-Have you had lunch yet? -Yes,I have. I've just had it.
如：He has taught here since 1981.
I haven't seen her for four years.
1）． 陈述句结构：主语＋have( has)（not）+过去分词＋其它。
have not=haven’t has not=hasn’t.
2）． 一般疑问句结构：Have( Has )＋主语＋过去分词＋其它？
3）． 特殊疑问句：特殊疑问词＋have(has) +主语+ 过去分词＋其它？
e.g. He has already finished his homework.
He hasn’t finished his homework yet.
Has he finished his homework yet?
--Yes, he has. / No, he hasn’t./ No, not yet.
4)表示说话前发生过一次或多次的动作，现在成为一种经验，一般译为汉语“过”，常带有twice, ever, never, three times等时间状语。
如： I have been to Beijing twice.我去过北京二次。
（1）现在完成时属于现在时范围，故不能和过去的时间状语连用。如：yesterday,last Sunday,in1990,three years ago等。但是，在强调动作产生的后果和影响时，可以和一些表示不确定的时间状语连用。
a. 用副词already和yet。already一般用于肯定句中，yet一般用于否定句和 疑问句中。
如：We have already finished our homework.我们已完成作业了。 They haven't finished their homework yet.他们还没有完成作业。 b.用ever 和never。多用于否定或疑问句中，表示“曾经”或“从未“等。 如：-Have you ever been to the Great Wall?你曾经去过长城吗？
-I have never been to the Great Wall.我从未去过长城。
c.用表示到说话为止的过去时间状语，如just, before, up to now, the past few years等。
例如：I have seen her before, but I can not remember where.
He has been there three times the last few days.
d.用包括―现在‖在内的时间状语，如：now, today, this morning (month ,year, term)等。 例如：-Have you met him today?-No,I haven't.
How many times have you been there this year?
（2）现在完成时可以和带有since或for等表示―一段时间‖的状语连用,表示动作或状态从某一时刻开始，一直持续到现在。如：I haven't seen him for two years. 但是，像come, arrive, buy等终止性动词不能与表示―一段时间‖的状语连用。要用，必须改为―be（在）‖等延续性动词来表述
arrive→be here begin(start)→be on
die →be dead come back→be back
leave →be away fall ill(sick,asleep)→be ill(sick,asleep)
get up→be up go out →be out
finish →be over put on →wear 或be on
open →be open join →be in或 be a member of…
close →be closed go to school→be a student
borrow →keep buy →have
catch(a cold)→ have(a cold) get to know →know
begin to study→study come to work→work等
如：He has been a soldier for three years.他参军三年了。
His father has been dead for two years.他父亲去世二年了。
The film has been on for ten minutes.电影已开始十分钟了。
We have studied English for three years. 我们（开始）学英语已三年了。
I have lost my new book. 我把新书丢了。（现在还未找到）
I lost my new book yesterday. 我昨天把新书丢了。（昨天丢的，现在找到与否没说明）
（1）have been(to)与have gone( to)的区别：have been(to)表示―去过某地（现在已经回来了）‖，可用于各人称；have gone(to)表示―去某地了（说话时某人不在当地）‖，常用于第三人称，前者可与once ,never,several times等连用，后者则不能。如：They have been to Beijing twice.他们去过北京两次。
He has gone to Beijing . 他去北京了。
（2）如单纯表示一段时间，或强调一段时间，虽有since一词，也不必用完成时。如：It is two years since his father died. =His father has been dead for two years.他父亲去世已有三年了。
如：I haven't left here since 1997.自从1997年以来，我一直没有离开过这儿。
[Exercises7]A） 用have(has) been 或have(has) gone 填空。
A: Where ____________ Li Fei ___________?
B: He ____________ to Hainan Island.
A: How long ___________ he ___________ there?
B: He _____________ there for three days.
A: When will he come back , do you know?
B: I’m afraid he won’t come back recently.
A: Could you tell me the way to Hainan Island?
B: Sorry, I _________ never ___________ there.
A: How many times ___________ Li Fei __________ to that place?
B: He _____________ there only once.
B） 用have/has been to/in, have gone to的各种形式填空。
Where is Jack? He __________ his country.
John _______ England since he came back.
How long _____ have _____ this village?
The Smiths ______ Beijing for years.
_____ you ever ____ America? -- Yes, I _____ there many times.
I _____ this school since three years ago.
( )1. Jim's been to the Great wall before ,__________he?
(A)isn't (B)wasn't (C)hasn't (D)doesn't
( )2. She's never been to England, _______she?
(A)has (B)hasn't (C)isn't (D)is
( )2.___________has Hanmei been in the library.
