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Book 5-Unit 1

发布时间:2014-01-08 13:00:40  

Unit 1
Text I The Fourth of July
By Audre Lorde

Warming Up
Structure analysis Language points Key to exercises

Pre-reading questions

? Do you know something about the
Fourth of July in the United States?

? Do you think that there exists

discrimination of and kind in China
today? If you think so, give examples

and explore the causes.
2 minutes for you

Cultural background
Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Independence Day is commonly associated with fireworks, parades, barbecues, carnivals, fairs, picnics, concerts, baseball games, family reunions, political speeches and ceremonies, in addition to various other public and private events celebrating the history, government, and

traditions of the United States. Independence Day is the
national day of the United States.

Cultural background
Displays of fireworks, such as these over the Washington Monument, take place across the United States on Independence Day. Also called Observed by

The Fourth of July The Glorious Fourth The Fourth
United States

Type
Significance

National
The day the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress Fireworks, Family reunions, Concerts, Barbecues, Picnics, Parades, Baseball games. etc. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_of_July

Celebrations

Answer for your reference: Yes. A person from a rural area might be looked at with a contemptuous glance. Female students might have the experience

of being discriminated against in their jobhunting. Such things are common and may be caused by factors that are social, psychological, economic, geographical, etc. You should not be contemptuous of underprivileged people.

Structure analysis (a narrative writing) Part One (Paragraph. 1) Part Two (Paragraphs. 2-6) Part Three (Paragraphs. 7-17) Part Four (Paragraphs. 18-19)

Exercise
Text comprehension I. A II. T F F F F T T F
2 minutes for you

Structure analysis
Part One (Paragraph. 1)

The background of the story: introducing
the main characters, the place, and time of the major event narrated in the story.

Question ? Why did the family go on a

Fourth of July trip?

Structure analysis
Part Two (Paragraphs. 2-6)
This part tells us all the necessary preparations, especially the different kinds of food the writer’s Mother had prepared for their Washington trip. Also, this part briefly relates two examples of racial discrimination and segregation.

Question
? Why did the writer’s mother

prepare a variety of foods for
the trip?

Structure analysis
Part Three (Paragraphs. 7-17) The author concentrates on the major event
of the text—the injustice with which the writer and her family members had been treated. Some of the author’s visits and her psychological activities are also included in this part.

Question
? Why didn’t t

he author’s parents

approve of sunglasses? Was it just
because they were too expensive?

? Do you find some symbolic
meaning in Paragraph 11?

Structure analysis
Part Four (Paragraphs. 18-19)

The author presents a brief account of the
different effects of the injustice on the black family and she didn’t think that it was much of a graduation present after all.

Question ? How did the writer’s

parents and her two sisters
respond to the unfair treatment afterwards?

Post-reading questions
? What do you think of the title and the content of the text?

A is to B what C is to D. ? Knowledge is to children what rain

is to plants.
知识对于儿童正如雨露对于植物。

? Motherly love is to children what sunshine is to grass.
母爱对于孩子犹如阳光对于小草。

Question for part 1 ? Why did the family go on a Fourth of July trip? ? The family went on a Fourth of July trip for two reasons. The main reason was that the writer and her sister had just graduated from school and the trip was taken as an event to mark their graduation and regarded as their graduation present. The other reason was that the Fourth of July is the National Day in the USA, the day on which America won independence and freedom. As a way of celebration, most Americans will take trips to various places.

Language points

Language points
on the edge of: at the beginning of be supposed to do: be expected/required to do fabled a.: famous in fables, legendary
? The hotel is situated on the edge of the town.

? You are supposed to pay the bill by Friday.
? Students are not supposed to whisper or talk while

the teacher is lecturing.
? a fabled goddess of the moon 传说中的月宫女神
?

The deserted house is fabled to have been inhabited

by ghosts.

Language points

Language points

Question for part two
? Why did the writer’s mother prepare a variety of foods for the trip? ? There were probably two reasons. On one hand, by taking a variety of food with them on the trip, the family members could save some money, for dining car food was

too expensive. On the other hand, as black
people, they were not allowed into railroad dining cars at that time.

(Para. 5)

Language points
Preparations were in the air around our house. ? The whole family were already either actually busy making preparations or enjoying the ambience. Preparations were in the air …. before school was even over. ?Preparations were being made in our house even before school was closed for the summer vacation. a mobile feast ? a large enjoyable meal on the train ? A mobile feast implies a large quantity and variety of food in box including ….

