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新目标八年级上册语法

发布时间:2014-01-06 16:54:26  

新目标八年级上册语法

一、 基础语法

(一)表达一般将来时"be going to"结构的用法

1、含义"be going to +动词原形"这一结构,表示将要发生的事或主语打算、计划、决定要做的事。

2、"be going to +动词原形"的句式:

① 肯定句:主语+be going to+动词原形+其他。(表达主语打算…,将要…) e.g. He is going to watch TV this evening. 他打算今天晚上看电视。 ② 否定句:在be后加not。(表达主语不打算…,将不…)

e.g. He is not going to watch TV this evening. 他今天晚上不打算看电视。

③ 一般疑问句:将be动词提于句首。 (询问主语打算…,将要…吗?) e.g. Is he going to watch TV this evening? Yes, he is. No, he isn't.

他打算今天晚上看电视吗? 是的,他是。 不,他不是。 ④ 特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句句序?

e.g. He is going to watch TV this evening.→When is he going to watch TV? 他打算什么时候看电视?

He is going to watch TV this evening.→ What is he going to do this evening? 他今晚打算做什么?

3、注意:①be动词要与主语保持人称和数的一致。

②在be going to后面,必须用动词原形。

③"be going to + 动词原形"这一结构常与表将来的时间状语连用。

4、基本用法:

① 表示主语打算、计划最近或将来做某事,这种打算、计划往往是事先考虑好的。

e.g. Tom is going to learn Chinese next year. 汤姆准备明年学中文。 ② 表示说话人根据已有的迹象认为可能即将发生某

事。

e.g. Look at the black clouds! It's going to rain. 看那些乌云,马上就要下雨啦。

5、be going to可用于"There be"结构中,表达将有……

e.g. There is going to be a football match on Sunday afternoon. 星期天下午将有一场足球赛。

6、某些移位动词如go, come, leave, begin, start, begin, meet, arrive等的现在进行时可以表达将来时。

e.g. He is leaving for Beijing. 他将要离开去北京。 She is coming back

soon. 她很快就回来。

(二)形容词的比较级和最高级

1、意义:大多数形容词有三个等级:原级,即原形;比较级,表示"较…"或"更…";最高级,表示"最…"

2、构成:形容词的比较级和最高级的构成分为规则变化和不规则变化

(A)规则变化

构成方法 原级 比较级 最高级

一般在词尾加+ er /

est tall, short, taller, shorter, tallest, shortest, 以字母e结尾的形容词,加+r或

+st nice, late nicer, later nicest, latest

以重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母,先双写这一辅音字母,再加+er或+est big,

hot bigger,

hotter biggest,

hottest

以辅音字母加-y结尾的形容词,先改 "y"为 "i",再加+er或

+est happy, heavy happier, heavier happiest, heaviest

大多数多音节词和部分双音节词的规则变化是在词前加more或most delicious careful more delicious

more careful most delicious

most careful

(B)不规则变化

原级 good/well many/much far little bad/ill

比较级 better more farther/further less worse

最高级 best most farthest furthest least worst

3、形容词比较级和最高级的用法:

①形容词比较级的用法:两者(人或事物)进行比较时用比较级。表示其中一个比另一个"更……"或"较……",

后面用连词than连接另一个所比较的对象。

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e.g. He is taller than his father. 他比他爸爸高。

There are more apples in this box than in that one. 这个盒子的苹果比那个的多。

②形容词最高级的用法:三者或三者以上(人或事物)进行比较,其中有一个在某一方面超过其他几个时,用最

高级。最高级的前面一般要用定冠词the, 后面经常带of (in) 短语来说明主语所比较的范围。

e.g. He is the oldest of the three children. 在这三个孩子中他最大。

Shanghai is the biggest city in China. 上海是中国最大的城市。

注意: of意为"……之中",后常接the + 基数词(+ 名词复数)或all和复数代词的宾格us, you, them等;

in表示"在……范围"。后接表示单位、组织、时间或表示地域范围的单数名词(代词),如:class, family,

school, China, city等。

③有时在形容词的比较级前可以加上一些程度副词,如:much, a little等,表示"……得多"或"……一点"。

e.g. He is a little taller than his friend. 他比他朋友高一点。 I am much taller than you. 我比你高得多。

④表示两者当中某一个"最……"时,比较级前面一定要用定冠词the。 e.g. Who is the taller of the two boys. 这两个孩子中,谁最高?