(A)How long (B)How soon (C)How far (D)How often
( )3. How long ___he______ the library book .
(A)has, borrow (B)has ,kept (C)has, bought (D)did, buy
( )4. Mr Green isn't in the office , He __________to the library
(A)has gone (B)went (C)has been (D)will go
( )5. Mr smith _______to Tokyo and he will be back in a week
(A)has been (B)has visited (C)has sent (D)has gone
( )6.They_________China for two years
(A)have been to (B)have been in
(c)have gone to (D)have come to
①arrive at/in sw. get to/reach sw. come/go/move to sw.
→ be in sw./at school/at home/on the farm/be here/be there(sw.为somewhere的缩写) He got to Beijing five minutes ago.
He ________ _________ _________ Beijing for _________ _________. I moved to the USA last year.
I ________ ________ __________ the USA since __________ __________.
I went home yesterday.
I _______ ________ _________ home for _________ __________.
They came here last week.
They _________ _________ here since _________ __________.
②come/go back, return → be back come/go out → be out
He came out two years ago.
He _________ __________ _________ for __________ __________.
We return to Fuzhou yesterday.
We ________ ________ _________ to Fuzhou since __________.
③become → be
I became a teacher in 2000.
I ________ __________ a teacher for _________ _________.
The river became dirty last year.
The river _________ _________ dirty for _________ __________.
④close → be closed open → be open
The shop closed two hours ago.
The shop ________ _________ _________ for _________ _________.
The door opened at six in the morning.
The door ________ ________ ________ for six hours.
⑤get up → be up die → be dead
leave sw. → be away from sw.
fall asleep/get tot sleep → be asleep
finish/end → be over marry → be married
I got up two hours ago.
I ________ ________ ________ since ________ ________.
He left Fuzhou just now.
He _______ ________ ________ _________ Fuzhou for five minutes.
My grandpa died in 2002.
My grandpa _______ _______ ________for _______ ________.
The meeting finished at six.
The meeting ________ ______ ______ for six hours.
I got to sleep two hours ago.
I ________ _________ _________ since _________ __________.
They married in 1990.
They ________ _________ __________since _________.
⑥start/begin to do sth. → do sth. begin → be on
I began to teach at this school in 1995.
I ____ ____ at this school since ____.
The film began two minutes ago.
The film ____ ____ ____ for ____ ____.
⑦borrow → keep lose → not have buy → have put on → wear catch/get a cold → have a cold get to know → know
They borrowed it last week.
They _________ _________ it since __________ __________.
I bought a pen two hours ago.
I _________ _________ a pen for ________ __________.
I got to know him last year.
I _________ __________ him since __________ __________.
I put on my glasses three years ago.
I __________ __________ my glasses for _________ _________.
⑧have/has gone to → have been in
He has gone to Beijing.
He ____ ____ _____ Beijing for two days.
⑨join the league/the Party/the army
→ be a league/a Party member/a soldier
→ be a member of the league/the Party
→ be in the league/the Party/the army
He joined the league in 2002.
He ________ _________ a _________ _________ for two years.
He ________ __________ a __________ ___________ the __________ for two years. He ____________ ___________ ___________ the league for two years.
My brother joined the army two years ago.
My brother __________ __________ a ___________ for ___________ ___________. My brother ___________ ___________ in ____________ ___________ for two years.
( )2.Herfather ______in1990 and her husband ______for more than five years
(A)died ,dead (B)has died, dead(C)died ,has been dead (D)has died, has died
( )3.I have _____this nice watch for two years
(A)had (B)bought (C)borrowed (D)lend
( )4.He _____his home for ten years
(A)has left (B)left from (C)has been away from (D)was away from
( )5.He _____a league member for three years
(A)is (B)has been (C)has become (D)have become
( )6.Lihua's brother has _______for two years
(A)joined the army (B)been an army
(C)become a soldier (D)been in the army
( )7.He hasn't _____Quanzhou ever since he left school
(A)left (B)been away (C)been (D)away
[Exercises 11] 选择填空
( )1. ——Have you finished your homework
——Yes, I _______it last night
(A)finish (B)finished (C)have finished (D)will finish
( )2.—— ________you ever _______to Nanjing
——Yes, I ______there last year.
(A)Have…gone, have gone (B)Have…been , went
(C)Did…go, went (D)Did…go, has , been
( )3.——When _______you ________Lucy in New York?
——I _________here for two years
(A)did…meet, haven't seen (B)did…meet, haven't seen
(C)did…meet, don't see (D)would…meet, hadn't seen
( )4.when_ you to Beijing?