In fact, my first trip to Washington was a mobile feast….
? Actually, my first trip to Washington was a wonderful or

elaborate meal that we enjoyed in the chugging train.
? Indeed, my first trip to Washington was like a very

pleasant or very agreeable feast, because I started eating as soon a

s we were comfortably settled in our seats and did not stop until somewhere after Philadelphia.

Language points
in the air: in the sky; prevalent ? At that time there were some rumors in the air. ensconce v. (esp. pass.): establish or settle without intention of moving or leaving ? We have ensconced ourselves in the most beautiful villa in the South of France. ? At night in winter, the young couple are happily ensconced by the fire, each reading a good book. ? As soon as he was ensconced in the sofa, he fell into a deep slumber/ sound sleep.

Cultural background

Language points
? The bowls are all made of dainty porcelain.

? Mrs. Smith is very dainty/particular about her food
and clothing. ? The nursery teacher cut the fruit into bite-size pieces. ? They decorated the cake with scalloped edges. ? His birthday cake was scalloped with marigolds. ? The garden is very beautiful with so many marigolds in full bloom.

marigold
金盏菊 金盏花 万寿菊

Assignment—P13 Ex. II
bruise cf. scar

dampen cf. soak
acknowledge cf. admit agony cf. anguish

Language points
Perhaps it would go away, deprived of her attention. ? Mother meant to deliberately overlook whatever she did not like and could not change. ? The thief stole mobile phones for the umpteenth time. ? The boy always had umpteen reasons for being late. ? If you do not drive carefully, I shall be obliged to deprive you of your license. ? We have no right to deprive their lives. ? No one can function properly if they are deprived of adequate sleep. 倘若睡眠不足的话,没人能够正常生活。

Question for part 2
? What impresses you most after

reading the author’s description of her
mother? ? She must be kind, prudent, responsible, considerate and caring for her family. (Paras. 3-5)

Language points
? The manager wanted to talk to her in private. ? I admire him admitting his mistakes in public. ? He avowed his belief, faith and conviction at the conference. We still take among-you to Washington. ? We will still take you girls, all three of you, to Washington.

not just for an overnight in some measly fleabag hotel. ? not merely staying for one night in a small, lousy hotel.

Language points
an extra cot for me: ?an additional smaller bed for me a back-street hotel ? a hotel located on a by-street away from the main streets D.A.R. ? an acronym for Daughters of the American Revolution ? That businessman has been in real estate for 20 years, thus becoming a wealthy man. squint vi. look at sth. with eyes half shut or turned sideways, or through a narrow opening ? We have to squint in the bright sunlight.

弥撒的结构 ? 进堂礼 致候礼 忏悔礼 求主赦罪经 光荣颂 集祷经 ? 圣道礼仪 宣读圣经 福音前欢呼 宣读福音 讲道 信经 信友祷文

?圣祭礼仪

奉献礼 感恩经 成圣体圣血 圣三颂 天主经 平安经 领圣体 领圣体后经 堂区报告 ?礼成式

L

anguage points

而不在谓语

Language points
school let out in June to the end of July
? From June to the end of July school closed for the summer vacation ? The pupils of the eye dilate and contract in response to light. 作为对光线作出的反应,眼睛的瞳孔会放大或缩小。 ? She is very young and vulnerable to temptation. 她很年轻,易受诱惑。 ? The election defeat puts the party leader in a vulnerable position. 该党落选后其领导人的地位岌岌可危。

Language points
I was squinting because I was in that silent agony that characterized all of my childhood summers, from the time school let out in June to the end of July, brought about by my dilated and vulnerable eyes exposed to the summer brightness. ? As they were often exposed to the summer brightness, my eyes became larger and wider and more vulnerable, which made me suffer silently and terribly throughout all of my childhood summers, from the time school let out in June to the end of July. As I was in that silent agony, my eyes were half shut or turned sideways while looking at things. (Para. 7)

Language points
travesty n. mockery; absurd imitation of or inferior substitute
for; distortion; cartoon 嘲弄,滑稽模仿;歪曲;漫画
? The trial was a travesty of justice.

这次审判嘲弄了法律的公正性/是对正义的歪曲。
? His travesty satirizes the top/key politicians nowadays

relentlessly.

他的漫画无情地讽刺了当今的政界要人。

Language points
I spent the afternoon squinting up at monuments to freedom and past presidencies and democracy. ? Literarily, the writer was unable to open wide the eyes due to the dazzling summer sunlight as well as her eyes defect.

