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初中英语语法之现在完成时讲解_练习_答案

发布时间:2014-01-10 09:03:38  

★现在完成时语法讲解

1.构成

现在完成时是由助动词 have(has)+动词的过去分词构成。助动词说明该谓语是属于现在时范围。它和主语的人称、数要保持一致。过去分词是主要的谓语动词,说明句子的意义。

2.用法

(1)表示动作发生在过去某个不确定的时间,但对现在留下了某种影响和结果。常被just、already、yet 等副词修饰。如:

-Have you had lunch yet? -Yes,I have. I've just had it.

你(已经)吃午饭了吗? 我刚刚吃过。(现在我不饿了)

(2)表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在的动作或状态。这个动作可能刚停止,可能仍然在进行。常带有for和since等表示一段时间的状语。

如:He has taught here since 1981.

他自1981年就在这儿教书。(可能还要继续教)

I haven't seen her for four years.

我有四年没见到她了。

3.结构

1). 陈述句结构:主语+have( has)(not)+过去分词+其它。

have not=haven’t has not=hasn’t.

2). 一般疑问句结构:Have( Has )+主语+过去分词+其它?

3). 特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+have(has) +主语+ 过去分词+其它?

e.g. He has already finished his homework.

He hasn’t finished his homework yet.

Has he finished his homework yet?

--Yes, he has. / No, he hasn’t./ No, not yet.

4)表示说话前发生过一次或多次的动作,现在成为一种经验,一般译为汉语“过”,常带有twice, ever, never, three times等时间状语。

如: I have been to Beijing twice.我去过北京二次。

4.现在完成时的时间状语

(1)现在完成时属于现在时范围,故不能和过去的时间状语连用。如:yesterday,last Sunday,in1990,three years ago等。但是,在强调动作产生的后果和影响时,可以和一些表示不确定的时间状语连用。

a. 用副词already和yet。already一般用于肯定句中,yet一般用于否定句和 疑问句中。

如:We have already finished our homework.我们已完成作业了。 They haven't finished their homework yet.他们还没有完成作业。 b.用ever 和never。多用于否定或疑问句中,表示“曾经”或“从未“等。 如:-Have you ever been to the Great Wall?你曾经去过长城吗?

-I have never been to the Great Wall.我从未去过长城。

c.用表示到说话为止的过去时间状语,如just, before, up to now, the past few years等。

例如:I have seen her before, but I can not remember where.

我以前见过她,但记不起在哪里见过。

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He has been there three times the last few days.

近几年他去过那里三次了。

d.用包括―现在‖在内的时间状语,如:now, today, this morning (month ,year, term)等。 例如:-Have you met him today?-No,I haven't.

今天你见过他吗?我 没有。

How many times have you been there this year?

今年你去过那里多少次?

(2)现在完成时可以和带有since或for等表示―一段时间‖的状语连用,表示动作或状态从某一时刻开始,一直持续到现在。如:I haven't seen him for two years. 但是,像come, arrive, buy等终止性动词不能与表示―一段时间‖的状语连用。要用,必须改为―be(在)‖等延续性动词来表述

现归纳总结一下由非延续性动词到延续性动词的转换:

arrive→be here begin(start)→be on

die →be dead come back→be back

leave →be away fall ill(sick,asleep)→be ill(sick,asleep)

get up→be up go out →be out

finish →be over put on →wear 或be on

open →be open join →be in或 be a member of…

close →be closed go to school→be a student

borrow →keep buy →have

catch(a cold)→ have(a cold) get to know →know

begin to study→study come to work→work等

如:He has been a soldier for three years.他参军三年了。

His father has been dead for two years.他父亲去世二年了。

The film has been on for ten minutes.电影已开始十分钟了。

We have studied English for three years. 我们(开始)学英语已三年了。

5.现在完成时和一般过去时的区别

现在完成时和一般过去时都表示在过去完成的动作。但现在完成时强调的是这一动作与现在的关系。如对现在产生的结果或影响等,而一般过去时只表示动作在过去某一时刻发生,不表示和现在的关系。试比较:

I have lost my new book. 我把新书丢了。(现在还未找到)

I lost my new book yesterday. 我昨天把新书丢了。(昨天丢的,现在找到与否没说明)