( )3.He ______finished his homework. yet
(A)doesn’t (B)haven’t (C) hasn’t (D) doesn’t have
( )1.——Have you ________traveled on the train.
——Yes, I have.
(A)never (B)ever (C)just (D)yet
( )2.——Have you finished your homework
(A)ever (B)already (C)yet (D)just
( )3. We haven't finished our homework .
(A)already (B)ever (C)yet (D)never
( )4.——Have you__________ learned English?
——Yes, I've ________learned a lot.
(A)never, ever (B)ever, never (C)ever, already (D)already. ever
( )5.——Have you finished your homework ________?
——Yes, I've _____done that
(A)yet, already (B)already, yet (C)ever, never (D)still, just
( )6.John's father _______borrowed some pictures
(A)have already (B)has just (C)have ever (D)has yet
1) ______ two years 2) _______ two years ago 3) _______ last month
4) ______ 1999 5) _______ yesterday 6) _______ 4 o’clock
7) ______ 4 hours 8) _______ an hour ago 9) _______ we were children
10) _____ lunch time 11) ______ she left here
1. He has lived in Nanjing ________ the year before last.
2. I’ve known him __________ we were children.
3. Our teacher has studied Japanese _________ three years.
4. She has been away from the city ___________ about ten years.
5. It’s about ten years __________ she left the city.
( )1.I've been like this ever since _________
(A)last week (B) for a week (C) a week before (D)the last week
( )2.My mother has worked in this factory _____2 years.
(A)about (B)for (C)in (D)since
( )3. I haven't heard from him ______last week.
(A)since (B) for (C)ago (D)before
( )4.His father joined the party_________
(A)for three years (B)since three years ago
(C)three years ago (D)in two years' time
1. – Where is Mr. Liu? ----- He _______the library.
A. has been to B. has gone to C. has been in
2. The students have cleaned the classroom , ________?
A. so they B. don’t they C. have they D. haven’t they
3. I like Hainan. I ________there three times.
A. went B. go C. have been D. have gone
4.We came to Nanjing three years ago, so we ________ here for three years.
A. have been to B. have been in C. have been D. have gone
5.- How long ______you_______ your dictionary? - About two months.
A. did; buy B. have; get C. have; had D. have; bought
6. He tells me he________ China for over five years.
A. has been B. has been in C. has been to D. has gone to
7.________has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he _______ to China?
A. How soon , comes B. How often, got
C. How long , came D. How far, arrived
8. His uncle________ for more than 9 years.
A. has come here B. has started to work
C. has lived there D. has left the university
9. He has never surfed, __________(改成反意疑问句）?
10. They have been here since 2000 . (对划线部分提问)
__________ have they been here?
11. The old man _________last year. He________ for a year.(die)
12. This factory opened twenty years ago.(改写句子，句意不变)
This factory _________ for twenty years.
13. Miss Gao left an hour ago. （同上）
Miss Gao___________ an __________hour ago.
14.The Green Family moved to France two years ago. （同上）
_________ two years________ the Green family moved to France.
15. The bus has arrived here. It arrived ten minutes ago. （同上）
【常用时间状语】recently, lately, since+时间点, for+数字+时间名词, in the past few months/years等
【构成】 肯定形式：have/has + done
否定形式：have/has + not +done
区别：have been to, have gone to, have been in
have been to,表示去过某个地方，不过现在已经回来了
have gone to表示去了，但还没有回来，也许是在去的途中
have been in指的是在某个地方，从过去一直延续到现在
例如：A: Is Mr.Wang at home?
B: No,he is not in, （他去香港了）
2）现在完成时所表示的动作开始于过去，持续到现在，也许还会持续下去。常用for和since表示一段时间的状语或so far，now，today，this week (month，year)等表示包括现在时间在内的状语。
eg. He has studied English for 5 years.
He has studied English since 2001.
Now I have finished the work.
如：I have lived here for more than thirty years.我已在此住了30多年。
arrive →be here get up →be up catch(a cold)→ have(a cold)
begin(start)→be on go out →be out get to know →know finish →be over put on →wear 或be on begin to study →study
die →be dead open →be open come to work →work
come back →be back borrow →keep close →be closed
leave →be away buy →have go to school →be a student fall ill(sick, asleep)→be ill(sick, asleep) join →be in 或be a member of…
（ ）1.When he arrived at the bus stop, the bus _____ for 20 minutes.
A. has left B. had left C. has been away D. had been away
（ ）2. I ______ the League for 5 years so far.
A. joined B. have joined C. have been in
（ ）3.The factory ____ since the February of 1988.
A . has been open B. has opened C. was open D. opened
（ ）4.Mary and Rose ____friends since they met in 2000.
