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虚拟语气carlma

发布时间:2014-01-04 14:43:31  

By: Carl ma

如果我有一千万,我就能买一栋房子 我有一千万吗? …没有。 ……所以我仍然没有房子。 如果我有翅膀,我就能飞。 我有翅膀吗? ……没有。 ……所以我也没办法飞。 如果把整个太平洋的水倒出, 也浇不息我对你爱情的火 整个太平洋的水全部倒得出吗? ……不行。 ……所以我并不爱你。

语气是一种动词 形式,用以表示说话 者的意图或态度。
英语动词有三种语气

陈述语气 祈使语气 虚拟语气

I wish

my computer were as small as his.

I were as tall as you.

定义:

用来表示说的话不是 事实,或者是不可能发生的 情况,而是一种愿望、建议、 假设的语气叫 虚拟语气。

A: What do you wish to have? B: I have three wishes.

I wish I were a bird and could fly in the sky and view the whole city.

I wish (that) every day

were my birthday and I could have nice cakes to eat.

I wish... I wish I had studied harder. I wish I had passed the exam.

与现在/将来事实相反的情况(用过去式) 1. be were be able to were able to 2. can /may /will could/ might/ would

wish

(that)sb.

3. have/ has 4. do / does

had did

与过去事实相反的情况(用过去完成式) 1. have/has been 2. have/has done had been had done

1.He is not a pilot, but he wishes were he______ (be). had met 2.I wish I ___________(meet)him

yesterday.
would be 3.I wish it __________(be) fine

tomorrow.

表示命令、要求、建议的 虚拟语气:
一个坚持:insist 两个命令:order, command 三个建议:advise, suggest, propose 四个要求:demand , require, request, desire

这些动词后面的宾语从句要 使用虚拟语气用法。即从句中的 动词使用 should + 动词原形, 或者将should省略。

We suggested that Tom (should) have a rest. He insisted that I (should) be present.

The king ordered that the prisoners (should) be killed the next day. They requested that we (should) send them to work there.

?

但注意:在insist 后的从句中, 如 果是坚持自己的观点, 用陈述语 气, 坚持别人做什么事情, 用虚拟 语气. Suggest表示暗示,表明的意思时 用陈述语气,表示建议意思时用虚 拟语气.

?

宾语从句中是否用虚拟 语气的辨别方法: 宾语从句的句型一般为: 主句主语+insist/suggest/order+
that+从句主语+should+动词原形
当主句的主语与从句的主语是一 个人时,要用一般的句型,而当主 句的主语与从句的主语不是一个人 时,必须要用虚拟语气。

If … 的从句,主句 的虚拟

真实条件句(条件状语从句)

if
虚拟语气

What will you do if it rains tomorrow?
I will stay at home surfing on the Internet.

真实条件句
We’ll have music lesson instead of PE in the classroom if it rains tomorrow.

同现在事实相反的假设 条件从句
一般过去式 (be 都
用were)

主句
s

hould (would,could might) +动词原形

What would you do if you were a teacher?
were If I ____a teacher, I….

If it were snowing now……

What would happen if he were not addicted to QQ game?

If he weren’t addicted to QQ games, he would make greater progress in his studies.

2.What would you do if you won the lottery?

If I won the lottery, I would…

If I had a lot of money, I would …. I would ….

build a special hospital for HIV/ AIDS patients.

与过去事实相反的假设
条件从句 had done 主句 should (could might would) have done been done

If I had not been ____________busy last night, would have gone I _____________ to see the film with you .

If he had driven more carefully, he would not have had the car accident yesterday
.

If I ___________(know) your telephone had known number, I _________________________ would have telephoned (telephone) you already.

had not received If he __________________ (not receive) the infected blood transfusion that day,
he could not have been infected (not infect) with AIDS.