6.几点注意事项

(1)have been(to)与have gone( to)的区别:have been(to)表示―去过某地(现在已经回来了)‖,可用于各人称;have gone(to)表示―去某地了(说话时某人不在当地)‖,常用于第三人称,前者可与once ,never,several times等连用,后者则不能。如:They have been to Beijing twice.他们去过北京两次。

He has gone to Beijing . 他去北京了。

(2)如单纯表示一段时间,或强调一段时间,虽有since一词,也不必用完成时。如:It is two years since his father died. =His father has been dead for two years.他父亲去世已有三年了。

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(3)终止性动词现在完成时的否定式,已变成一种可以延续的状态,因此可以和表示一段时间的状语连用。

如:I haven't left here since 1997.自从1997年以来,我一直没有离开过这儿。

★现在完成时练习

[Exercises7]A) 用have(has) been 或have(has) gone 填空。

A: Where ____________ Li Fei ___________?

B: He ____________ to Hainan Island.

A: How long ___________ he ___________ there?

B: He _____________ there for three days.

A: When will he come back , do you know?

B: I’m afraid he won’t come back recently.

A: Could you tell me the way to Hainan Island?

B: Sorry, I _________ never ___________ there.

A: How many times ___________ Li Fei __________ to that place?

B: He _____________ there only once.

B) 用have/has been to/in, have gone to的各种形式填空。

Where is Jack? He __________ his country.

John _______ England since he came back.

How long _____ have _____ this village?

The Smiths ______ Beijing for years.

_____ you ever ____ America? -- Yes, I _____ there many times.

I _____ this school since three years ago.

C)选择填空

( )1. Jim's been to the Great wall before ,__________he?

(A)isn't (B)wasn't (C)hasn't (D)doesn't

( )2. She's never been to England, _______she?

(A)has (B)hasn't (C)isn't (D)is

( )2.___________has Hanmei been in the library.

(A)How long (B)How soon (C)How far (D)How often

( )3. How long ___he______ the library book .

(A)has, borrow (B)has ,kept (C)has, bought (D)did, buy

( )4. Mr Green isn't in the office , He __________to the library

(A)has gone (B)went (C)has been (D)will go

( )5. Mr smith _______to Tokyo and he will be back in a week

(A)has been (B)has visited (C)has sent (D)has gone

( )6.They_________China for two years

(A)have been to (B)have been in

(c)have gone to (D)have come to

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[Exercises10]A)按要求把短暂性转换为延续性动词

①arrive at/in sw. get to/reach sw. come/go/move to sw.

→ be in sw./at school/at home/on the farm/be here/be there(sw.为somewhere的缩写) He got to Beijing five minutes ago.

He ________ _________ _________ Beijing for _________ _________. I moved to the USA last year.

I ________ ________ __________ the USA since __________ __________.

I went home yesterday.

I _______ ________ _________ home for _________ __________.

They came here last week.

They _________ _________ here since _________ __________.

②come/go back, return → be back come/go out → be out

He came out two years ago.

He _________ __________ _________ for __________ __________.

We return to Fuzhou yesterday.

We ________ ________ _________ to Fuzhou since __________.

③become → be

I became a teacher in 2000.

I ________ __________ a teacher for _________ _________.

The river became dirty last year.

The river _________ _________ dirty for _________ __________.

④close → be closed open → be open

The shop closed two hours ago.

The shop ________ _________ _________ for _________ _________.

The door opened at six in the morning.

The door ________ ________ ________ for six hours.

⑤get up → be up die → be dead

leave sw. → be away from sw.

fall asleep/get tot sleep → be asleep

finish/end → be over marry → be married

I got up two hours ago.

I ________ ________ ________ since ________ ________.

He left Fuzhou just now.

He _______ ________ ________ _________ Fuzhou for five minutes.

My grandpa died in 2002.

My grandpa _______ _______ ________for _______ ________.

The meeting finished at six.

The meeting ________ ______ ______ for six hours.

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I got to sleep two hours ago.

I ________ _________ _________ since _________ __________.

They married in 1990.

They ________ _________ __________since _________.

⑥start/begin to do sth. → do sth. begin → be on

I began to teach at this school in 1995.

I ____ ____ at this school since ____.

The film began two minutes ago.

The film ____ ____ ____ for ____ ____.

⑦borrow → keep lose → not have buy → have put on → wear catch/get a cold → have a cold get to know → know

They borrowed it last week.

They _________ _________ it since __________ __________.

