Past perfect tense
A Past perfect tense
We can use the past perfect tense to talk about an action that happened before another action in the past. This tense is formed with ‘had+past participle’.
past in the past
She had put most of her effort into ballet trainning before she entered the film industry.
Hepburn had been a model before she became a Hollywood superstar.
Hepburn had already won an Oscar for Best Actress when she won the Tony Award for the play Ordine.
1.Millie ran back to school because she
had left her magazine in the classroom.
What happened first?
a. Millie ran back to school. b. Millie left her magazine in the classroom.
2.Simon left school late because the football game had started late. What happened first? a. Simon left school late. b. The football game started late.
3. Daniel arrived out of breath because he had gone to the wrong cinema.
What happened first? a.Daniel arrived out of breath.
b. Daniel went to the wrong cinema. 4.Amy had lost her purse and had to go to the police station. What happened first? a. Amy lost her purse.
b. Amy went to the police station.
Form had + past participle of verb
act- acted be- been begin-begun bring-brought
helped opened seen sung
Work out the rule:
If we want to talk about two past actions in a sentence, the past perfect tense is used for the earlier
(earlier, later) action.
a. The film has been on for five minutes when I got there.
b. The film had been on for five minutes when I got there. 在过去某一时间或动作之前发生或完成了的动 作，要用过去完成时。它的动作的起点为过去， 终点也为过去，即“过去的过去”。而现在完 成时的动作起点为过去，终点则为现在。
2.到上学期末，他们已学会了五首英语歌曲。 a. By the end of last term, they have learned five English songs. b. By the end of last term, they had learned five English songs. by the end of last term 意为“到上学期 末为止”，显然它是“以过去某一时间 为终点的”，故只能用过去完成时态， 不用现在完成时态。
a. He saw Bill yesterday. They haven’t met each other for two years.
b. He saw Bill yesterday. They hadn’t met each other for two years.
“他们没见面”是到“昨天”为止的（而不 是到现在为止），是过去的过去，故后一个 句子需使用过去完成时态进行表达。
1. 和 by + 过去时间点连用, 如： by the time, by then, by last year, by the end of last year/month…, by five o’clock yesterday afternoon… had learned By the end of last term, they__________ (learn) 1000 English words. 2. 和before + 过去时间点连用
had arrived We ____________(arrive) the station before ten o’clo
3. 和when, before, after, as soon as, until/till等引 导的状语从句连用或用于从句中 had left The airplane _______ already _______(leave) when I got to the airport. 另外， 常用于宾语从句中 had written She said that she _____________(write) three e-mails.
1. He said he __________ his breakfast hadn’t had yet. (not have) 2. When I got to the cinema, the film had been ________(be) on for twenty minutes. 3. He said he had been (be) to Nanjing ________
for a holiday.
4. You never told me you ________ (see) had seen the film before. had left 5. The train ____ already ___ (leave) when we arrived at the station.
had known 6. By the year of 2004 we __________ (know) each other for ten years.
10th Dec Today, I watched "Roman Holiday" with my friends, Kitty was the first one to arrive at the cinema. When Millie and arrived had bought I(1)______(arrive),Kitty(2)_______ (buy) the tickets already. Simon and Daniel came next. Before Simon and came Daniel(3)____(come).
Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs.
had gone Millie and I (4)________(go) to get some drinks, Then all five of us waited for Amy outside the cinema. arrived Before Amy(5)______(arrive),we (6)_________(finish) our drinks.When had finished entered we (7)______(enter) the cinema, the had started film(8)_______already ______(start). Luckily, we did not miss much.
We ask questions using the past perfect tense like this:
‘Had’ Had Subject Past participle I/you/we/they finished? /he/she/it gone?
We can give short answers like this:
‘Yes’ /‘NO’ Subject ‘had(not)’
I/you/we/ had. they/he/she/ had it not/hadn’t.
Talking about films
Millie: Hi, Sandy. I saw an action film during the holiday. It was really good, and my favourite film star Michelle Yeoh played a lead role in it. Had Sandy: I know you like her a lot.__________ you _______(see) any of her films before you saw seen this one? had acted Millie: Yes, I ________. She ______________(act ) in had many other action films before this Hollywood film. watched Had Sandy: ______ you ________(watch) any other films during the holiday? hadn’t Emily: No, I __________. That was the only one.
1. He said that he ___________ (write) that letter. had written had left 2. Before he arrived, the train __________(leave). 3. By then, they ____________ (work)for eight hours. had worked
had 4. When she got to the cinema, the film ____ already been ____ (be) on for 15 minutes. had met 5. Mary told me she ___________(meet) my mother before.
6. By six o’clock yesterday evening, I ____________(finish) my homework. had finished 7. I went to Li Hong’s house, but he__________(go) out. had gone had arrived 8. We __________(arrive) at the station before two o’clock.
Giving advice with ‘should’,
‘ought to’, ‘had better’, ‘have to’, and ‘must’ Using ‘why not’, ‘why don’t you’ and ‘perhaps’
should 和ought to
d/ought to 可以表示“劝说” 或“督促”， 和must 一样， 但三者 语气强弱不同。 用should 语气比较肯定一些， 说话人 的主观信心要强烈一些。 用ought to则口气上不那么坚定。 用must则在口气上最强烈。
You must do your homework. You should mind your own business. I ought to write to him today.
must 与have to
主观意志。 have to 表示“必须”， 侧重于客观 的需要，含有“不得不”的意味 。
had better (常缩写为’d better) ，是 一固定词组， 表示“最好”， 用于 表示对别人的劝告、建议或表示一种 愿望。 had better 后面加动词原形，即 had better do sth.不论主语是第几人称, 句 子无论是何种时态，had better 形式 不变。
had better 的否定形式为had better
not do sth 表示“最好不要做……”。
You’d better not miss the last bus.
You’d better not play on the road. It’s
You’d better put on the coat. It’s cold
Why not…?/Why don’t you …? 这两种句型结构常用于说话人向对方 提出一个建议，意思是“不……？”； “为什么不……？” Why not…?/ Why don’t you …? 后面
Why not go swimming?=Why don’t you go swimming?
Why don’t you go out for a walk?
=Why not go out for a walk?
At the cinema should You ____________ (must, should) bring a jacket to the cinema because you might feel cold. had better You __________ (had better, must) arrive on time so that you won’t miss anything. ought to You ______________ (must, ought to) go to the
toilet before the film begins.
had better You ____________(had better, have to) buy some popcorn or soft drinks before the film begins.
have to You __________ (had better, have to) keep quiet while watching the film.
1. My mother was ill. I ______ stay at home to look after her. A. must C. could B. have to D. can
2. ---____ go shopping with your father?
--- That’s a good idea.
A. Why don’t B. Why not
C. Do A. would better
D. Does B. had better
3. You ___ give up smoking. C. would better to D. had better to
4. Why don’t you _____climbing with us tomorrow? A. to go B. going C. go D. goes 5. Cars, buses and bikes ___ stop when the traffic lights changes to red. A. can B. may C. must D. need
6. It’s too hot. Perhaps you ______ swimming this afternoon. A. must go B. should go C. may go D. can go 7. To make our hometown more beautiful, you __throw rubbish into the river. A. needn’t B. mustn’t C. must D. need
8. How interesting the news is! Why
_____ join us? A. won’t C. don’t B. no D. not