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医学英语期末复习提纲

发布时间:2014-01-04 13:44:16  

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201401 医学英语期末考试复习

题型: 翻译、名词匹配、词汇和语法、阅读

复习范围:医学英语课本1-12课A课文、单词、课后练习

部分重点如下:

一.熟悉以下段落的英汉互译

1. “In my view,” wrote Thomas Jefferson in 1814, “no knowledge can be more satisfactory to a man

than that of his own frame, its parts, their functions and actions.” Distinguished thinkers before and since Jefferson have held this belief, but curiously, it is not one that the average person wholehearted shares. Man’s attitude toward his own body ---- his single most precious possession ---- is decidedly ambivalent, at one and the same time his is fascinated by it and fearful of it, partly in echo of ancient taboo, partly in the conviction that the body is too complicated to understand. “在我看来,”托马斯·杰斐逊在1814年写道,“对一个人来说,没有什么知识可以比了解自身的架构,他自身的部件,他们的功能和动作更能满足他的了。”在杰斐逊之前和之后的伟大思想学家就已经持有这个观点,但奇怪的是,这不是一个能令每一个人都心悦诚服的看法。人对自己的身体(他个人最珍贵的财产)的态度,在同一时刻内既被它吸引着又感到害怕,这是明显矛盾的。产生这个矛盾的部分原因是古代禁忌的影响,部分原因则是(人们)深信人体过于复杂而不可理解

2.The study of disease should not make students feel fragile and vulnerable. It is important to remember

that the human body has a remarkable ability to protect itself against disease and to cure itself when illness or injury does occur. Moreover, when serious illness strikes, modern medicine has extremely sophisticated tools for fighting back.

疾病的研究不能让学生感到(对疾病的)无能为力和难以防御。当疾病或意外发生时,记住人体有保护自身抵御疾病和自我治愈的卓越能力是非常重要的。此外,受到严重疾病侵袭时,现代医学已经有非常尖端的手段来抵御疾病。

3. Obviously, the use of megadoses of vitamin C is not an entirely harmless practice. The public needs

information with which they may recognize counterfeit claims, so as to avoid the potential dangers of self-medication in the absence of sound knowledge. This is true with any substances used in large amounts. Nonetheless, the sky seems to be brightening for vitamin C. On the basis of increasing knowledge of its antioxidant strength, especially in prevention of trouble rather than just in treating it after it has happened, vitamin C may yet clear its name.

显然,大剂量使用维生素C不是一个完全无害的实践。公众需要有能让他们能够识别假冒声称的知识,以便使他们在缺乏健全知识的自我用药的情况下避免潜在的危险。对于大量使用任何物质

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来说这都是真理。尽管如此,世界还是应为维生素C而变得更加明亮。在随着维生素C抗氧化能力的知识不断积累的基础上,特别是在对疾病的预防而不仅仅是在对疾病发生后的治疗的这一基础上,维生素C仍然可能为自己洗刷罪名。

4. Some commonplace back pain is probably related to stress. A study established recently revealed a

connection between stressful life events and occurrences of back pain. Previous work found that patients without a definite physical reason for low-back pain perceived life as more stressful than a control group of back pain patients when had definite physical damage.

一些司空见惯的背痛可能与压力有关。最近成立的一项研究揭露了压力生活事件与后背疼痛的发生之间的关联。先前的研究发现,下腰背疼痛而无明确体征的病人比作为对照组的有明显身体伤害的腰背痛病人感觉生活的压力更加沉重。

5. We humans do amazing things with food. Somewhere in the world, one person might eat only raw

whale blubber in a given day, another might eat only rice, and still another might eat only pizza and bananas, or drink dandelion wine. Through its metabolic magic, the human body converts these and dizzying variety of other substances into usable energy and tissues of its own.

我们人类对食物做出令人惊叹的事情。在世界的某个地方,一个人在特定的一天可能只能吃到生的鲸脂,另一个人可能只吃米饭,还有一个可能只吃披萨和香蕉,或饮用蒲公英酒。通过他(人体)神奇的代谢过程,人体将这些物质和其它令人眼花缭乱的各种物质转化为可用的能量和其自身的组织。

二、熟悉以下专业名词的双语表达 Physicochemical property Pathogenesis leukemia prognosis rheumatology hypertension epidemiology orthopedics diagnostician solubility exocrine parathyroid bronchitis

cholesterol electrocardiogram bicarbonate small intestine antibody urination

congenial heart antigen drain excrete renal calculus hemodialysis diabetes

chloride anemia digestive enzyme hepatitis leucocyte malignancy nephritis

cardiovascular system pneumonia pulmonitis

osteoporosis disease melanin endocrine system skeletal-muscular system angina pectorisrepiratory system

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心电图 先天性心脏病 高血压 血液透析 甲状旁腺 贫血

发病机制 流行病学 白血病 诊断医生 排泄 内分泌系统 肌肉骨骼系统 骨质疏松症

外分泌的 胆固醇 碳酸氢盐 排尿 氯化钠 恶性(肿瘤等) 肾炎 糖尿病 黑色素 肾结石 消化酶 预后,预知 风湿病学

抗原 理化性质 溶解度 抗体 小肠 矩形术 心绞痛 肝炎 白血球 心血管系统 呼吸系统 肺炎 支气管炎

三\. 熟悉以下句子

1. Evidence shows that cutting down on salt, especially as part of a healthy diet that includes plenty of fruit vegetables, can reduce blood pressure.