(三)副词及副词的比较级和最高级

1、副词的用法:副词主要用来修饰动词、形容词、副词本身或全句,表示程度、时间、地点、方式或说话人的态度。

2、副词的种类:一般可以分为五种:

① 时间副词:always, usually, often, early, now等。

② 地点副词:here, there, home等。

③ 方式副词:quickly, slowly, well, badly等。

④ 程度副词:quite, much, very等。

⑤ 疑问副词:when, where, why, how等,它们常常要置于特殊疑问句的句首。

3、副词在句中的位置

①频度副词通常放在情态动词,助动词或be动词之后,实义动词之前。

e.g. He often plays football with his friends after school. Our teacher is usually the first to come to school.

②程度副词一般都放在所修饰的词前面。

e.g. His grandpa looks very young.

③多数副词都放在动词后面,如果是及物动词,一般放在宾语后面。同时地点副词,方式副词和多数的时间副词,一般都位于句末。

e.g. Listen carefully! I often go to school early. I'm going swimming next afternoon.

4、副词的比较级和最高级与形容词一样,有三个等级:原级、比较级和最高级,其变化规则与形容词一样。

e.g. fast → faster → fastest late → later → latest early →earlier → earliest (除early外,其他以ly结尾的副词一律在其前面加more, most)

carefully → more carefully → most carefully

特殊:well → better → best

5、副词比较级和最高级的用法

① 当两者进行比较,一方在某程度上比另一方高一些时,常用"比较级+than引导的从句"这一结构。但从句中常常省略掉意义上与主句相同的那部分。 e.g. The tractor goes faster than the bike.

② 表示三者或三者以上的比较,其中有一个在某种程度上超过其他几个时,用最高级。

e.g. Kate is walking (the) most slowly of all. 凯特在所有人中走得最慢。

Jack runs (the) most quickly in my class. 杰克在我班里跑得最快。 注意:副词最高级之前可以有the,也可以省略。

③ 副词的比较级前也可用much, a little等表示程度的副词来修饰。 e.g. He reads much more carefully than me.

(四)提出建议的表达方式及答语

1、提出建议的表达方式。

① Shall we … ? 让我们……好吗?

e.g. Shall we go to the zoo? 让我们去动物园好吗?

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② Let's …. 让我们……吧!

e.g. Let's meet outside the zoo gate. 让我们在动物园门口见面吧! ③ Why not …(= Why don't you …)(你)为什么不…

e.g. Why not meet a little earlier? 为什么不早一点相遇呢? ④ What(How) about … … 怎么样?

e.g. What/How about meeting at a quarter past ten? 在10点15分见面怎么样?

⑤ Would you like …? 你想要……吗?(向别人提出建议或征求对方的意见) e.g. Would you like to come to my home? 你想要来我家吗?

以上的几种表达在语气上稍有差异,但都表示一个建议,因此在意思上基本一样。

2、对于表示建议的句型的回答。

① 肯定回答:Good idea! / OK./ All right./ Sure./ Yes, I think so./ Yes, please./ Yes, I'd love(like) to.

② 否定回答:No, I don't think so./ Sorry, I can't …./ I'm afraid …./ I'd love to. But …./ No, Let's …

(五)询问方向及指点方向

1. 询问方向的句型(在向别人询问方向之前,常用Excuse me来引起对方的注意)

① Where is … …在哪里?

② Is there … near here? …在这儿附近有…吗?

③ How can I get to… 我这样才能到达…

④ Which is the way to… 哪条是去…的路?

⑤ Can you tell me the way to … 你能告诉我去…的路吗? ⑥ Can you tell me how to get to … 你能告诉我怎样到达…?

