定语从句（一） Attributive Clause
在复合句中修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句， 在句中作定语。 被定语从句所修饰的词叫先行词，定语从句一般放在 先行词之后。 引导定语从句的有关系代词（that, which, who, whom, whose) 和关系副词（where, when, why). 本单元我们将 学习由关系代词引导的定语从句。 eg. The man who lives next to us sells vegetables. 住在我 们隔壁的人是买菜的。 You must do everything that I do. 我做什么， 你就必 须做什么。 The man who is standing by the gate is our doorman. 站在大门旁边的那个人是我们的看门人。
? 1.首先分清主句和定语从句 ? 2.确定定语从句的先行词 ? 3.把先行词带回到定语从句中去，看其在定语 从句中做什么语法成分（主语，宾语，定语或 状语） ? 4.若先行词在从句中做主语、宾语或定语则选 择关系代词，若在从句中做状语，则选择关系 副词。
三. 关系代词的基本用法和注意点 1. 关系代词的基本用法
关系代词 指代的先 行词 who 人
whom which 人 物
主语、宾语 宾语 主语、宾语
关系代词用来引导定语从句，在先行词和定语从 句中起纽带作用，使二者联系起来。 关系代词同时又用作定语从句的一个句子成分， 可做主语，宾语和定语。 1. 做主语 做主语时，其谓语动词的人称和数须和 先行词一致。 eg. The children who live on the nearby farms go to school by bike.住在农场附近的孩子都是骑车去 上学。 The man who is standing by the gate is our doorman. 站在大门旁边的那个人是我们的看门 人。
eg. The man whom you want to see has come. 你要见的那个人已经来了。 This is the hospital that we visited yesterday. 这是我们昨天参观的医院。
The letter which I received yesterday was from a friend of mine.我昨天收到的那封信是 我的一个朋友寄来的。 在口语和非正式文体中，定语从句里作宾语 的关系代词可以省略。如上面三例中的关系 代词均可省略。
3. 作定语 关系代词whose在定语从 句中作定语用。 eg. What’s the name of the young man whose sister is a doctor? 他姐姐是医生 的那个年轻人叫什么名字？ Is that the man whose house was burnt down last week. 是不是这个人的 房子上星期着火啦？
1. Who 指人，在定语从句中作主语。 eg. The man who was here yesterday is a middle school teacher.昨天来这里的那个人 是个中学老师。 Girls who work in restaurants are called waitresses.在餐馆里工作的女孩被称为女 服务员。
2. Whom 指人，在定语从句中作宾语， 可省略。 eg. The man (whom) I telephoned is out. 我 给他打电话的那个人出去
了。 The woman (whom) you saw in my room yesterday is my mother. 你昨天在我房间见 到的那个妇女是我的母亲。 Do you know the young woman (whom) we met at the gate?你认识 我们在大门口遇 见的那个青年妇女吗？
3.Which 指物，在定语从句中可作主语或 宾语，作宾语时可省略。 eg. The book which is on the desk is mine .桌 子上的书是我的。 The dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words.词典是解释词的意义的书。 Here is the book (which) the teacher mentioned yesterday. 这就是老师昨天提到的那本书。 The film (which) I saw yesterday is very interesting.我昨天看的电影很有趣。
4.that 多指物，也可指人。指物时与which 通用， 指人时与who, whom 通用。在定语从句中可作主语 和宾语，作宾语时可省略。
eg. Is he the man that (who) will teacher us English?他就是要 来教我们英语的那个人吗？（作主语，指人） Who is the person that （who) is working at the computer over there? 在计算机上工作的那个人是谁？（作主语，指人） I’ve read the newspaper that (which) carries the editorial.我已 经看过登载那篇社论的那份报纸。（作主语，指物） The letter that (which) I received yesterday is from my family.我 昨天收到的那封信是我家里来的。（作宾语，指物，可省去） This is the house that (which) they built last year. 这就是他们 去年修的房子。（作宾语，指物，可省去）
5. Whose 即可指人，也可指物，在定语 从句中作定语，相当于of whom∕ of which. eg. The young man whose mother works in a middle school is a worker. 母亲在中学工 作的那个年轻人是个工人， This is Mr. Snow whose wife works at a department store. 这位是斯诺先生，他的妻 子在一家百货店工作。 What’s the name of the boy whose brother is a doctor? 他哥哥是医生的那个孩子叫什 么名字？
※指人时只用who, whom 不用 that的情况
先行词是指人的不定代词， 如：one, ones, none, anyone, somebody, those等时， 关系代词只能用 who, whom而不用that. eg. Those who want to go abroad on holiday have to come to this office and fill in the forms. 打算去国外休假的人请到 本办公室填表。 Those who are going, come here. 要去 的人到这儿来。
※只用that 而不用 which的情况
1. 先行词为all, everything, something, anything, nothing, none, one, much, little, few等不定代词 时或先行词是受到这些不定代词以及the only, the very, the same, the last 等词修饰时。 eg. That’s all that I know. 我知道的就这些。 We know nothing that happened here yesterday. 我们不知道昨天这里发生的事。 The only thing that you have to do is to help clean the windows.唯一的一件你得做的事是帮助把窗 户搽干净。 I mean the one that was bought yesterday.我指的 是昨天买的那个。