A. have made B. have been C. made D. have become
（ ）5.You mustn't_____ until he comes back.
A. be away B. leave C. be left
（ ）6.The meeting _____ for a week now.
A. has finished B. has ended C. has been over
（ ）7.Miss Gao ______ this school for nearly 5 years.
A. has been in B. has come to C. has taught
（ ）8.Ben ______ a teacher for 4 years.
A. has been B. has become C. was D. became
（ ）9. I ______ home for a week.
A. have returned B. have been back C. returned
（ ）10. How long _______ he ________ ?
A. died B. has, died C. has, been dead
（ ）11. He ______ at eight yesterday afternoon.
A. slept B. was sleeping C. has sleep D. had slept
（ ）12.He ________ the car for a week.
A. bought B. has bought C. has had
（ ）13.---How long _____ you _____ ill ?
A. did fall B. have, fell C. have, been
（ ）14.Since 2000, he _____ his hometown.
A. has left B. has moved away C. has been away from
（ ）15.I'll lend you the book , but you can only _____ it for 2 days.
A. borrow B. keep C. take
（ ）1、Both his parents look sad. Maybe they ______what's happened to him.
A. knew B. have known C. must know D. will know
（ ）2、He has _______ been to Shanghai, has he ?
A. already B. never C. ever D. still
（ ）3、Have you met Mr Li ______？
A. just B. ago C. before D. a moment ago
（ ）4、The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year .
A. is writing B. was writing C. wrote D. has written
（ ）5、—Our country ______ a lot so far .
—Yes. I hope it will be even ______.
A. has changed; well B. changed; good C. has changed; better D. changed; better
（ ）6、Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years .
A. was; studying B. will; study C. has; studied D. are; studying （ ）7、We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl .
A. know B. had known C. have known D. knew
（ ）8、Harry Potter is a very nice film. I ______ it twice.
A. will see B. have seen C. saw D. see
（ ）9、—These farmers have been to the United States .
—Really? When _____ there?
A. will they go B. did they go C. do they go D. have they gone
（ ）10、—______ you ___ your homework yet?
—Yes. I _____ it a moment ago.
A.Did; do; finished B.Have; done; finished
C.Have; done; have finished D.will; do; finish
（ ）11、His father ______ the club since 1988.
A. joined B. has joined C. was in D. has been in
（ ）12、—Do you know her well?
— Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago.
A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made
（ ）13、—How long have you ____ here?
—About seven years.
A. been B. gone C. come D. arrived
（ ）14、Hurry up! The program __________ for five minutes .
A. has begun B. had begun C. has been on D. began
（ ）15、It _____ ten years since he came Chengdu.
A. is B. has C. will D. was
（ ）16、Miss Green isn't in the office. She _______ to the library.
A. has gone B. went C. will go D. has been
（ ）17、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years .
A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been
（ ）18、He ________ for 2 hours.
A. got up B. has got up C. has been up
（ ）19、Tom is ill in hospital. He ______ a cold for several days.
A. is B. catches C. has caught D. has had
（ ）20、His grandparents ______ for more than 9 years.
A. has come here B. has started to work C. has lived there D. has left the university
4、现在完成时常与recently（近来），so far（到目前为止），in the past/―last + 一段时间‖等时间状语连用。因为上述短语表示的是从现在起往前推算的一段时间，句中的动作是从过去某一时间或时刻开始持续到现在的。故4应选D。
6、现在完成时时常与―for +时间段或since +过去时间点‖连用（含从句，从句过去时）。故6应选C。
8、现在完成时还与once（一次），twice（两次），three times（三次），several times（几次）等表示重复次数的词语连用。故8应选B。
9、现在完成时与一般过去时容易混淆，就是因为它们所表示的动作都发生在过去，但二者又有区别：一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的事、存在的状态或经常发生的动作，说话的侧重点在于陈述一件过去的事情，与现在没有关系；现在完成时表示与现在有关系的发生在过去的动作，它不与表示过去的时间状语（如yesterday , last week , a moment ago等）连用。故9的正确答案为B。
12、B 13、A 14、C 15、A。
16、―have/has gone to + 地点‖表示―某人去了某地（还未回来）‖，指主语所指的人不在这儿。―have/has been in + 地点‖表示―在某地呆了多长时间‖，常与表示时间的状语连用。―have/has been to +地点‖表示―曾经去过某地（但现在已不在那儿）。‖故16的正确答案为A。
17、A 18、D 19、C 20、C
1、Jim has finished doing his homework already. He is free now.
2、He received a letter yesterday.
3、My father has been to the Great Wall before.
4、She hasn't seen the new film yet.
5、She has been to Shanghai.
6、Where has he been these days？