2. 指点方向。

① Go/Walk along … 沿着…走。

② Take … turning on the left. 在第…个路口向左转。

③ Go up / down the street. 沿着这条街向上/下走。

④ It's outside/next to/in front of the… 它就在…的外面/隔壁/前面。 ⑤ It's between… and… 它就在…和…之间。

⑥ It's about +距离+along on the left / right. 那大约在左/右前方的……处

(200 meters) (200米)

⑦ It's about +距离+away 那大约……远。

⑧ You'd better catch a bus. 你最好乘车去。

3. 如果不能给别人指点方向时,可以说:

① I am sorry. I don't know. I am new here, too.

② Please ask the policeman.

(六)一般过去时态

1、一般过去时的基本用法:表示过去某一时间或某一段时间发生的动作或存在的状态,它没有人称和数的变化。

e.g. She was ill last night. 她昨晚病了。(状态)

They were in the theatre yesterday. 他们昨天在剧院。(状态) They had seafood for dinner last Sunday. 他们上星期天吃海鲜。(动作)

I called you three days ago. 我三天前打过电话给你。(动作)

2、一般过去时的构成:一般过去时的构成是句子中的谓语动词本身的形式进行变化,谓语动词的变化分为规则变

化和不规则变化两种。

①规则动词过去式的构成

构成规则 原形 过去式

一般在动词末尾+ed look; play looked; played

以不发音字母e结尾+d live; use lived; used

末尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节词,先双写这个辅音字母再+ed stop; trip stopped;

tripped

结尾是辅音字母+y,变y为i

+ed carry; worry; study carried; worried; studied

②非规则动词的过去式见课本Book 3 P255

3、一般过去时的句式。

① 否定式形式:

A:在(be)was / were的后面对 + not 即was not (wasn't) 或 were not (weren't);

e.g. He was not (wasn't) at school yesterday. 他昨天没上学。 They were not (weren't) at home last night. 昨晚他们不在家。

B:在实义动词之前+ didn't,此时实义动词应还原形。即 Ved → didn't + V; e.g. I didn't call you three days ago. 三天前我没打电话给你。 They didn't have seafood for dinner last night. 昨晚晚饭我们没有吃海鲜。

② 一般疑问句形式:

A:将(be)was / were提前。

e.g. Was she ill last night? 昨晚她病了吗?

Were they in the park yesterday? 他们昨天在公园里吗?

B:借助助动词do / does的过去式did改,注意后面用动词原形。

e.g. Did you call me three days ago? 三天前你打电话给我吗? Did they see a film last Sunday? 上星期天他们看电影吗? C:肯定否回答。

Yes, 主 + was / were. No, 主 + wasn't / weren't. Yes, 主 + did. No, 主 + didn't.

4、过去时态的句式(特殊疑问句)

A:疑问词+ was/were +其它?

e.g. He was at school yesterday. → Where was he yesterday? 昨天他在哪里?

They were in the park last night. → When were they in the park? 他们什么时候在公园?

B:疑问词+ did +其它?

e.g. I called you three days ago. → When did you call me? 你什么时候打电话给我?

(七)反意疑问句

1、含义及用法:

① 反意疑问句表示提问的人对所说的事情有一种看法,但没有把握,需要对方来证实。

② 反意疑问句的两部分构成:前一部分是一个陈述句,表示提问者的看法,后一部分是一个简短的附加疑

问句,对前部分所陈述的内容提出疑问。

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2、基本构成:

① 陈述部分肯定式 + 疑问部分否定式?(前肯后否)

e.g. Bruce is from Australia, isn't he? 布鲁斯来自澳大利亚,不是吗?

Jim knows the way Australians speak, doesn't he? 吉姆知道澳大利亚人说话的方式,不是吗?

② 陈述部分否定式 + 疑问部分肯定式?(前否后肯)

e.g. She can't ride a bike, can she? 她不能骑自行车,是吗? You didn't go with them, did you? 你没有跟他们一起去,是吗?

3、注意事项:

① 前后两部分要在人称方面保持一致。

② 前后两部分的时态要保持一致。

③ 简略反问部分的主语用代词。

④ 如果陈述部分有never, little等含否定意义的词时,其后疑问部分应用肯定形式。

e.g. He is never late for school, is he?

