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中考考点十八:定语从句

发布时间:2014-01-08 13:00:35  

中考考点十八:定语从句

一. 定语从句的功用和结构

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定从句修饰的词叫做先行词。定语从句必须放在先行词之后。引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词和关系副词。例如: This is the present that he gave me for my birthday.

Do you know everybody who came to the party?

I still remember the night when I first came to the village?

This is the place where Chairman Mao once lived.

二. 关系代词和关系副词的功用

关系代词和关系副词用来引导定于从句,在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作用,使二者联系起来。关系代词和关系副词又在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系待客做主语,宾语,定语,关系副词可作状语。

三. 各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法

1. who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。例如:

The person who broke the window must pay for it.

The boy who is wearing the black jacket is very clever.

2. which指物,在定语从中作主语或宾语。例如:

A dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words.

Here is the book (which) the teacher mentioned yesterday.

3. that多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。例如:

I've read the newspaper that(which) carries the important news.

Who is the person that is reading the newspaper over there?

四. 具体使用时还要注意下列问题:

1. 只能使用that,不用which 的情况:

(1) 先行词是all, few, little, nothing, everything, anything 等不定代词时。例如: All that he said is true.

(2) 先行词被only, no, any, all,等词修饰时。例如:

He is the only foreigner that has been to that place.

(3) 先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰的词。例如:

He was the second (person) that told me the secret.

(4) 先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰的词。

This is the best book (that) I have read this year.

(5) 先行词既包括人又包括物时。例如:

He talked about the people and the things he remembered.

2. 只能用which,不用that 的情况:

(1) 在非限制性定语从中。例如:

The meeting was put off, which was exactly what we wanted.

(2) 定语从句由介词+关系代词引导,先行词是物时。例如:

The thing about which he is talking is of great importance.

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