词被形容词最高级修饰时 Eg. This is one of the most exciting football games (that) I have never seen.这是我所看过的 足球赛中最激动人的一种。 It was the finest art exhibition (that) we ever saw.这是我们所见过的最好的艺术展览。 This is the best thing that has been used against pollution.这是目前用于防污染的最好的东西。 It is the most important task that should be finished soon. 这是必须马上完成的最重要的任 务。
3. 先行词为数词或被序数词修饰时： eg. I’ll never forget the first lesson （that） I learned at this school.我永远不 会忘记在这所学校里上的第一堂课。 The first thing (that) we should do is to work out a plan. 我们应该做的第一件事是 订个计划。 Look at these flowers, you can see the two that you gave me.瞧这些花， 你能看到 你给我的那两朵。
4. 先行词中既有人又有物时： eg. We were deeply impressed by the teachers and schools that we had visited. 我们访问过的老师和学校给我们 留下深刻的印象。
1. whom, which在从句中作介词宾语时，可以和介 词一起引导定语从句，也可以把介词放在从句中有 关动词的后面. eg. The young man to whom you talked is a famous athlete. The young man whom you talked to is a famous athlete.刚才你与之谈话的年轻人是个著名 的运动员。 This is the house in which Lu Xun once lived. 这就是鲁迅曾经住过的房子。
2. 关系代词that作介词宾语时，介词不可放 在 that之前，只能放在从句中原来的位置上。 eg. The city that she lives in is very far away.她 生活的那座城市离这里很远。
Can you lend me the book that you were talking about the other day?你可以把你那天谈的那本 书借给我吗？
※keep on doing sth 持续不断、坚持做某事 ※put … into practice 把……付诸实践
四. 介词+which/ whom引导的定语从句
1. 介词的选用原则： (1) 根据定语从句谓语动词的习惯搭配来决定。 This is the book on which I spent 8 dollars. This is the book for which I paid 8 dollars.
I remember the day on which I joined the Party. I remember the days during which I lived there.
? eg. The boss in whose company my father worked is a foreigner.我父亲工作过的那 个公司的老板是个外国人。
5. 先行词是the way，意为“方式，方法”时， 引导定语从句的关系词用that/ in which或省略。
（that/in which） I didn't like the way _______________
she talked to me.
（that/in which） The way _________________he
teaches English is interesting.
限制性定语从句：是先行词不可缺少的定语。如果将 这种定语从句省去，主句的意思就会不完整。不可用 逗
号与主句隔开。 非限制性定语从句：是先行词的附加说明，如果 省去，也不影响主句的意思，它和主句之间用逗 号分开。
This is the best film that I have ever seen.这是我所看过 的电影中最好的一个。 Last night, I saw a very good film, which was about the Anti-Japanese War.昨晚我看了一部很好的电影，它是 关于抗日战争的。 She is the woman who telephoned the police.她是给警察 打电话的那位妇女。 This letter is from my sister, who is working in a company now. 这是我姐姐写给我的信，她现在在一个 公司工作。
Reading 1.remind sb. of 使某人想起 eg. This picture reminds me of my hometown. The film reminded me of what he had seen in Beijing. It reminded me of the mistakes I had made before.
2. unless =if not 如果不…..，除非 eg. I think we can get there on time unless there’s traffic jam. We won’t finish the work unless we get help from them. 3. instead of 用…代替；是….而不是…. eg. We shall have tea in the garden instead of the house. They went to the village on foot instead of by bus. instead adv. 代替，顶替 eg. We have no coffee. Would you like a cup of tea instead?
4. show off 卖弄，炫耀 eg. He is a man who is always showing off. Why does she always want to show off in front of our class. show off 后可跟宾语 eg. He likes to show off his abilities. 5. be different from eg. Our school is a vocational school. It is different from yours.
6. not all 并非所有的…. 部分否定 eg. Not all boys like to play football. 7. at the same time 同时 eg. Don’t speak at the same time. 8. earn one’s living 谋生 eg. He earns his living as a driver. 9. accept 认为某事属实，接受某事 eg. The police accepted his story as true. I can’t accept that he is to blame. 10. grow up 长大，成长 eg. Tom wants to be a doctor when he grows up.
11. afford 付得起，买得起 eg. She can’t afford the expense. I’m sure you can afford the new type of MP4. afford to do sth. 担负的起做某事 eg. We can’t afford to waste time and money. 12. be known as 作为…..而出名，被认为是 eg. She was well known as an excellent dancer. be known for=be famous for eg. Charlie Chaplin is famous for his silent film. 13. be proud of 以…..为荣，自豪 eg. I am proud of being a teacher. Parents are proud of their children’s success.