⑤ 不管问题的提法如何,若事实是肯定的,就用Yes回答,事实是否定的,就用No回答。

4、反意疑问句的特殊形式:

① 在口语中,I am后面的疑问尾句常用aren't I. e.g. I am late, aren't I.

② 在肯定祈使句后面用won't you表示邀请。 e.g. Do sit down, won't you? ③ 在肯定祈使句后面用will you表示请求。 e.g. Give me a hand, will you?

④ 在否定祈使句后面用will you? e.g. Don't forget me, will you? ⑤ 在Let's…后面,常用shall we? e.g. Let's go for a walk, shall we?

⑥ 在Let us…后面常用will you? e.g. Let us have a short rest, will you?

⑦ 含有nothing做主语的句子后用it。 e.g. Nothing can stop us, can it?

⑧ 含有nobody做主语的句子后用they。 e.g. Nobody phoned when I was out, did they?

⑨ 如果陈述句的主语是everyone, someone, anyone, no one等不定代词,其后用可以用he也可以用they。

e.g. Everyone knows it, doesn't he? (don't they)

(八)一般将来时

1、含义:表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,也表示将来经常或反复发生的动作。

e.g. I will go to my hometown next month. 下个月我要回故乡去。

Next September we will be in Grade 3. 明年九月我们将进入三年级了。 We will come to see you every Sunday. 我们每个星期天都将会来。

2、构成:由助动词will+动词原形构成谓语,will在主语后可简略为'll。否定形式will not 缩写为won't。

3、一般将来时的句式:

① 肯定式:主+will+动词原形+其它;

e.g. He will leave here. 他将会离开这儿。

② 否定式:主+will+not (won't) +动词原形+其它(即在助动词will后加not); e.g. He will not (won't) leave here. 他不会离开这儿的。

③ 疑问式:将助动词will提前。

e.g. Will he leave here? 他会离开这儿吗?

What will he do? 他将会做什么?

④ 一般疑问句的肯否定回答:Yes, 主语+ will. No, 主语+ will not/won't.

4、will和be going to的区别。

be going to常用于这两种情况:

① 事先经过考虑,安排要做的事情;

e.g. I am going to watch that football match this afternoon. ② 表示根据目前某种迹象判断某事非常有可能发生;

e.g. Look at the clouds! It's going to rain.

will常纯粹表示将来,有时也常表"意愿"的色彩。

e.g. I will help him with his English. 我将会帮助他学英语。 (带意愿色彩)

e.g. I will be fifteen years old next month. 下个月我将十五岁。 (纯粹将来)

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(九)感叹句

1、感叹句表示说话时的惊异、喜悦、气愤情绪,这类句子通常是用what或how引起的。What 用来感叹一个名

词,how用来感叹形容词或副词。

2、句型:

①What+(a/an)+形容词+名词+主语+谓语+(其它)!

即感叹名词时,将名词连同其修饰词提于what后,其它照抄+!

e.g. It is a cold day. → What a cold day it is! 多么冷的天(气)啊!

It was bad weather yesterday. → What bad weather it was yesterday! 昨天的天气真糟糕!

(weather是不可数名词,所以前不能加冠词a/an,另外,如果被感叹的名词是复数,前也不加a/an)

②How +形容词/副词+主语+谓语+(其它)!

即感叹形容词或副词时,将形容词或副词提于how后,其它照抄+!

e.g. It is cold today. → How cold it is today! 今天多冷啊! He runs fast. → How fast he runs! 他跑得真快!

③另外,如果要感叹名词词组中的形容词,应将该词组提前,且把词组中被感叹的形容词提于how后,

即句型:How + 形容词 + 冠词 + 名词 + 其它!

e.g. He is a good student. → How good a student he is! = What a good student he is!

It is bad weather today. → How bad the weather it is today! = What bad weather it is today!

3、在口语中,谓语常省略。e.g. What a cold day! How cold!