I bought a pen two hours ago.

I _________ _________ a pen for ________ __________.

I got to know him last year.

I _________ __________ him since __________ __________.

I put on my glasses three years ago.

I __________ __________ my glasses for _________ _________.

⑧have/has gone to → have been in

He has gone to Beijing.

He ____ ____ _____ Beijing for two days.

⑨join the league/the Party/the army

→ be a league/a Party member/a soldier

→ be a member of the league/the Party

→ be in the league/the Party/the army

He joined the league in 2002.

He ________ _________ a _________ _________ for two years.

He ________ __________ a __________ ___________ the __________ for two years. He ____________ ___________ ___________ the league for two years.

My brother joined the army two years ago.

My brother __________ __________ a ___________ for ___________ ___________. My brother ___________ ___________ in ____________ ___________ for two years.

C)选择填空

( )2.Herfather ______in1990 and her husband ______for more than five years

(A)died ,dead (B)has died, dead(C)died ,has been dead (D)has died, has died

( )3.I have _____this nice watch for two years

(A)had (B)bought (C)borrowed (D)lend

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( )4.He _____his home for ten years

(A)has left (B)left from (C)has been away from (D)was away from

( )5.He _____a league member for three years

(A)is (B)has been (C)has become (D)have become

( )6.Lihua's brother has _______for two years

(A)joined the army (B)been an army

(C)become a soldier (D)been in the army

( )7.He hasn't _____Quanzhou ever since he left school

(A)left (B)been away (C)been (D)away

[Exercises 11] 选择填空

( )1. ——Have you finished your homework

——Yes, I _______it last night

(A)finish (B)finished (C)have finished (D)will finish

( )2.—— ________you ever _______to Nanjing

——Yes, I ______there last year.

(A)Have…gone, have gone (B)Have…been , went

(C)Did…go, went (D)Did…go, has , been

( )3.——When _______you ________Lucy in New York?

——I _________here for two years

(A)did…meet, haven't seen (B)did…meet, haven't seen

(C)did…meet, don't see (D)would…meet, hadn't seen

( )4.when_ you to Beijing?

( )3.He ______finished his homework. yet

(A)doesn’t (B)haven’t (C) hasn’t (D) doesn’t have

( )1.——Have you ________traveled on the train.

——Yes, I have.

(A)never (B)ever (C)just (D)yet

( )2.——Have you finished your homework

——Not__________ .

(A)ever (B)already (C)yet (D)just

( )3. We haven't finished our homework .

(A)already (B)ever (C)yet (D)never

( )4.——Have you__________ learned English?

——Yes, I've ________learned a lot.

(A)never, ever (B)ever, never (C)ever, already (D)already. ever

( )5.——Have you finished your homework ________?

——Yes, I've _____done that

(A)yet, already (B)already, yet (C)ever, never (D)still, just

( )6.John's father _______borrowed some pictures

(A)have already (B)has just (C)have ever (D)has yet

[Exercises4] A)用since和for填空

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1) ______ two years 2) _______ two years ago 3) _______ last month

4) ______ 1999 5) _______ yesterday 6) _______ 4 o’clock

7) ______ 4 hours 8) _______ an hour ago 9) _______ we were children

10) _____ lunch time 11) ______ she left here

B)用since和for填空

1. He has lived in Nanjing ________ the year before last.

2. I’ve known him __________ we were children.

3. Our teacher has studied Japanese _________ three years.

4. She has been away from the city ___________ about ten years.

5. It’s about ten years __________ she left the city.

( )1.I've been like this ever since _________

(A)last week (B) for a week (C) a week before (D)the last week

( )2.My mother has worked in this factory _____2 years.

(A)about (B)for (C)in (D)since

( )3. I haven't heard from him ______last week.

(A)since (B) for (C)ago (D)before

( )4.His father joined the party_________

(A)for three years (B)since three years ago

(C)three years ago (D)in two years' time

1. – Where is Mr. Liu? ----- He _______the library.

A. has been to B. has gone to C. has been in

2. The students have cleaned the classroom , ________?

A. so they B. don’t they C. have they D. haven’t they

3. I like Hainan. I ________there three times.

A. went B. go C. have been D. have gone

4.We came to Nanjing three years ago, so we ________ here for three years.

A. have been to B. have been in C. have been D. have gone

5.- How long ______you_______ your dictionary? - About two months.

