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浙江八年级优秀学生英语能力提升讲义

发布时间:2014-01-10 16:57:19  

Step 1 课前检测

1.)My school life

2.) 复述小短文

I have just moved to a house in Bridge Street. Yesterday a beggar knocked at my door. He asked me for a meal and a glass of beer. In return for this, the beggar stood on his head and sang songs. I gave him a meal. He ate the food and drank the beer. Then he put a piece of cheese in his pocket and went away. Later a neighbour told me about him. Everybody knows him. His name is Percy Buttons. He calls at every house in the street once a month and always asks for a meal and a glass of beer.

Step 2 Listening

【一】听小短文

_______________________________________ detectives _______________________________________________. They were expecting a valuable parcel of diamonds from________ Africa. _________________________, someone had __________the police that thieves would try to steal the diamonds. __________________________, some of the detectives were waiting_________________________________ while others _________________________________. Two men took the parcel________ ________ __________ and carried it _______the Customs House. While two detectives were keeping guard _________________, two others opened the parcel. _________ _________ ___________, the precious parcel was full of _________ __________ __________!

一、词汇详解

1.detective n. 侦探

detective story 侦探小说

2.airport 飞机场

airfield 飞机起落的地方

port 港口 airport 航空港 at the airport import export

field 田野 airfield 停机坪 on the airfield 在停机坪上

in the field of~~~在??的领域 翻译: 在数学领域,他是个了不起的人。

3.expect 期待,等待

(1.)vt.&vi. 预计,预料 Jim has failed in mathematics as his teacher expected.正如他老师所预料的那样,吉姆数学考试没及格。

(2)vt. 等待,期待,盼望:(心理上的等待) I'm expecting a letter from Jimmy.

我在等待吉米的一封信。 expect所表示的等待一般暗含着根据某些信息或规律而作出相应反应的意思,

而wait (for)主要指“等待”这个动作本身: He waited for her for more than an hour, but she did not come.

他等了她一个多小时,但她没来。 Wait a minute, please.

请等一下。 expect sth. expect sb. to do sth. wait for sb. to do sth. 动作上的等待

4. valuable 贵重的 value n. 价值

precious 珍贵的 (带有一定的感情色彩) precious photo

-less 表示否定

priceless 没有价格的,无价的

valueless 没有价值,不足道的

worthless 无价值的

5.diamond n.钻石 diamond ring 钻石戒指

precious stone 宝石

crystal 水晶

jade 玉

6. steal (stole, stolen)v. 偷

1)vt. vi. 偷盗,行窃:

英语中“偷”用steal&rob表达,宾语是物,用steal。宾语是人,用rob,跟地点连用,也用rob。 steal sth.

Someone has stolen my bike.

有人把我的自行车偷走了。 John never steals.

约翰从不偷东西。 rob sb. 例如 I was robbed. 我被抢了。 rob the bank 抢银行

(2)vt. 巧妙地占有,偷偷地弄到手:

He has stolen away Mary's heart.

他已赢得玛丽的芳心。

(3)vi. 偷偷地行动,悄悄靠近:

He stole into the room.

他悄悄地进了房间。

7. main adj. 主要的

main building/street/sentence/idea main 不能与人连用

8. guard n.警戒,守卫

life guard 救生员

body guard 保镖

keep guard 守望,警戒 例如: They kept a close guard over the thieves.

stand guard 站岗,放哨

二、全文观望

三、 语法 Grammar in use

1.过去进行时(The past progressive tense)

构成:be的过去式+现在分词(注意现在分词的构成)

(1)过去进行时主要表示过去某个时刻或某段时间正在进行的动作。过去进行时和一般过去时经常同在一个句子里使用。过去进行时表示过去正在进行的动作或情况,一般过去时则表示比较短暂的动作或事件。正在进行中的动作或情况往往由连词 when, while, as, just as等引导:

While/ When/ As I was sweeping the floor, I found your pen.

我扫地的时候,发现了你的钢笔。

while通常只引导持续时间较长的动作,并且主句和从句可以同时用过去进行时,而when和as一般不这么用: John was watching TV while his wife was talking with a neighbour over the phone.

当他的妻子和一位邻居在电话中聊天时,约翰一直在看电视。

Some students were dancing and singing while others were eating and drinking.

有些学生在唱歌跳舞,而另一些则在吃喝。

Just as I was opening the front door, the telephone rang.

我正开前门的时候,电话铃响了。

Just as I was leaving the house, you came in.

你进来的时候我正要出门。

when也可以引导比较短暂的动作,while和as则一般不行:

We were having supper when the lights went out.

我们正在吃晚饭时灯灭了。

2)过去进行时往往与表示一段时间的状语连用,如all morning, all night, all day, all evening, the whole week等,表示这段时间一直在干什么:

They were preparing for the party for two whole days.