Figuratively, the freedom, equality and democracy all
American citizens were allegedly entitled to were simply distorted images in the author’s eyes. (Para. 11)

Language points
Even the pavement on the streets was a

shade lighter in color than back home.
? Even the footpath or sidewalk on the streets was slightly lighter in color than back home. (Para. 11)

Question
? Why didn’t the author’s parents approve of sunglasses? Was it just because they were too expensive? ? The expense may not be the real reason. Wearing sunglasses will make the dazzling light milder. What her parents were really saying was that they wanted their kids to realize to the fullest extent the injustice that was inflicted upon the black people. ? Don’t inflict/impose your belief on/upon me.

Question
? Do you find some symbolic meaning in Paragraph 11?
? Yes. While squinting up at monuments to freedom and past presidencies and democracy, the writer was wondering why the light and heat were both so much stronger in Washington D.C. than back home in New York City. Even the pavement on the streets was a shade lighter in color than back home. Here, most probably, the white light and heat and the white pavement on the streets symbolize the wh

ite domination. Actually, the writer was wondering why the white domination or racial discrimination was even stronger in Washington D.C. than back home in New York City.

Language points
caravan n.: a group of people (e.g. merchants, gypsies, etc.) traveling together across a place such as a desert decree v.: order sth. as if by an official command or decision n. flair n.: a natural ability to do sth. well; original and attractive quality ? A caravan of merchants was traveling on camels across the desert. ? Fate decreed that they would not meet again. ? The dictator decreed that his birthday would be a public holiday. 该独裁者发布命令,将其生日定为公众假期。 ? This decree has the force of law behind it. ? She doesn’t show/have a flair/talent for the piano.

Language points
… mother bright and father brown, the three of us girls step-standards in-between. ? … mother was bright and father was brown, and the three of us girls represented gradations from bright to brown. My father decreed yet another treat. ? My father decided to give us another special treat, something that was unexpected and that was not always available.

Language points
We were a proper caravan, mother bright and father brown, the three of us girls step-standards in-between. ? We were just like a group of tourists traveling together across a desert, feeling hot and thirsty, mother in possession of a bright complexion, father a brown

complexion, and the three of us girls looking neither
bright nor brown, but in gradual shades from bright to brown. (Para. 12)

Language points
cool off: become comfortably cool after having been hot fan-cooled a.: cooled by blowing a current of air on with or as if with a fan my scorched eyes: my eyes affected by strong light and heat; my eyes injured by heat ? Let’s go and have ice cream to cool off. ? I hope the two countries will cool off a bit, or there will be a war.
我希望两个国家都冷静一点,否则将有一场战争。 ? air-conditioned; state-owned

? The long drought scorched the grass.
久旱使青草枯萎。

Language points
Indoors, the soda fountain was dim and fan-cooled, deliciously relieving to my scorched eyes. ? Inside the store, the soda fountain was glum and gloomy and cooled by electric fans, which agreeably relieved my eyes of the strong sunlight and heat outdoors.

Language points

Language points

TEM-8

本题正确答案:

C tongue

vocal cord 声带

Language points
corded a.: tied, bound, or connected by thick strings or laces crisp a. : with a stiff, uncreased, or unspoiled surface; well-ironed pinafored a. : wearing a sleeveless, collarless outer garment that is usu. tied at the back
Corded and crisp and pinafored, the five of us seated ourselves one by one at the counter. ? Still wearing our well-tied, smoothly-ironed outer garments, the five of us seated ourselves one by one on counter stools.

Language points
along the white mottled marb

le counter ? along the counter made of white marble marked with patches of different colors without a regular pattern I said I kin give you to take out … ? I said I can allow you to take the food out… Then she dropped her eyes looking very embarrassed, … ? Then she lowered her eyes, looking very awkward and

uncomfortable

Language points

Language points

Language points
outrage v. : (esp. pass.) shock or offend sb; upset sb. greatly guilty silence: silence affected by a sense of guilt ? They were outraged by the announcement of massive price increases. ? What they did outraged public opinion. ? The man was proved guilty/innocent of murder. ? a/the sense of touch/ hearing/ taste/ sight/ smell ? a sense of achievement/ balance/ belonging/ direction/ honor/ guilt/ helplessness/ history/ hopelessness/ humor/ isolation/ loneliness/ peculiarity/ pride/ responsibility/ right and wrong/ security/ sin/ specialness/ strangeness/ time/ trust/ triumph/ urgency/…

Language points
…as if we had never been Black before. ? …as if we had never been mistreated for being black before No one would answer my emphatic questions with anything other than a guilty silence.

? My forceful question got no response from my family;
they remained silent as if they had done sth. wrong and shameful walking into Breyer’s.