(十)常用的邀请形式

1. Would you like to … 你愿意…吗?

2. Would you love to … 你愿意…吗?

3. I hope you can … 我希望你能…。

应答形式:

①肯定回答:Sure. / Certainly. / Of course. / OK. / All right. / I'd love to. / Thank you for…

②否定形式:Thanks, but…/ I'm sorry, but …/ I'd love to, but…

(六)请求许可:

1. can, could, may三个词都常用来请求许可做某事,can和could意思一样,但could比can语气更委婉,客气,

could的答语不用could,而要用can。另外,在你没有把握得允许时常用could。

2. may表示请求许可比can/could更正式,往往含有尊重之意,比较客气,常用于正式文体中。

3. can, could, may后都必须用动词形式。

e.g. May / Could I speak to…, please? 答语:Certainly, sure… / I'm afraid not.

Can I open it now? 答语:Certainly, sure…/ No, you can't.

(十一)简单句的五种基本句型 (只包含一个主谓结构的句子,称为简单句)

1. 主语+不及物动词 e.g. ①He smiled. ③They are running.

主语 不及物动词 主语 不及物动词

2. 主语+及物动词+宾语 e.g.

①I like football. ②They will reach Beijing in two days.

主语 及物动词 宾语 主语 及物动词 宾语

3. 主语+连系动词+表语

英语中连系动词除be动词外,常见的还有feel, look, smell, sound, seem, become, get, turn, taste, keep, grow(渐渐变得,变成),这些连系动词后常跟形容词做表语,构成系表结构,但也可以跟名词,副词及介词短语。 e.g. ①He seemed worried. (形容

词) ②They are doctors. (名词)

主语 连系动词 表语 主语 连系动词 表语

③It looks like an apple. (介词短语) ④ We are here. (副词)

主语 连系动词 表语 主语 连系动词 表语

4. 主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语

间接宾语(人)一般在直接宾语(物)之前,如果直接宾语在间接宾语之前,必须在间接宾语前加上to/for.

e.g. He lent me a pen. → He lent a pen to me. 主语 及物动词 间接宾语 直接宾语

I bought him a book. → I bought a book for him. 主语 及物动词 间接宾语 直接宾语

一般动词buy, get, find, play(演奏), make, sing, leave(留下), cook, do后常跟介词for,其它动词后常跟介词to。

注意: ①如果直接宾语是代词,不可以放在间接宾语后。 e.g. Give it to me. ②如果间接宾语是物不是人,则不可以放在直接宾语前。

e.g. Did you return the book to the library? 你把书归还给图书馆了吗?

5. 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语

e.g. ①Jack made his father angry. ②

We call him "Tom".

主语 及物动词 宾语 宾语补足语 主语 及物动词 宾语 宾语补足语

The teacher told us to come earlier.

主语 及物动词 宾语 宾语补足语

注意:一感(feel)二听(hear, listen to)三让(let, make, have)四看(see, look at, watch, notice)等动词后常跟不带to的不

定式做宾语补足语。help后的不定式可以带to也可以不带。

e.g. hear sb do sth. see sb do sth. make sb do sth. Help sb (to) do sth

(十二)情态动词may, can, must, have to的用法

1. may, can表示"可以",即表示说话人同意,许可或请求。

e.g. You may do it later. 你可以迟些时候做那件事。

May I smoke here? 我可以在这里吸烟吗?

Yes, please./Certainly. No, you mustn't(can't). / Please don't. 注意:May I…?的否定回答常用can't或mustn't代替may not.

You can put it here. 你可以把它放在这里。

Can I borrow these book? 我能借这些书吗?

Yes, you can./ Sure. /Certainly. No, you can't. /No, I am afraid not. /I am sorry, but……

can的过去式是could,但could可用于现在时和将来时,表示"请求",语气更加委婉客气。

e.g. Could you help me, please? 请问你能帮助我吗?(回答不用could,而用can)

2. may, can还可以表示可能性。

e.g. It may be in your desk. 那可能是你的书桌。

She is new here. You can't know her. 他的新来的。你可能不认识她。

3. must表示现在和将来的义务和必要性,指说话人主观上的看法,有"应该","必须"的意思,而否定式must not

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(mustn't)表示"不可以,不准,禁止"之意,用来说明或告戒不可以做某事。 e.g. You must wait in your turn. 你必须排队等候。

You mustn't laugh at him. 你不可以嘲笑他

注意:回答以must开头的一般疑问句,肯定回答为"Yes, … must." 否定回答必须用"No, … need not.(needn't)"

e.g. Must I do it now? Yes, you must. No, you needn't.