虚拟语气在条件状语 从句中的用法。

条件从句 If 从句的谓语形式 主句的谓语形式 would/could/should did(were) 现在

过去 将来

had done 1.did

/might +do would/could/should

/might have+done

would/could/should/

2.should+do
3. were to do

might +do

虚拟条件句的倒装 虚拟条件句中的谓语动词含 有were,had或should时,可以省 略if,将were,had或should移致 主语前面。

Were Jane to make an effort, she could do better.
要是简努力的话,她会成功的。

were a. If they ______ (be) here,they would take __________(take) your advice.

b. If the world-war ___________ (break) out
would happen again,what ________________ (happen) to our

broke

people on earth?
were not c. If the policeman _____________ (be not) in could be that room, it ________________ (be) very

dangerous. d. If I _______ (be) in your position,I
would ask _____________(ask) for teacher’s help. were

e. If Tom had been (be) more careful in the exam, he would have passed _______ (pass) it already. f. If you had got (get) up earlier, would_____ have caught (catch) the you first train. g. If I had met (meet) you yesterday, we ________ (go) to the would have gone concert together.

should be a. If there (be) no natural resource any more,we ___________ would make (make) use of nuclear power . b. What would happen ___ (happen) if you should ______ get up (get up) too late tomorrow? c. If Robots were to control (control) the world some day,there would be (be) no good days .

1、as if / as though
sb. were ... had done

? as if / as though +
He looks at me as if I ... were infected with AIDS.

sb.

I remember the whole thing as though.....
I remember the whole thing as though it were yesterday.

2、even if / even though+从句 may/might+动词原形 现在:
过去:过去完成时

类似的词还有though/as though/ so long as/no matter wh-/ whatever/wheneve

r/whoever等

?Even though I had been
very busy then, I would have helped you. ?However dangerous it

might be, he would have
a try.

3、 would rather 的从句

后面用过去式表示将来 I would rather you told me the truth. 我宁愿你告诉我真相。

4、It’s (about/high) time… 后面的定语从句表示一种 建议,从句的谓语动词用 过去式或“should+动词原 形”,意思是“该干某事的 时候了”,should不能省
我们该睡觉了。

It’s time that we went to bed.

5、虚拟语气用在简单句中,较常 见的有两种情况。 1)动词原形live用在long live中。 如: Long live the people!人民万岁!

2)may用在句子开头,表示 “祝愿”。如: May you succeed! 祝你成功!

6、If only …(要是…就好了) ? 要是我们的父母能和我们住在一起就 好了。 ? 要是我没错过火车就好了!

If only our parents could live with us! If only I hadn’t missed the train!

7、but for(要不是)构成虚拟。 “but for +名词”, 句子多用虚拟语气。 But for your help, I wouldn’t have finished the work. Without your help, I would have failed.

8、主语从句中的虚拟语气
在句型 “It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... ” 中,that 后面的从句中的谓 语动词用: should + 动词原形 1.It’s necessary that we should have a walk now. 我们有必要出去散散步。 2.It’s natural that she should do so. 她这样做是很自然的。 3.It’s important that we should take good care of the patient. 重要的是我们要照顾好病人。

Exercises
? ? ? ?
? ?

?

Alan ___ the party if he had gone to London. A. would have missed B. had missed C. would miss D. missed 2.—It was the drug,not the disease,that killed the boy. —He would be still alive today if he ________ that drug. A.not take B.shouldn’t have taken C.didn’t take D.hadn’t taken





3. Simon looks as though he never ___ a square meal(吃得饱), though his parents feed him very well. A. get B. getting √ got D. should get C. 4. He is talking so much about America as if he ___ there. A. √ had been B. were C. was D. been

5. – Have you ever been to Beijing? -- No, but I wish I ___. A. have B. will C. do √ had D. 6.When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ____. A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken √

? 7.(2002上海高考题)It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I ________ in love,at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox Library in my √ hometown. ? A.wouldn’t have fallen B.had not fallen ? C.should fall D.were to fall

? 8.If it ________ so hard,we’d go to town. √ ? A.isn’t raining B.weren’t raining ? C.doesn’t rain D.has rain ? 9.I wish I ________ you yesterday. √ A.saw ? B.did see ? C.had seen D.were to see



? 10.His silence at the meeting suggested that h

e ________ to your plan. ? A.didn’t agree B.hadn’t agreed ? C.wouldn’t agree D.not agree ? 11.The father insisted his daughter ________ a rich man. ? A.would be engaged to B.be engaged to ? C.should engaged to D.must be engaged to



? 12.You ________ earlier.The bus left a moment ago. ? A.would come B.should have come ? C.must come D.could have come



? 13.She made a suggestion that the plan ________ carefully. ? A.be considered B.was considered ? C.should consider D.would beconsidered




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