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英文写作高分秘笈

发布时间:2014-01-07 17:05:13  

英文作文必杀技
--句式多样化

2014-1-7

GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

句式多样化: 普通句与复杂句结合,长句与短句结合
? 对于绝大多数考生而言,短期内迅速提高实力是 很难的,所以一个秘籍就是平时储备几种非陈述句 的句式.根据我们的经验,比较立竿见影的方法有强 调句,倒装句和插入语.平时练习的时候可以有意识 地运用这些技巧,增加句子的复杂性和多样性.考试 中,对于基础一般的学生,此招数可以提高2—6分 左右. ? 凡是普通句都可以进行句式变换,设想一篇文章 有20个句子,如果第一句用强调,第二到四句用普 通句型,第五句用倒装句,第六到八句用普通句,第 九句用插入语,……这样错落有致地把三种加分句 型安插到文章中,就会达到抑扬顿挫的效果.
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

倒装
? ? ? 倒装 1.否定副词位于句首,主谓倒装 比如,对于 “住在大城市好还是小城市好”这样 的文章,很多人可能会写: A small city does not have as much excitement as a big city in general. →Seldom / hardly / scarcely does a small town have as much excitement as a big city. 类似的关于程度,频率和比较的句子都可以如法 炮制.如:
GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

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2014-1-7

? A new factory would contaminate the living space of most of our city’s inhabitants to some degree. ? 可以改成: ? Seldom can a factory be established without contaminating the living space of our city’s inhabitants to some degree.

? 2. + 从句(倒装) ? 比如关于工厂污染, Only under special circumstances when the factory pollutes, do we need to regulate it.
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

? 比如关于喝酒, ? Only under special circumstances, such as wedding or celebrations, do we drink wine. ? 3. 递进的not only, but also ? 当not only, but also 放在句子中时,不需要倒装. ? I not only like apples, but also enjoy oranges. ? 但是当他们在句首时候,就会主谓倒装. ? Not only do I like apples, but also enjoy oranges. ? (特别注意: 此时只有not only 从句需要倒装, but also 从句仍然用正常的语序。考生容易犯此错误。)
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

? 倒装在语法意义上分为两种:完全倒装和部分倒装. ? 1. 完全倒装就是把整个谓语放到主语之前. ? In came the teacher and the class began. ? 由 there引出的完全倒装句,一般都译成”有”的含 义: ? there be/ appear/ exist /lie /remain/ seem to be/ stand. ? There appeared to be a man in black in the distance. ? 由地点和时间副词引出的完全倒装句: ? 以 here, there, now, then开头 +动词 be/ come /exist /fall/ go/ lie/seem…
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

? E.g., Under the tree sits a beautiful girl.

? 2. 部分倒装:只把助动词,

情态动词提前。 ? Were she to leave right now, she would get there on Sunday.

? 以否定词开头的句子要求部分倒装。(注意下列 句子中补充否定词的用法) ? Not until yesterday did little John change his mind.
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

? 以否定副词开头并加状语的句子要求部分倒装。 这些否定副词有:barely, hardly, little, seldom, scarcely…when, never, no sooner…than, rarely, no more, not only, only. ? Only under special circumstances are freshmen permitted to take make-up tests. ? 由no matter how, however 和how 引导的状语从 句要求部分倒装。 ? I know nothing about this river, neither how long, how wide nor how deep it is.
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

插入语
? 插入语以举例式的插入语最容易掌握。如:Such as, especially. ? E.g., Weapons of mass destructions are technologies of big negative effect. ? →Some technologies, such as weapons of mass destructions, are of big negative effect.

? 又比如:Movies, especially porn ones, should be regulated. ? 插入语可以是一个词,一个短语或一个句子。
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

? 1。常用作插入语的副词:indeed, surely, however, obviously, frankly, naturally, luckily for sb., fortunately, strangely… ? Fortunately, I found the book that I’d lost.