4. must还可以表示说话人的猜测,比may的语气更加肯定,更加有把握,有"一定,肯定"的意思。

e.g. He must be a new teacher. 他肯定是位新老师。

must表示推测时,反意疑问句要通过句子中的助动词或be来转换。

e.g. It must be more delicious, isn't it? 那肯定更好吃,不是吗? She must get here now, doesn't she? 他肯定到家了,不是吗?

5. have to表示客观需要做的事情,意思是"必须"、"不得不",它有人称和时态的变化。

e.g. He has to stop eating rich food. 他不得不停止吃油腻的食物。

She had to take care of his grandma yesterday. 她昨天不得不照顾他的奶奶。

在构成否定句、疑问句时,要借用助动词do/does/did.

e.g. You didn't have to go there yesterday. 昨天你不必去那里。 Do you have to go to the farm on foot? 你得步行去农场吗? Yes, we do. No, we don't.

(十三)时间状语从句及条件状语从句

1. 用when(当…时), before(在…之前), after(在…之后), until(直到…)等连词引导的从句为时间状语从句,表示主句

动作发生的时间。

e.g. What did you do before you came here? When I grow up, I will be a nurse and look after patients.

We won't leave until we get back our basket.

2. 用连词if引导的从句为条件状语从句。表示"如果","假设"。

e.g. If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home. If you don't want to go alone, I will go with you.

应注意的是,在带有时间状语从句及条件状语从句的主从复合句中,主句和从句的时态应该保持一致,但如

果主句为一般将来时,从句则用一般现在时。另外,主句在前,从句在后,两句之间不用逗号隔开,但如果从

句在前,主句在后,则要用逗号隔开。

(十四)合成不定代词及不定副词

由不定代词some, any, no, every加上-body, -one, -thing, -where称为合成不定代词或合成不定副词,不定代词在句

子中常作主语和宾语,而不定副词作状语。

注意: ①由some, every合成的不定代词及不定副词一般用于肯定句。 ②由any合成的不定代词及不定副词常用于否定句,疑问句及条件状语从句。 e.g. If there is anything difficult, please tell me. 如果有什么困难,请告诉我。

(条件状语从句)

③当表达请求,建议,反问等,及希望对方作出肯定回答的,常用some等不定代词或不定副词。

e.g. Would you like something to drink? Why not read something easier?

④当表达"任何人,任何事,任何地方"时,any合成的不定代词也可用于肯定句。 e.g. Anybody (任何地方) will tell you the way to the station. Put the box down anywhere(任何地方).

⑤修饰不定代词的定语应放于不定代词之后。

e.g. anybody else, something to eat, something important.

⑥合成不定代词作主语时,当单数第三人称看待,谓语动词应用单数形式。 e.g. Someone is here. 这里有人。

⑦nobody = not…anybody/not…anyone, nothing = not…anything, nowhere = not … anywhere

⑧反意疑问句中主语为nothing, anything, everything时,其后的疑问部分用it。

e.g. Everything goes well, doesn't it?

主语为everyone, someone, somebody, anyone, anybody, no one, nobody等,其后可以用he也可以用they。

e.g. Everyone likes skating, doesn't he/they?

另外,当陈述部分中含有no合成的不定代词时,其后的疑问部分应用肯定形式。 e.g. There is nobody in the room, is there? 没有人在房间里,是吗? (十五)并列句:由并列连词(如and, but, or, so等)把两个或者两个以上的简单句连在一起的句子

1. and连接两个或几个同等并列关系的句子。

e.g. My father is a doctor and my mother is a nurse 我爸爸是个医生而我妈妈是个护士。

The door opened and he came in. 门开了,他走进来。

2. but表示转折。

e.g. He has lots of money, but he doesn't enjoy himself. 他有很多钱,但他过得不快活。

He can play the piano, but I can't. 他会弹钢琴,但我不会。

3. or表示选择。

e.g. You must get up early, or you'll be late. 你必须早点起床,要不然就迟到了。

Do you like apples or bananas? 你喜欢苹果还是香蕉?

