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中考阅读专题:主旨大意题

发布时间:2014-01-08 13:00:38  

中考阅读专题:主旨大意题

所谓主旨大意题,就是指那些针对文章的主要内容、主题、标题或写作目的所设置的问题。这类题主要考查同学们在理解全文的基础上运用概括、判断、归纳、推理等逻辑思维方法对文章进行高度概括或总结的能力。通过研究近两年各地的中考题我们发现,现在的阅读题远非停留在理解词句和看懂内容上。为了增加阅读理解题的区分度,考查学生的综合理解能力,拉开差距,阅读题中主旨大意题和推断题明显增加。这里,我们主要来探讨主旨大意题的解题方法。

一、主旨大意题的题干表现形式

1. 主要内容型:

What is the passage / text / article mainly about? What is the main / general idea of this passage? This passage mainly tells us about / that ______.

2. 主题型:

What is the topic / subject of the article? Which subject is discussed in the text?

3. 最佳标题型:

What is the best title for this text / passage / article? Which of the following would be the best title for this passage?

4. 写作目的型:

The purpose of this article / passage / text is to_______. The author’s main purpose of writing the passage is ______.What is the writer’s purpose of writing this passage? The article has been written to explain _______.

二、主旨大意题的解答在做主旨大意题时,不管是哪一种题型,关键的一步是要找出主题句或和主题有关的关键词,从而把握文章的主旨(main idea)。

1. 议论、说明体裁的文章

在议论文和说明文中,文章的主题通常出现在首段或末段。第一段的作用通常是给出作者的观点或引出将要介绍的事物,而末段的作用通常是总结全文、重申论点。因此,在阅读议论文和说明文时,对于首段和末段一定要仔细阅读,寻找对全文有提纲挈领或概括结论性的语句,因为那通常就是文章的主题所在。

但有时文章中并不存在明确点明主题的句子,这时可以联系每段的中心句来概括、总结,然后得出主题。因为作者对文章各个段落的安排都是紧紧围绕主题展

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开的,或者说每段都对主题的展开和深化起到了各自的作用。因此每个段落也是相对的一个小整体,有着各自的中心,而这个中心通常由段落中的一句话表达出来,即段落的主题句(topic sentence)。由此,我们可以看出,文章各段的主题句构成了一篇文章的"骨架"。看清了这个"骨架"的轮廓,弄清了各段与文章主题的关系,不但全文的主旨,即便是隐藏在文字深层的作者的写作目的或意图也会跃然纸上。每段中的主题句可能出现在段首、段尾或是段中,但以出现在段首的情况居多。尽管每段主题句的位置不固定,但寻找起来也并不难。记住主题句是能简洁明了地概括全段的主要内容,具有高度的综合性和概括性的一句话,段内的其他句子都是对主题句的进一步解释、说明、论证或拓展。

例1:

Our neighborhood has really changed. When I last visited there, about half of the houses had been torn down (拆除)to make way for a highway. The rest of the buildings were covered with billboards (宣传板)and surrounded by traffic signs and garbage. Now the whole neighborhood has become dirty, noisy and full of cars.

【分析】

本段第一句话的概括性最强,指出环境发生了巨大变化。其他几句话分别具体说明都发生了哪些变化,以及现在的样子。因此,第一句为本段的主题句。

2. 记叙体裁的文章

记叙文通常按时间先后或事情发展的顺序来叙述。寻找这类文章的主题时也要特别留意首段和末段,因为作者有时会在叙述事件之前或之后流露出自己对它的看法和情感,而这正是解题的关键。还有些情况下,文中没有明确的主题句,即主题隐含在行文之中。必须根据文章中所提供的事实细节进行全面考虑,综合分析。这时要注意表示时间和顺序的词语,以把握事情发展的脉络。还要特别留意那些概括情节和中心的动词,或者反映人物特点的形容词等,这样才能猜测出作者在用词、语气之中流露出的隐含信息。

例2:

Every year on my birthday, from the time I turned 12, a white gardenia (栀子花) was delivered to my house. No card ever came with it. Calls to the flower-shop were not helpful at all. After a while I stopped trying to find out the sender’s name and was just pleased with the beautiful white flower, in soft pink paper.