A. did; buy B. have; get C. have; had D. have; bought

6. He tells me he________ China for over five years.

A. has been B. has been in C. has been to D. has gone to

7.________has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he _______ to China?

A. How soon , comes B. How often, got

C. How long , came D. How far, arrived

8. His uncle________ for more than 9 years.

A. has come here B. has started to work

C. has lived there D. has left the university

9. He has never surfed, __________(改成反意疑问句)?

10. They have been here since 2000 . (对划线部分提问)

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__________ have they been here?

11. The old man _________last year. He________ for a year.(die)

12. This factory opened twenty years ago.(改写句子,句意不变)

This factory _________ for twenty years.

13. Miss Gao left an hour ago. (同上)

Miss Gao___________ an __________hour ago.

14.The Green Family moved to France two years ago. (同上)

_________ two years________ the Green family moved to France.

15. The bus has arrived here. It arrived ten minutes ago. (同上)

现在完成时

【现在完成时】

A. 表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持

续到现在的动作或状态。

【常用时间状语】recently, lately, since+时间点, for+数字+时间名词, in the past few months/years等

【构成】 肯定形式:have/has + done

否定形式:have/has + not +done

一般疑问句:have或has放于句首

B. 现在完成时的用法

1)现在完成时所表示的动作在说话之前已完成,而对现在有影响。

车子来了。(结果:车子已在门口)

有人把窗户打破了。(结果:窗户仍破着)

区别:have been to, have gone to, have been in

have been to,表示去过某个地方,不过现在已经回来了

have gone to表示去了,但还没有回来,也许是在去的途中

have been in指的是在某个地方,从过去一直延续到现在

例如:你以前去过北京么?

例如:A: Is Mr.Wang at home?

B: No,he is not in, (他去香港了)

2)现在完成时所表示的动作开始于过去,持续到现在,也许还会持续下去。常用for和since表示一段时间的状语或so far,now,today,this week (month,year)等表示包括现在时间在内的状语。

eg. He has studied English for 5 years.

He has studied English since 2001.

Now I have finished the work.

注意:表示短暂时间动作的词,如:come,go,die,marry,buy等的完成时不能与for,since等表示一段时间的词连用。用来持续的动作或状态或表过去重复的动作,如live,study,be,wait等,常和since(自从)或for(经历)引导的词语连用。

如:I have lived here for more than thirty years.我已在此住了30多年。

★由非延续性动词到延续性动词的转换:

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arrive →be here get up →be up catch(a cold)→ have(a cold)

begin(start)→be on go out →be out get to know →know finish →be over put on →wear 或be on begin to study →study

die →be dead open →be open come to work →work

come back →be back borrow →keep close →be closed

leave →be away buy →have go to school →be a student fall ill(sick, asleep)→be ill(sick, asleep) join →be in 或be a member of…

例题

( )1.When he arrived at the bus stop, the bus _____ for 20 minutes.

A. has left B. had left C. has been away D. had been away

( )2. I ______ the League for 5 years so far.

A. joined B. have joined C. have been in

( )3.The factory ____ since the February of 1988.

A . has been open B. has opened C. was open D. opened

( )4.Mary and Rose ____friends since they met in 2000.

A. have made B. have been C. made D. have become

( )5.You mustn't_____ until he comes back.

A. be away B. leave C. be left

( )6.The meeting _____ for a week now.

A. has finished B. has ended C. has been over

( )7.Miss Gao ______ this school for nearly 5 years.

A. has been in B. has come to C. has taught

( )8.Ben ______ a teacher for 4 years.

A. has been B. has become C. was D. became

( )9. I ______ home for a week.

A. have returned B. have been back C. returned

( )10. How long _______ he ________ ?

A. died B. has, died C. has, been dead

( )11. He ______ at eight yesterday afternoon.

A. slept B. was sleeping C. has sleep D. had slept

( )12.He ________ the car for a week.

A. bought B. has bought C. has had

( )13.---How long _____ you _____ ill ?

---Two weeks.

A. did fall B. have, fell C. have, been

( )14.Since 2000, he _____ his hometown.

A. has left B. has moved away C. has been away from

( )15.I'll lend you the book , but you can only _____ it for 2 days.

A. borrow B. keep C. take

练习

[单项选择]

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( )1、Both his parents look sad. Maybe they ______what's happened to him.