? 2. 常用的形容词或短语:true, funny, strange to say, needless to say, most important of all, worse still(更糟糕的是) ? Strange to say, he should have done such a thing. ? Most important of all, you each over-fulfilled your own task.
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

? 3.常用作插入语的介词短语: ? In a few words, in other words, in a sense, in general, ? in may view, in his opinion, in conclusion, in fact, in the first place, in addition, to our knowledge, to my joy, to their surprise, for instance, as a matter of fact… ? Of course, he did not succeed for the lack of experience.

? 4. 常用的分词短语:strictly speaking, generally speaking, judging from… ? Judging from his letter, a campaign against “white pollution” has been undertaken in his hometown.
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

? 5。常用的不定式短语: to be sure, to sum up, to tell the truth ? To be sure, community service can aid reemployment.

? 6。插入句: I am sure, I believe, I wonder, you know, you see, that is, it seems, as I see it, what is important, it is said,… ? It will result in success, I suppose. ? What is more important, information superhighways can carry great amounts of information around the country quickly and cheaply.
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

强调句
? 主要句型: ? It is / was + 被强调的部分 + that /who +原句其他 部分,它可以用于几乎任何情况下,是理想的必杀 技。 ? All this happened on Monday n

ight. ? →It was on Monday night that all this happened. ? 1. 用 助动词+动词原形 表示强调。 ? He knows the place well. ? →He does know the place well. ? Write to me when you get there. ? →Do ……
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

? 2。用形容词very, only, single, such 等来加强语气。 ? We used this textbook last term. ? →That’s the very textbook we used last term.

? 3. 用ever, never, very, just等副词和badly, highly, really等带有-ly 的副词来强调。 ? Why did you do so? ? →Why ever did you do so? ? He did not say a word the whole day. ? →He never said a word the whole day.
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

句式变换技巧
? 在写作技巧中,对于语言运用的追求是永无止境 的。一个好的作家,会花很多时间在语言的精雕细 琢上。而一个考生,显然没有那么多时间。因此我 们的目标是让你最大程度上改变句式单调乏味的现 状。 ? 除了词汇的变换,用大量的不同词汇来表达相同 的意思以外,句型的多样化也是我们追求的目标。 句式多样化会让文章异常生动。 ? 练习:请将下列句子进行变换,把简单句合并成复 杂句,适当运用插入语。
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

? 1. Energy is much needed now. And nuclear plants are clean and economical. They can produce vast amounts of energy. But people, especially local residents, are very concerned about safety. They hold a strong negative attitude toward them. ? → Nuclear plants are a clean economical way of producing vast amounts of much-needed energy, though people, especially local residents, who are very concerned about safety, hold a strong negative attitude toward them. ? 修改句运用了因果关系和定语从句的形式,将儿童 语言一般的简单句变成复杂句,运用了插入语,可 谓八面玲珑。
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

变换诀窍:找到一个中心句,以它为圆心来安排其 他的句子的位置。 ? 2. Some people succeed. Other people fail. The difference is not the number of opportunities. It is whether they can take advantage of opportunities. Opportunities will arise in the course of one’s life, though they are rare. ? →One essential difference between those who succeed and those who fail is the extent to which they take advantage of opportunities rather than the number of opportunities, opportunity which will inevitably arise, if rarely, in the course of one’s life. ? 修改句把5个简单句全变成了复杂句,运用定语从句, 同位语从句、插入语等,令人叹为观止。
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

?3. College students now are primarily interested in grades and economic success. They are expected to cheat more frequently. They are unlike those graduated ten years ago. They are only interested in their own personal f

uture and consider little the problem of society.

2014-1-7

GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

?→College students, primarily interested in grades and economic success, are expected to cheat more frequently than those who graduated ten years ago and are far less concerned with the problem of society than with their own personal future.

?文章的节奏感就是长句和短句的交替运用。 长短结合能使文章抑扬顿挫。
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo

? 一般而言,描写、说理等用长句比较让人接受,而 结论或重要观点则可用短句。这是因为长句中夹杂 的短句往往能给人以深刻的印象。见下例。 ? E.g., Work has ceased to be a moral and religious obligation in the sense of the middle-class attitude of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Something new has emerged. Ever-increasing production, the drive to make bigger and better things, have become aims in themselves. Work has become alienated from the working person.
2014-1-7 GUCAS English Department Hu Jiangbo


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