Language points
had contributed to: had partially caused anticipate v.: expect, foresee, realize beforehand ? Honesty and hard work contribute to success and happiness.
诚实加苦干有助于成功和幸福。

? It was generous of her to contribute such a large sum. ? In business, you’ve got to anticipate how your competitors will act.
在生意上,你必须事先估计到你的竞争对手会如何行动。

? I don’t anticipate meeting any opposition.
我估计不会遇到任何反对意见。

? I anticipate reading the book with great interest.
我以极大的兴趣期待着读这本书。

建(议)(推荐) 决(定/议) 要(求) 命(令)

Language points
My fury was not going to be acknowledged by a like fury. ? My rage/anger was not noticed,

sympathized with or echoed by my family
members who were similarly angry, though.

Language points
Even my two sisters copied my parents’ pretense that nothing unusual and anti-American had occurred.
? Even my two sisters followed my parents pretending

that nothing unusual and anti-American had happened.
? Following our parents’ example, even my two sisters

pretended that the injustice had not happened to the family.

Question
? How did the writer’s parents and her two sisters respond to the unfair treatment afterwards?

? The writer’s parents wouldn’t speak of the injustice, not because they had contributed to it, but because they felt they should have anticipated it and avoided it. Neither her parents nor her sisters demonstrated the rage they felt inwardly; instead, they all pretended that nothing unusua

l and anti-American had occurred. (Para. 18)

Language points
… made me sick to my stomach ? … made me feel sick at heart ? …made me obsessed with the detestable experience

Post-reading questions
? What do you think of the title and the content of the text?

? The tile and the content create a satirical effect. As we all know, the 4th of July is kept as a national holiday on which the American people commemorate and celebrate their winning of freedom and independence. But on this very day, the writer and her family were treated badly and unjustly in the capital of the country when they entered an ice-cream store, ordered a dish of vanilla ice cream and got ready to enjoy it. They were not allowed to eat it inside.

Writing strategies
1. Besides Paragraph 2, Paragraphs 6, 8 and 9 contain or involve flashbacks. 2. Here’s one more example of symbolism—Para. 19. The repeated description of whiteness further reveals the phony democracy of the United States and the false

freedom of colored people, which drove our writer mad
and indignant.

Exercise
Language work
I. 1. at the beginning of 2. The whole family were already either actually busy making preparations or enjoying the ambience. 3. a large enjoyable meal on the train 4. as if we had never been mistreated for being Black 5. had partially caused

6. was not going to be noticed, sympathized with or
echoed by people feeling a similar anger

Exercise
Language work II.

bruise cf. scar
Explanation: Both verbs pertain to external physical injury and other sorts of damage. Bruise indicates an injury of the surface flesh, caused by a blow that does not necessarily break the skin and that results in a marked skin; the word can also suggest the tendency to turn black-and-blue from small impacts. Scar refers to the forming of a mark over a healed wound or suggests the doing of damage that will leave a lasting mark.

1. bruise

2. bruised

3. scarred

4. scar

Exercise
Language work II.

dampen cf. soak
Explanation: Dampen is to make or become somewhat wet, emphasizing the moist condition that results. In a figurative sense, the word means to depress. Soak means to wet thoroughly, implying immersion. To soak something is to place it in liquid and leave it long enough for the liquid to act upon it.

1. soaking 2. Dampen 3. soaked

4. dampen

Exercise
Language work II.

acknowledge cf. admit
Explanation: Both words agree in meaning to accept openly, though with some reluctance, the truth or existence of a fact, condition, etc. Admit is a bold acknowledgment of implication in something one has formerly tended to deny or to equivocate about. Acknowledge is to accept responsibility for something one makes known, and we acknowledge something embarrassing or awkward, and usually not voluntarily; more often, the acknowledgment is extracted from one more or less unwillingly.

1. admit

2. acknowledged 3. acknowledge 4. admitted

acknowledge v. cf. admit v. ? a generally acknowledged trut

h 公认的事实 ? It is generally acknowledged/admitted to be true. 普遍认为那是真的。 ? It was generally admitted that the government had acted too quickly. 普遍认为,政府行动过急。 ? He’s widely acknowledged to be the best player in the world. 普遍认为他是世界最佳球员。

Exercise
Language work II.

agony cf. anguish
Explanation: Both words can refer to intense suffering of the body or mind. Agony represents suffering, the endurance of which calls forth every human resource. Its severity is of such extent that the word is often used to denote the struggle and pain that may precede death. Anguish points to the extremity of grief which so terrifies the spirit as to be insupportable.

1. agony

2. anguish

3. anguish

4. agony

Exercise
Language work III.
1. has decreed 3. approvingly 2. agonizing 4. ensconced

5. flair
7. relief

6. vulnerability
8. avowed

Exercise IV

present

ant.

be absent from

A be equivalent to B. A be the equivalent of B.

capital

pack

move

A

counter

D

drop

Exercise
Language work V.