14. on earth 世上，终究，到底 eg. What’s on earth is it? What’s the matter there on earth? 15. cheer up 加油，振作起来 eg. She cheered up when we went to see her.
“Yes, please!" come on and have a look!””10 percent discount, ok? You can’t find better or cheaper ones.” The salesgirls in Beijing’s Xiushui Market are giving the foreign customers very good service in English. They can speak fluent English in their business to recommend commodities and to promote sales. Those who have ever been to Xiushui Market
would admire the salesgirls’ perfect English and this highlight also makes Xiushui Market more famous . It is said that most of the salesgirls didn’t have the chance to study in a university. Many of them just graduated from vocational schools or high schools. How can they speak English so well? There is nothing secret, They just keep on learning by themselves and put what they have learned into practice in their jobs with confidence.
When we first start to study English, many of us think English is too difficult to learn , so some of us lose confidence or even give up. What a pity! The salesgirls in Xiushui Market have set a good example to us in learning English. The following ideas may be helpful to you. Reading is an important way for Chinese students to learn English. The more you read , the more you learn. When you meey new words, don't feel bored, jusy try your best to think them over, understand and remember them. A dictionary usually helps you. The more words and idioms you know, the easier English becomes.
When we first start to study English, 开始去做…… many of us think English is too difficult 太……而不能…… to learn , so some of us lose confidence or even give up. 放弃 失去信?
※start to 开始去做…… ※lose confidence 失去信心 放弃 ※give up +名词/动名词
What a pity! The salesgirls in Xiushui 可惜的事 Market have set a good example to us
in learning English. The following ideas
may be helpful to you. 有帮助的 有益的
What a pity!
Reading is an important way for Chinese students to learn English. The more you read , the more you learn. the +比较级。the+比较级 越……越…… 你做的工作越多，你挣得钱越多。 The more work you do， the more money you make
When you meet new words, don't feel bored, jusy try your best to think them
over, understand and remember them. 理解 懂得 ※try/do one’s best to do sth
尽某人最大的努力去做某事 ※think over 仔细考虑
A dictionary usually helps you. The
more words and idioms you know, the 习惯用语 习语 easier English becomes.
掌握的英语越多，英语就变得越容易 The more words you have got, the easier English becomes.
If you have difficulty speaking English , you should listen as much as
have difficulty (in)doing sth 在……方面有困难 as……as possible 尽可能…的
repeat what you have heard and
try to say what you want to say
in English. Don’t be afraid of making mistakes. 害怕
犯错 make a mistake make mistakes +doing
Many students find it difficult to understand spoken English .
The answer is to listen as much
as you can. Take it easy at first . Success with simple tapes at
the beginning is a better way.
将下列句子变成被动语态 1.We asked the visitors not to touch the paintings. 2.They will put off the meet
ing. 3.The workers have finished the work. 4.When I came in, she was cleaning the room. 5.They are mending the road.
1.The visitors were asked not to touch the paintings. 2.The meeting will be put off. 3.The work has be finished. 4.When I came in, the room was being cleaned. 5.The road are being mended.
1.The teacher had the students ( ) the new words in their exercisebooks. A.copying B. copied C. to copy D. copy 2. Something was wrong with my bike. I will ask someone ( ) it. A.To repair B. repairing C. repaired D. have repaired
3. I don’t mind ___all my spare time___ the sick old man. A.To give, to help B. to give, helping C. giving, to help D. giving, helping 4. I felt very thirsty and stopped____. A.To drink B. drinking C. drunk D. drink 5. The mother told her son____ football in the street. A. don’t play B. not to play C. to not play D. not playing
6. Teachers should teach their students ___ on well with_____. A. how to get, others another B. how they get,
C. how to get, another others
D. how get,
7.We find it funny ___ with him.
A. talking B. to talk
8. It is impossible ____ the work at once. A. to finish B. finishing C. finished D. finish
9. He wanted something ______. A. to drink cold C. cold drink B. cold to drink D. drink cold
10. We can’t find a better hotel ____.
B. to live
C. to live in
D. live in
11. I hurried to the library only ____ it was closed. A. finding B. found C. find D. to find
12. The parents are very happy ____with their children. A. to play B. play C. playing D. played
Pick sb. up
eg. Would you please pick me up at five?
be located in 位于，坐落 于 eg. The village is located in the north of China.
Beihai Park is located in the center of China.
have sth. done 使…被… eg. I had my bike repaired. It is said that… 据说… eg. It is said that the bridge was built in the Ming Dynasty. be forced to do sth. 被迫 做… eg. I was forced to clean the window again.
by hand 手工制作 Pleace of interest 名胜 eg. There are a lot of pleaces of interest around the world. be in style 在流行中 eg. This type of dressis now in style.
be famous for 以…而著名