4. so表示因果关系。

e.g. He has lots of money, so he can buy himself lots of things. 他有很多钱,所以他能为自己买很多东西。

(十六)反身代词:指"某人自己",其形式为:

人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称

单数 myself yourself himself, herself, itself

复数 ourselves yourselves themselves

其用法:1. 一般情况下,当句子的主语和宾语为同一个人时,常用其反身代词作宾语。

e.g. Tom taught himself English. 汤姆自学英语。

I can see myself in the lake. 我能在湖水中看见我自己。

2. 担任同位语以加强语气,位置较灵活。

e.g. I can do it myself. 我自己能做。

I myself worked out the problem. 我自己做出了这道题。

(十七)形容词和副词的比较等级的句式

1. 形容词和副词比较级的用法:当两者之间进行比较,表示一方比另一方"更……"或"较……",就用比较级,

后面通常用比较连词than连接另一比较的对象。

e.g. (1). Jim is taller than Tom. (3). Who jumps higher, Li Lei or Jim?

(2). He runs faster than I (do). (4). This book is less expensive than that one.这本书不如那本贵。

注意: ① 为了避免重复,than后面常用代词that, those, one或ones代替主句中己出现过的词(如第4句);另外

副词比较级than后面若使用的动词与主句中的动词相同,通常用助动词do, does, did代替,该助动

词可省略(如第2句)。

② less+原级+than 表示前者不如后者。(如第4句)

③ 另外在比较中,为使原来的比较在语义上有所加强,程度更加明确,常加表示程度状语如much, even,

still, far, a little, a bit, rather等。

e.g. He runs much faster than I. 他跑得比我快得多。

She is a bit/little taller than I. 她比我高一点儿。

2. 形容词和副词最高级的用法:当三者或三者以上的人或事物之间进行比较,表示其中一方"最……"时,就用

最高级,形容词最高级之前必须加定冠词the,副词最高级之前可以省略the,最高级后面常带of或in短语来

说明主语所比较的范围,of后的范围常是代词us, them, all或the+基数词(+名词复数),in后常是表示单位,组

织或表示地域范围的单数名词,e.g. class, family, school, China, city等 e.g. ① Lin Tao jumped farthest of all. 林涛在所有人中跳得最远。 ② My mother gets up earliest in my family. 在我家庭妈妈起床起得最早。 注意: ① 在最高级前有时可以用序数词或nearly, really等修饰。

e.g. Changjiang River is the first longest river in China. 长江是中国第一长河。

This hat is really the biggest. 这帽子几乎是最大的了。 ② 比较级可以与比较级进行句型转换。

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e.g. He is taller than I → I am shorter than he.

He runs faster than I.→ I runs more slowly than he.

③ 比较级可以与最高级进行句型转换。

e.g. Jim is taller than the other students(any other student)in the class. → Lucy is the tallest in the class.

He jumps higher than the other two. → He jumps highest of the three.

3. 当表示两个人或两事物在某一方面程度相同时,就用原级比较,句式是"as+形容词/副词原形+as",第一个as

是副词,修饰其后的形容词或副词,第二个as是连词,连接比较对象。 e.g. He is as old as I. 他和我一样大。

Do you think that drawing is as interesting as music? 你认为绘画和音乐一样有趣吗?

He can jump as high as I (do). 他能跳得和我一样高。

Li Lei works as hard as Jim. 李雷工作同吉姆一样努力。

4. 表示某人或某物在某一方面不及他人或他物时,用"not as(so)+形容词/副词原形+as"

e.g. He is not as/so tall as I. 他不如我高。

Lucy doesn't draw as/so well as I. 露丝不如我画得好。

He didn't come as/so early as Wang Lin . 他不如王林来得早。 注意:① 肯定句只用as…as没有so…as。

② 另外,含有not as/so……as的句子往往可以与比较级句型进行转换。 e.g. He is not as tall as his farther. → He is shorter than his father. → His father is taller than he.