1. The
5. /

2. /
6. /

3. a
7. /

4. A
8. /

9. /
13. the 17. a

10. an
14. a 18. /

11. a
15. the 19. the

12. /
16. a

Exercise
Language work
VI.

1. to
3. from 5. much 7. lived 9. strange

2. white
4. timidity 6. differed 8. gave 10. stop

Exercise
Translation I. 1. I haven’t seen it myself, but it is supposed to be a really good movie. 2. The hostess cut the cheese into bite-size pieces so that it is convenient for the guests to eat it. 3. No one can live a normal life/function properly if they are deprived of adequate sleep. 4. He carefully copied my pretense that nothing unusual had occurred/happened.

Exercise
Translation 5. The first decree he issued after he came into office was that private ownership of guns (should) be banned. 6. I’ve come to see his fabled footwork that people talk so much about. 7. I’m not a teacher proper, since I haven’t been trained, but I’ve had a lot of teaching experience. 8. Students tend to anticipate what questions they will be asked on the examination.

proper a. 正确的,恰当的;真正的,像样的;正当的,符合习俗 的;[after noun] 严格意思上的,狭义的
请按正当手续处理投诉。

? Please follow the proper procedures for dealing with complaints.

? When are you going to get a proper job? 你想什么时候去找一份正经的工作啊? ? It is right and proper that parents take/ bear/ assume

responsibility for their children’s attendance at school.
父母负责监督子女去学校上课,这是天经地义的事。

? The celebrations proper always begin on the last stroke

of midnight.

正式庆典总是在午夜钟声的最后一响开始。
? Properly speaking, … 严格地说,

Exercise
Translation

如果美国对此时此刻的迫切性视而不见,低估
黑人的决心,那么这对美国的命运将是休戚相关的。

自由平等、

令人心旷神怡的秋天遥遥无期,黑人正当
愤怒的闷热夏季就不会消失。1963年并不是终结,而

是开端。只要黑人得不到公民权益,美国就不可能有
安宁和稳定。反抗的旋风会继续撼动这个国家的根基,

直到正义光明的日子的来临。

Text II Champion of the World
Multiple-choice questions DBADC Vocabulary

Cultural background
Jim Crow : Negro
The Jim Crow laws (杰姆?克劳法;种族隔离法) were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans. Some examples of Jim Crow laws are the segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was also segregated.

boxing glove 拳击手套 boxing shoe 拳击鞋 infighting 近战 straight punch 直拳 uppercut 上钩拳 right hook 右钩拳 foul 犯规 punch bag 沙袋 punch ball 沙球 boxing match 拳击比赛 referee 裁判员 boxing ring 拳击台 rope 围绳 winner 胜利者 loser by a knockout 被击败出局者 timekeeper 计时员

? When you know that someone spoke evil of you

behind your back, it would be very difficult to turn the other cheek to him.
当你得知别人在背后说了你的坏话时,要做到对这个人宽容 大度是很难的。
? You can't expect the men to stand at attention for

the whole morning in this hot weather.
这么热的天气,你不能指望这些战士立正站一整个上午。
? When her son went to fight in the war, his mother

felt she’d say goodbye to him forever and ever.
儿子动身上前线作战时,母亲觉得她是在向他永远道别。

1. What is the symbolic meaning of “mater’s voice”?

?

Angelou uses “master’s voice” for

symbolic emphasis. It represents the white

establishment that unfairly discriminates on
the basis of color. This kind of literary

technique results in a powerful and poignant
story of growing up black in America.

2. Why was it important that Joe Louis win the
heavyweight championship fight?

? “It wouldn’t do for a Black man and his family
to be caught on a lonely country road on a night

when Joe Louis had proved that we were the
strongest people in the world.” It was an event that symbolized the ability of black people to compete in a white-dominated world.

3. Do you think the title “Champion of the World” is appropriate? Why or why not?

? Yes. The title symbolizes all black people who, despite great adversity and oppression, live with dignity and strength. They learn to survive and to respect themselves in the process. In this essay Angelou seems to be asking for recognition not

only of her struggle and identity but of the
struggle and identity of all black American women

and all black people.

4. Angelou use

s African-American dialect in this essay. Are these dialectical expressions effective? Why or why not?

? Most of the story is written in standard English, but it occasionally includes realistic snatches of regional dialect and black English, which make the language colorful and the tone animated. When

Angelou’s voice enters the narrative, her serious
tone calls the reader’s attention to her underlying

demand for black equality.


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