

发布时间:2013-09-22 10:46:46  

初中英语八种时态归纳

时态是英语学习中一个至关重要的内容,广大初中学生在实际运用时,往往对时态总是倍感棘手,下面我们就归纳复习一下这几种时态。

1、一般现在时:概念:经常、反复发生的动作或行为及现在的某种状况。 时间状语:

Always(总是), usually(通常), often(经常),

sometimes(有时候), every week (day, year, month?), once a week, on Sundays ,etc.

基本结构:

当主语是第三人称单数时

肯定句 主语+动词单三+其他

否定句 主语+doesn't+动词原形+其他

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一般疑问句 Does+主语+动词原形+其他

肯定回答 Yes,主语+does

否定回答 No,主语+doesn't

当主语不是第三人称单数时

肯定句 主语+动词原形+其他

否定句 主语+don't+动词原形+其他

一般疑问句 Do+主语+动词原形+其他

例句:

I never get up early on Sundays.

特殊疑问句 特殊疑问词(when,where,who,how ,etc.)+一般疑问句

2、一般过去时:

概念:过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。 时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week(year, night, month?), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, etc.

基本结构:

主语+动词过去式+其他

否定形式did+not+do+其他;

一般疑问句did+主语+do+其他?

例句:

I went to Italy .I visited museums and sat in public gardens

3、现在进行时:

概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。

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时间状语:now, at this time(在这一刻), these days, etc. 基本结构:am/is/are+doing

否定形式:am/is/are+not+doing.

一般疑问句:把be动词放于句首。

4、过去进行时:

概念: (1)表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。

(2) 表示一个动作正在进行时,另一个动作突然发生了。

时间状语:at this time yesterday, at that time(在那一刻)或以when、while引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语等。 基本结构:was/were+doing

否定形式:was/were + not + doing.

一般疑问句:把was或were放于句首。

While与when

(1)用while连接(while只接doing)

例:My mother was cooking while I was doing my homework.(可以持续动作时态一致)

(2)when表示(when可以接doing或did,when后动作时间长,用doing,时间短,用did)

例:I was doing my homework when my mother came in.(间接表达了具体时间)

例句:

I was having breakfast when the telephone rang

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5、现在完成时:

概念:过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

时间状语:recently, lately, since(自从)?,for(长达)?,in the past few years, etc.

基本结构:

主语+have/has+过去分词(done)

①肯定句:主语+have/has+过去分词+其他.

②否定句:主语+have/has+not+过去分词+其他. ③一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+过去分词+其他.

④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词或词组+一般疑问句

(have/has+主语+过去分词+其他)?

例句:

I have just received a letter from my brother.

6、过去完成时:

概念:以过去某个时间为标准,在此以前发生的动作或行为,或在过去某动作之前完成的行为,即“过去的过去”。

时间状语: after,when, as soon as(一...就...), until, before, by the end of(到?为止) last year(term, month?),etc.

基本结构:主语+had+过去分词(done)

①肯定句:主语+had+过去分词+其他.

②否定句:主语+had+not+过去分词+其他.

③一般疑问句:Had+主语+过去分词+其他?

肯定回答:Yes,主语+had.

否定回答:No,主语+had not .

例句:

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The children ran away after they had broken the window.

As soon as the sun had set we returned to our hotel. I had not understood the problem until he explained it .

7、一般将来时:

概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。 时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year?),soon, in a few minutes, by?,the day after tomorrow, etc.

基本结构:①am/is/are/going to + do;②will/shall + do. 否定形式:①was/were + not; ②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。

一般疑问句:①be放于句首;②will/shall提到句首。 例句:

I will meet him at the harbour early in the morning.

注:将来进行时will be doing 将来某时刻正在进行。 (用将来进行时提问更加客气,礼貌。能用will be doing 都能换成will do 表达。但语气、含义稍有不同) 例句:

Tomorrow evening they will be singing at the workers’ Club.

8、过去将来时:

概念:立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。 时间状语:the next day(morning, year?),the following

month(week?),etc.

基本结构:①was/were/going to + do;②would/should + do. 5

否定形式:①was/were/not + going to +

do;②would/should + not + do.

一般疑问句:①was或were放于句首;②would/should 提到句首。

一般过去将来时常用在间接引语中

例句:She said that Mr.Jones would see you now. 他说过琼斯先生现在要见你。

特殊疑问句 特殊疑问词(when,where,who,how ,etc.)+一般疑问句

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Ⅱ. 几种常见时态的相互转换

英语中的几种时态在一定情况下可以互相转换,以下是几种常见的转换形式:

一、一般过去时与现在完成时的转换

在现在完成时中,延续性动词能与表示一段时间的状语连用,瞬间动词却不能。

I have bought a car.

I have had the car for 3 weeks

I haven’t bought anything for 3 months

但是,可用别的表达方式:①瞬间动词用于“一段时间 + ago”的一般过去时的句型中;②瞬间动词可改成与之相对应的延续性动词及短语,与一段时间连用;③瞬间动词用于“It is + 一段时间 + since + 一般过去时”的句型中,表示“自从??以来有??时间”的意思,主句一般用it is来代替It has been;④瞬间动词用于“Some time has passed since + 一般过去时”的句型中。请看:

A. He joined the League [li:ɡ] 联盟two years ago.

B. He has been in the League for two years.

C. It is two years since he joined the League.

D. Two years has passed since he joined the League.

二、一般现在时与现在进行时的转换

在一般现在时中,at加上名词表示“处于某种状态”,如at work(在工作), at school(上学、上课)等。此短语可与进行时态转换。请看:

Peter is at work, but Mike is at play.

Peter is working, but Mike is playing.

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三、现在进行时与一般将来时的转换

在现在进行时态中go, come, leave, start, arrive等动词常与表示将来的时间状语连用表示将要发生的动作。如:I am coming, Mum! 意为“我就来,妈妈!”请看:

The train is leaving soon.

The train will leave soon.

四、“be going to+动词原形”与“will(shall)+动词原形”结构的转换

“be going to+动词原形”、表示打算、计划要做的事;将来时“will(shall)+动词原形”结构在书面语中,当主语为第一人称时,常用助动词shall。在口语中,所有人称都可以用will。请看:

We are going to visit the Great Wall next Sunday. We shall visit the Great Wall next Sunday.

动词时态考点分析

一、根据时间状语确定时态的原则

1. Hurry up! The play for ten minutes.

A. has begun B. had begun C. has been on

D. began

[析] 1.since后接时间的起点,for后接时间段,主句动词用现在完成时,应注意瞬间动词与延续性动词的使用。

二、特殊疑问句 2.How staying? for five days.

A.long they will be B.they will be

C.long will they be D.long they be

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[析] 特殊疑问句 特殊疑问词(when,where,who,how ,etc.)+一般疑问句

三、根据上下文已有时态信息点确定时态的原则

3. –When this kind of computer ?

--Last year.

A. did; use B. was; used C. is; used

D. are; used

[析] 此例由下句的时间状语推断出一般过去时态,并且要考虑到被动语态。

利用上下文语意确定时态的原则

4. –Hi! Lin Tao. I didn’t see you at the party. --Oh, I ready for the maths exam.

A. am getting B. was getting C. got

D. have got

[析] 此例由didn’t, at the party推断出应用过去进行时。

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