Jim didn't run as fast as Li Lei yesterday. → Jim ran more slowly than Li Lei yesterday.

→ Li Lei ran faster than Jim yesterday.

(十八)冠词

1. 不定冠词(a, an)的用法:

① 表示人或事物的某一类。 e.g. A plane is faster than a bus. 飞机比公共汽车快。

② 表示某一类事物中的某一个。 e.g. This is a new book.. She is a student.

③ 泛指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人何物。 e.g. A boy is waiting for you. 有个男孩子在等你。

④ 表示数量"一",但不如one强烈。 e.g. I have a mouth, a nose and two eyes.

⑤ 表示"每一"的意思,相当于every。 e.g. once a week. 一星期一次 three times a day 一天三次

⑥ 用于某些固定词组中。 e.g. a few, a lot of, have a rest, …

2. 定冠词(the)的用法

① 特指某(些)人或某(些)物。 e.g. Ask the teacher over there. ② 上下文提过的人或事物。 e.g. He is sitting under a tree. The tree is very tall.

③ 指双方都知道的人或事物。 e.g. Where are the new books, Tom? ④ 用在表示方位的名词或世上独一无二的名词前。e.g. the east, the right, the sun, the sky

⑤ 用于序数词或形容词最高级之前。 e.g. the first lesson, He is one of the richest men.

⑥ 与某些形容词连用,使形容词名词化代替某一类人或事物。e.g. the old老人, the rich富人, the sick病人

⑦ 用在姓氏复数形式之前,表示 "全家人"。 e.g. the Greens 格林一家人

⑧ 用在普通名词构成的专有名词前 e.g. the Great Wall, the Summer Palace

⑨ 用于可数名词前,表示某一类人或事物. e.g. The horse is a useful animal.马是一种有用的动物。

⑩ 在于某些习惯用语中. e.g. in the morning, look the same

3. 不使用冠词的情况

① 专有名词、抽象名词和物质名词前一般不用冠词。

e.g. in China We can't live without water. He likes music very much. ② 名词前己有作定语的指示代词,物主代词、不定代词或数词

e.g. this book, her friends, some questions

③ 复数名词表示一类人或事物时前不加冠词。 e.g. They are teachers. ④ 星期、月份、季节和节日名称前。 e.g. Sunday, summer, June 1st is Children's Day.

⑤ 三餐、球类运动、棋类游戏及学科名词前

e.g. have breakfast, play football, play bridge He is good at English. ⑥ 在某些固定词组前或习惯用语中 e.g. at night, by bus, in class, at home, on TV.

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(十九)过去进行时

1、 意义:表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间正在进行的动作,与过去某一特定的时间状语连用。e.g. at ten o'clock

yesterday, at this time last Sunday或句中有when/while引导的状语从句。

2、 谓语结构的构成:由be的过去时were / was + 动词ing 形式。

3、 过去进行时的基本句型:

①陈述句(肯定):

e.g. They were doing their homework at eight yesterday. 昨天八点他们正在做作业。

I was drawing a picture when the teacher came in. 当老师将来时我正在画一幅图画。

②陈述句(否定):在was/were后 + not

e.g. They were not(weren't) doing their homework at eight yesterday. I was not(wasn't) drawing a picture when the teacher came in. ③一般疑问句:将was/were提于句首,其回答也用be回答。

e.g. Were they doing their homework at eight yesterday? Yes, they were./No, they weren't.

Were you drawing a picture when the teacher came in? Yes, I was./No, I wasn't.

④特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句式。

e.g. What were they doing at eight yesterday?

What were you drawing when the teacher came in?

4、 一般过去时和过去进行时的区别:

一般过去时表示在过去某个时间存在的状态或发生的动作,该动作一般己是完成了。而过去进行时则表示在过

去某一时刻或某一段时间正在进行的动作,动作可能还没有完成。

e.g. He read a story book yesterday evening. 昨天晚上他读了一本故事书。(读完了)

He was reading a story book yesterday evening. 昨天晚上他正在读一本故事书。(不一定己读完)

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