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中考考点九:语态

发布时间:2014-01-08 13:00:35  

中考考点九:动词的语态

动词的语态:表示谓语与主语之间的关系的动词形式叫做语态,分为主动语态和被动语态。

主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者

一、被动语态

结构:1.行为动词的被动语态: 助动词be + 及物动词的过去分词.

be有人称.时态.数的变化,其变化规则与be作为连系动词时完全一样.

一般现在时 am/is/are+及物动词的过去分词

一般过去时 was/were +及物动词的过去分词

一般将来时 will +be +及物动词的过去分词

现在完成时 have/has+been+及物动词的过去分词

2.情态动词的被动语态:

情态动词 + be +及物动词的过去分词

否定式:是在助动词 be 或情态动词后加not构成

疑问式:是把上述助动词或情态动词提到主语之前,句尾加问号构成. 用法:

1.不知道动作的执行者是谁,或没有必要或不想指出谁是动作的执行者.

eg. The window was broken yesterday. Is English taught in your school?

2.强调或突出动作的承受者,此时如想同时指出动作的执行者,可用“by +动作执行者(宾格)来表示.

eg.The red dress was made by her mother. The letter must be written by me.

注意点:

1.只有及物动词能构成被动语态, 不及物动词不能构成被动语态.

2.某些不及物动词与介词.副词搭配构成短语动词,带有宾语时,则有了动作的承受者,这时应把它们看作一个整体,变为被动语态,不能丢掉其中的介词,常用的有look after,take care of,cut down, laugh at,talk about,turn on等 eg.Catherine always takes care of the little girl.→The little girl is always taken care of by Carherine.

3.有些动词短语本身即是被动语态的形式, 不要再加by 短语,常用的有

be covered with

be surprised at

be interested in

be worried about

be made of/from be known to

4.某些动词形式是主动语态,但含有被动的意思.

eg. This dictionary sells well.

This kind of car drives fast.

The woolen sweater costs $ 88.

5.主动语态与被动语态的相互变化关系

主动句: 主语 + 谓语 + 宾语(动作执行者) (动作承受者)

被动句: 主语 +谓语动词的被动形式+ by + 动作执行者 (动作承受者)

1)主动句如何变为被动句

a.找到动作的承受者(常为主动句的宾语)作被动句的主语.

b.找到谓语变为be + 过去分词的结构.

c.找到动作的执行者(常为主动句的主语)作 by 的宾语.若不必指出动作的执行者,可省去

by 短语.

d.确定be动词的时态.数. 例如: She makes the beautiful kites.

The beautiful kites are made by her. (被动句)

2)被动句如何变为主动句.

a.找到动作的执行者(常为被动句的宾语)作主动句的主语.

b.找到be+过去分词结构还原为及物动词原形.

c.找到动作的承受者(常为被动句的主语)作主动句的宾语.

d.确定及物动词的时态.数(注意)在以上转换中,代词作主语用主格, 代词作宾语用宾格.

6.主动语态中有些动词如:make,see,listen, watch,feel后常跟不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足

语,变为被动语态要带上to

He made the boy work for him. →The boy was made to work for him.

7.主动语态中若有双宾语,变为被动语态时, 通常把指人的间接宾语变为被动语态的主语.

His uncle gave him a dictionary yesterday.→He was given a dictionary by his uncle yesterday.

练习题:

把下列句子变为被动句: 1.They asked me to come a little later. →I ___ _____ to come a little

later.

2.Women often talk about food and clothes. →Food and clothes ____ often _____ about

by women.

3.Do they make this kind of truck in Nanjing? → ___this kind of truck _____ in Nanjing?

4.We must clean our teeth twice a day. →Our teeth must ___ ____ twice a day.

5.Can I answer this question in simple English? →_____this question __ ______ in

simple English?

6.You may clean the room after work. → The room may _____ _______ after work.

思考题:

1.We use brooms for sweeping the floor. → Brooms___ ___for sweeping the floor.

2. They built quite a few tall buildings in their hometown last year.

→ Quite a few tall buildings ___ _____ in their hometown last year.

3. You must not put the bike there. → The bike ___ ____ _____there.

4. Can you see the stars in the daytime? → Can the stars _____ __in the daytime?

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