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线喻

发布时间:2014-01-10 13:46:52  

“线喻”即线段之喻,柏拉图用“线喻”形象而明晰地说明了两个世界及其关系:“用一条线来代表它们。将这一条线分成二个不相等的部分,一部分相当于可见世界,另一部分相当于可知世界。然后按同一比例将各个部分再行划分,一部分是比较清晰的,另一部分比较模糊”。可见世界的第一部分是影像,第二部分是影像的原本,即具体事物,这“两部分有不同的真实程度,摹本之于原本,正如意见领域之于知识的领域”。可知世界的第一部分是数理理念,即几何、数学及相近学科的研究对象,第二部分是伦理理念,“指人的理性自身凭借辩证法的力量而认识到的那种东西”,包括美、正义、勇敢等,最高的理念是善。与上述两大世界四个层次相适应,人的灵魂也有四种不同的功能,从低到高依次为猜想、相信(信念)、推论和理智。猜想、相信相当于意见领域,推理和理智则相当于知识领域。

直线AB,按实在性和认识的程度,先分成两大段AC和CB,AC代表可感世界和感性认识,CB代表可知的理念世界和理性认识,由于理念世界和理性认识无论在实在性和真理性的程度上都高于可感世界和感性认识,所以在线段划分表示中CB>AC;接着再“根据性处于不清楚的程度”,按AC和CB的比例,再将AC划分成AD和DC,将CB线段划分成CE和EB。这样就根据实在性和真理性的程度出现四个等级。“线喻”主要是着眼于从认识过程来进行划分等级的:

第四等级是想象(AD)——猜想。是最低等级,它的对象是可感个体事物的摹仿、影象,或可感事物投在水中或光滑的物体上反映出来的影子或其它类似的东西,相当于“第二手的印象或意见”。

第三等级是信念(相信)(DC)。它的对象是人们感官面对的客观存在的个体事物,如自然物、生物和人工制品等;这种认识是属于感性认识,指日常生活中一般的意见。

第二等级是理智(推论)(CE)。它的对象是数理科学研究的对象,它凭借假设去认识数理学科的研究对象,运用纯粹的演绎对所凭借的假设采取的是非批判态度,根据几何图形及一系列逻辑推论,达到所要求的结论。

第一等级是理性(EB)。是最高等级,是纯哲学研究的范围,凭借辩证法的力量,达到终极的真理,和它相应的认识对象是可知理念世界本身,以善理念为终极目的。

3.List a few advantages that the categorial grammar has over the word-based grammar.

There are a lot of advantages that the categorial grammar has over the word-based grammar, and I’ll list a few of them.

Firstly, it can explain native speakers’ intuitions about sentence structure. Chomsky argues that native speakers intuitively know that sound sequences are structured into larger groups, or constituents. The sound sequences are grouped into words, which in turn form phrases, which again form sentences. That is to say that language has a hierarchical structure rather than a linear structure.

Secondly, it can explain the generality in word distributions in a sentence. Syntax is essentially concerned with distribution of words and phrases, namely it specifies which words or phrases can appear in which positions in which type of sentence. A category-based syntax achieves a greater level of generality that a word-based syntax even can’t achieve observational adequacy, which at least in terms of a finite set of rules.

Thirdly, it can explain the creativity of language. The use of categories in the formulation of sentence formulation rules offers important theoretical advantages over word-based grammar.One such advantage is that the former is more constrained than the later. For in a categorical grammar, it is possible for us to impose strong constraints on the nature of all sentence formation rules in all human language.

Fourthly, it offers a plausible model for language acquisition.

Fifthly, it can explain structural ambiguity.

Sixthly, it can explain the coordination structure.

Seventhly,it can explain infusion facts.

Eighthly,It can explain certain deletion facts.

4.Explain the relationship between creativity and constraint in reading.

从威尔逊的观点出发,所谓作品的限定或约束实际上是作品本身所固有的结构,这种结构来自创造者对艺术本质和艺术模式的把握,这种把握基本上是内在的,是由我们生理结构决定的,它构成了人性的一部分。从欣赏者的角度看,他的任务首先是揭示篇章的结构并在此基础上挖掘篇章的内涵,暴露其特异之处,这就是创造,但这种创造无疑是建立在篇章结构的基础之上并受其制约的,创造与约束构成了创造和理解的两面,相依相存.

而乔姆斯基认为我们可能天生地具有创造科学理论和具有美学意义的作品的能力,而且这种能力“实际上预设了它只能发生在一套管辖和约束系统之内”,这就是说,所谓创造,就是有约束,有限制的创造。

另外值得我们注意的是,约束条件越强,解决问题的途径越是明确,其中所能发挥的创造性也越小。

5.Give one condiction or constraint that Chomsky has proposed that shows the concept of linguistic universal.

Chomsky claims that he has found a number of linguistic universals which can only be regarded as genetically determined. And I think there is one condiction proposed by Chomsky can show the concept of linguistic universal, which involves the use of pronouns, says:

A pronoun cannot take an element of its domain as its antecedent.

This principle, as far as known is invariant across language. the domain of an elements the minimal phrase containing it. Consider the following sentences, where the domain of the pronoun ‘he’ is indicated by brackets:

(a)He thinks John is intelligent.

(b)John thinks he is intelligent.

(c)The woman he married thinks John is intelligent.

(d)His mother loves John.

In case of (b), (c), and (d), ‘John’ is not in the domain of the pronoun, so that ‘John’ can serve as its antecedent, whereas in case (a), where ‘John’ is in the domain of ‘He’. John cannot serve as an antecedent of the pronoun. This condiction will account for all grammaticality and ungrammaticality we have discussed above,and this condiction has been proved to exist in all the languages that have been studied.

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