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I never stopped imagining (想像) who the giver might be, though. Some of my happiest moments were spent daydreaming about the sender. My mother encouraged these daydreams. She’d ask me if I had been especially kind to someone. Perhaps it was the old man across the street. I’d delivered his mail during the winter. As a girl, though, I had more fun imagining that it might be a boy that I had met.

One month before my graduation, my father died. I was so sad that I became completely uninterested in my upcoming graduation dance, and I didn’t care whether I had a new dress or not. My mother, in her own sadness, however, would not let me miss any of those things. She wanted her children to feel loved. In fact, my mother wanted her children to see themselves much like the gardenia: lovely, strong and perfect, with perhaps a bit of mystery (神秘).

My mother died ten days after I was married. I was 22. That was the year the gardenias stopped coming.

Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

A. A Childhood Dream

B. A Mother’s Love

C. A Graduation Party

D. A Special Birthday

【分析】

3. 新闻体裁的文章

值得一提的是新闻报道类文章在中考阅读中逐渐增多。一般这类文章都有固定格式:城市名称(或通讯社) ——一句话概括新闻的主要内容,然后是具体的报道。通常第一句是一个较长的句子,交待出主要事件、发生的时间、地点等。如果不是非常有必要交待时间和地点的事情,也至少会在第一句中点出要报道的对

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象和侧重点。例如:

例3:

JAKARTA (Xinhua) —The Indonesia Health Ministry said that a three-year-old Indonesian boy died of bird flu (流感) on Wednesday. He became the 108th people who died of this disease in the country. Nyoman Kandun, the leader of the Health Ministry, told Xinhua on telephone that the boy loved to play with birds ...

【分析】

这则新闻报道了一个3岁的男孩死于禽流感的事情。首句就交代清楚了事情发生的时间(on Wednesday)、地点(Indonesia)、人物(a 3-year-old boy)以及主要情节(died of bird flu)。

小试牛刀

1. Samantha, I can’t eat or sleep when you are gone. I need to hear your soft voice and see your lovely toothless smile. I miss that special way you eat soup with your fingers. Please come home soon!

What is the main idea of this paragraph?

A. Samantha, your smile is very lovely.

B. Samantha, I want to hear your soft voice.

C. Samantha, I miss you very much.

D. Samantha, I can’t eat and sleep well.

2. Someday we will all have robots that will be our personal servants (仆人). They will look and behave much like real humans. We will be able to talk to these robots and they will be able to answer us. They will be smart, strong, and tire-less workers. Their only life goal will be to make our lives easier.

Which sentence expresses the main idea of the paragraph?

A. Someday we will all have robots as our personal servants.

B. We can talk to these robots and they can answer us.

C. Robots will look and behave much like real humans.

D. The robots will be smart, strong, and tireless workers.

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解答主旨大意题的小技巧:

1. 快速有重点地浏览(skimming)全文。从整体上把握文章的结构、逻辑关系、问题的指向等。在快速浏览时,不纠缠文章中与主旨无关的细节(如某些数字或专有名词等),以保持阅读的连贯性,把注意力集中于主题句的关键词语上,必要时在重要词句下面画线标注。

2. 选择文章标题时,既要排除过于具体或断章取义、以偏概全的标题,又要排除范围太大、空洞、不着边际的标题,还要警惕以事实、细节替代抽象、概括的大意的情况。

3. 推断作者写作目的时,要站在作者的立场想问题,切忌将自己的观点强加于作者。当文中出现两种或两种以上的不同观点时,务必牢记作者的观点才是体现全文中心的。此时,要注意一些转折词,如:but, yet, however, although等。当文章中表示相反的观点时,往往用到这些词。答题时要弄清哪个是作者的观点,排除迷惑性信息。

4. 必须看清题目,要求回答的是“全文主旨”还是“段落主旨”;推断的是“作者的观点、意图”还是“别人的观点、意图”。

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