2. Whether the increasing tendency toward self-medication is a positive development in health care is still a controversial issue

3.X-rays can penetrate many objects.

4. Touches initiate contact, because contact is how you're going to take this relationship further.

5. A condition called high-altitude pulmonary edema can turn into deadly altitude sickness, a(n) affliction similar to fluid in the lungs of cardiac patients.

7. What’s worse, most have borrowed to indulge in such short-sighted behavior.

8. Such antibodies recognize and attach themselves to these molecules, rendering them harmless. 9. Take the information that you can use and discard the rest.

10. In a word, even a low level of noise may interfere with patients’ rest. 11.Malnourished children are more likely to succumb to infections. 14. These improvements will cut down on errors in surgery.

15. When deprived of vitamins, children generally show stunted growth. 16. The heavy rain speaks of the impossibility of the picnic this afternoon. 17. If water costs more, they say, we will conserve it better.

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18. Stretch before bed to help prevent leg cramps.

19. Civil affairs ministry has ordered local governments to step up welfare payments to ensure the poor can afford food.

20. He suggests a link between class size and test results of seven-year-olds.

21. The fractured bone in the arm can be immobilized by suspension, which means hanging it in a desired position.

22. By contrast, the white cells of the blood, which fight off invading bacteria, roam freely about the body.

23. Rare cancers that occur in AIDS patients are the clinical indicators of the immune underlying deficiency due to HIV.

24. Without the heart and its cardiovascular system, human life would not be possible .

25. Another major body complex is the digestive system, which processesthe food so that it can be used for energy.

26. Now, many defective heart valves that are present at birth can be remedied by heart surgery.

27. They will soon introduce a more transparent decision-making process.

28. The respiratory system starts at the nose, where air is breathed in during inspiration .

29. Such a stressful state may also make a person more vulnerable to other factors present, influencing the integrity of the immune system, food behaviors, and nutritional status.

30.Continuing study indicated that virus must be thought of as the second most important risk factor for cancer development, exceeded only by tobacco use.

31.The public press constantly reminds us that food harvesting, storage, and processing methods are producing “empty calorie” vegetables, not “half as nutritious as the ones our grandparents ate.”

32.Since the potential for great harm exists in some instances, as it does with vitamin A, perhaps megadose supplements should have warning labels as cigarette packages do.

33.Findings from various studies suggest that many red herrings confuse imaging interpretation and that at least for some spine abnormalities are purely coincidental and do not cause pain.

36. These viruses are held in check until a person’s resistance is lowered.

37. In some regions of the country and among certain segments of the populace, hepatitis had reached epidemic proportions.

38.The central question in cell biology has been this: How are the process and rate of cell reproduction maintained so precisely in normal cells?

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39.The principle that “the dose makes the poison” applies to all substances including carcinogens, natural or synthetic.

40. Any indisposition not otherwise identifiable is explained away by the assertion that “my glands are not working right.”

41.Compared to such organs as the heart or the lungs, the endocrines seem to be ridiculously small and unimpressive.

42.This new laboratory technique has resulted in a radically new understanding of how hormones change cell functions.

43.Without sufficient thyroid hormones the individual feels constantly cold, drowsy and unable to accomplish anything without exerting considerable effort.

44. And yet the prevalence of back pain is perhaps matched in degree only by the lingering mystery

accompanying it.

45. But work disability caused by back pain has steadily risen .

46.And neurologists were three times more inclined to seek the results of electromyograms that would implicate the nerves.

47. Fortunately, these recurrences tend to play out much as the original incidents did, and most patients recover again quickly and spontaneously.

48.

49. Who You See Is What You Get. In spite of minor risks, it is recommended that people over the age of 65, pregnant women, people with heart disease, and those with other illness be vaccinated.

50. Although you may contract one form of the disease and develop immunity to it, you will not necessarily be immune to other form of the disease.

51.

52. These viruses are held in check until a person’s resistance is lowered. In some regions of the country and among certain segments of the populace, hepatitis had reached epidemic proportions.

53. The central question in cell biology has been this: how are the process and rate of cell reproduction maintained so precisely in normal cells?

54. Such a stressful state may also make a person more vulnerable to other factors present,

influencing the integrity of the immune system, food behaviors, and nutritional status.

55. Continuing study indicated that virus must be thought of as the second most important risk

factor for cancer development, exceeded only by tobacco use.

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56. The public press constantly reminds us that food harvesting, storage, and processing methods

are producing “empty calorie” vegetables, not “half as nutritious as the ones our grandparents ate.”

57. Since the potential for great harm exists in some instances, as it does with vitamin A, perhaps

megadose supplements should have warning labels as cigarette packages do.

58.Every time the heart contracts , it forces blood around the body.

59.A condition called high-altitude pulmonary edema can turn into deadly altitude sickness,

a(n) affliction similar to fluid in the lungs of cardiac patients.

62. When lipolysis is unrestrained, fatty acid levels are elevated, which can initiate and worsen obesity and type 2 diabetes.

63.What’s worse, most have borrowed to indulge in such short-sighted behaviour.

64. Such antibodies recognize and attach themselves to these molecules, rendering them harmless.

65. Take the information that you can use and discard the rest.

66. In a word, even a low level of noise may interfere with patients’ rest.

67. Despite all my effort to improve his lifestyle, he’s still smoking a lot.

69. The doctor suspected that it was a fracture.

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