A. knew B. have known C. must know D. will know

( )2、He has _______ been to Shanghai, has he ?

A. already B. never C. ever D. still

( )3、Have you met Mr Li ______?

A. just B. ago C. before D. a moment ago

( )4、The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year .

A. is writing B. was writing C. wrote D. has written

( )5、—Our country ______ a lot so far .

—Yes. I hope it will be even ______.

A. has changed; well B. changed; good C. has changed; better D. changed; better

( )6、Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years .

A. was; studying B. will; study C. has; studied D. are; studying ( )7、We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl .

A. know B. had known C. have known D. knew

( )8、Harry Potter is a very nice film. I ______ it twice.

A. will see B. have seen C. saw D. see

( )9、—These farmers have been to the United States .

—Really? When _____ there?

A. will they go B. did they go C. do they go D. have they gone

( )10、—______ you ___ your homework yet?

—Yes. I _____ it a moment ago.

A.Did; do; finished B.Have; done; finished

C.Have; done; have finished D.will; do; finish

( )11、His father ______ the club since 1988.

A. joined B. has joined C. was in D. has been in

( )12、—Do you know her well?

— Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago.

A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made

( )13、—How long have you ____ here?

—About seven years.

A. been B. gone C. come D. arrived

( )14、Hurry up! The program __________ for five minutes .

A. has begun B. had begun C. has been on D. began

( )15、It _____ ten years since he came Chengdu.

A. is B. has C. will D. was

( )16、Miss Green isn't in the office. She _______ to the library.

A. has gone B. went C. will go D. has been

( )17、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years .

A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to D. have been

( )18、He ________ for 2 hours.

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A. got up B. has got up C. has been up

( )19、Tom is ill in hospital. He ______ a cold for several days.

A. is B. catches C. has caught D. has had

( )20、His grandparents ______ for more than 9 years.

A. has come here B. has started to work C. has lived there D. has left the university

[汉译英]

1、 吉姆已做完作业,他现在有空了。

2、 他昨天收到一封信。

3、 我父亲以前到过长城。

4、 她还没有看过那部新电影。

5、 她去过上海。

Keys:

1、现在完成时主要强调过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响,或过去发生的动作还未结束,一直持续到现在或将来,重点在于对现在的影响。这种考查难度较大,往往无时间状语,需要从上下文分析、推理才行。故上两侧根据上下文分析、推理,正确答案是B。

2、现在完成时常与already(已经),just(刚刚,正好),ever(曾经),never(从来,也不;从不),before(以前),yet(仍然)等连用。故2应选B。

3、C

4、现在完成时常与recently(近来),so far(到目前为止),in the past/―last + 一段时间‖等时间状语连用。因为上述短语表示的是从现在起往前推算的一段时间,句中的动作是从过去某一时间或时刻开始持续到现在的。故4应选D。

5、C

6、现在完成时时常与―for +时间段或since +过去时间点‖连用(含从句,从句过去时)。故6应选C。

7、C

8、现在完成时还与once(一次),twice(两次),three times(三次),several times(几次)等表示重复次数的词语连用。故8应选B。

9、现在完成时与一般过去时容易混淆,就是因为它们所表示的动作都发生在过去,但二者又有区别:一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的事、存在的状态或经常发生的动作,说话的侧重点在于陈述一件过去的事情,与现在没有关系;现在完成时表示与现在有关系的发生在过去的动作,它不与表示过去的时间状语(如yesterday , last week , a moment ago等)连用。故9的正确答案为B。

10、B

11、现在完成时中,非延续性动词不能与for和since引导的表示一段时间的状语连用,通常是用相应的延续性动词来代替。故11的正确答案依次为:D。

12、B 13、A 14、C 15、A。

16、―have/has gone to + 地点‖表示―某人去了某地(还未回来)‖,指主语所指的人不在这儿。―have/has been in + 地点‖表示―在某地呆了多长时间‖,常与表示时间的状语连用。―have/has been to +地点‖表示―曾经去过某地(但现在已不在那儿)。‖故16的正确答案为A。

17、A 18、D 19、C 20、C

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汉译英。

1、Jim has finished doing his homework already. He is free now.

2、He received a letter yesterday.

3、My father has been to the Great Wall before.

4、She hasn't seen the new film yet.

5、She has been to Shanghai.

6、Where has he been these days?

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