整整两天他们一直在为晚会进行准备。

2.短语动词中的小品词(The particles)

在上一课的语法中已经提到,许多动词加上介词或副词后就会改变词义。这些介词和副词通常被称为小品词。它们没有词形变化。有些小品词既可以作介词又可以作副词。判断一个小品词是副词还是介词要看小品词有没有带宾语。有宾语的是介词,没有宾语的是副词。介词的位置相对固定些:

I am looking for Tim.

我在找蒂姆。(for为介词,位置不能变动)

She looked after the baby.

她照顾那孩子。(after为介词)

He put the fire/ it out.

他灭了火。(out为副词)

Mother woke the children/ them up.

母亲把孩子们叫醒了。(up为副词)

She took the picture/ it down.

她把画取了下来。(down为副词)

Please turn the radio/ it off.

请把收音机关掉。(off为副词)

He turned it on.

约翰打开了电视。(on为副词)

Put the cake on the table.

把蛋糕放在桌上。(on为介词)

She is walking up the hill.

她正向山上走去。(up为介词)

听力综合训练

I. 每小题你将听到一个对话,从A、B、C三幅图中找出与你所听内容相符的选项。(每个对话读一遍)

II. 听下列5个对话和对话后的问题,选择正确答案。(每个对话读一遍)

( )6. A. White. B. Yellow. C. Blue.

( )7. A. It happened in a clothing shop.

B. It happened in a hospital.

C. It happened at school.

( )8. A. Mr Black is free.

B. Mr Black is out.

C. Mr Black is busy.

( )9. A. Wednesday. B. Tuesday. C.Monday.

( )10. A. Because he didn’t want to go to the party.

B. Because he had some other things to do.

C. Because he was ill and couldn’t go.

III. 听对话和对话后的问题,选择正确答案。(对话读两遍)

( )11. Where is the woman?

A. She is in a shoe shop.

B. She’s in a toy shop.

C. She’s in a bookshop.

( )12. What’s she looking for?

A. She’s looking for a bear.

B. She’s looking for a toy car.

C. She’s looking for a toy bear.

( )13. How much is the gray teddy bear?

A. 200 yuan. B. 100 yuan. C. 80 yuan.

( )14. Why doesn’t the woman buy the first teddy bear?

A. It’s too small.

B. She doesn’t like the color.

C. It’s too big.

( )15. How much does the woman pay for the teddy bear in the end?

A. 80 yuan. B. 200 yuan. C.100 yuan.

V. 听短文,回答问题。(短文读两遍)

21. What day was it the day before yesterday?

22. How long did the rain last?

23. Where did Miss Gao ask the students to play ping-pong?

24. Who taught the other students to play ping-pong?

25. Why were the students happy that day?

Step 3 英美文化 ----大英帝国的兴衰

I. Whigs and Tories 辉格党人和托利党人

These two party names originated with the Glorious Revolution (1688).

这两个政党名称皆起源于1688年的光荣革命。

The Whig was those who opposed absolute monarchy and supported the right to religious freedom for Nonconformists. The Whig was to form a coalition with dissident Tories in the mid-19th century and become the Liberal Party.

辉格党人是指那些反对绝对王权,支持新教徒宗教自由权利的人。辉格党人在19世纪中叶与持不同意见的托利党人组成联盟,建立自由党。

The Tories were those who supported hereditary monarchy and were reluctant to remove kings. The Tories were the forerunners of the Conservative Party.

托利党人是指那些支持世袭王权、不愿去除国王的人。托利党是保守党的前身。

I. Agricultural Changes in the Late 18th Century 18世纪末的农业革命

During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the “open-field” system ended when the Enclosure Act was passed. The movement lasted for centuries. Agricultural enclosure had good as well as bad results:

18世纪末、19世纪初的农业革命期间,随着《圈地法》的颁布,传统的“开放田地”制结束。圈地运动持续了将近一个多世纪。农业圈地运动的利弊共存:

(1) Farms became bigger and bigger units as the great bought up the small;

由于大农场兼并了小农场,规模越来越大;

(2) More vegetables, more milk and more dairy produce were consumed, and diet became more varied;

人们消费的蔬菜,牛奶及奶制品越来越多,饮食种类愈加丰富;

(3) Enclosure was a disaster for the tenants evicted from their lands by the enclosures. These peasant farmers were forced to look for work in towns. Enclosure led to mass emigration, particularly to the New World;

圈地对佃家而言是场灾难,他们被赶出土地,被迫到城镇找工作。圈地运动导致了大规模的移民,尤其是移民至新大陆。

(4) A new class hostility was introduced into rural relationships.

农村关系中产生了新的阶级对立。 II. The Industrial Revolution (1780-1830)工业革命(1780-1830)

1.The industrial Revolution refers to the mechanizations of industry and the consequent changes in social and economic organization in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

工业革命指的是17世纪末、18世纪初英国工业的机械化,以及因此而导致的社会结构和经济结构的变化。

2.Britain was the first country to industrialize because of the following factors:

英国成为第一个工业化的国家,原因如下:

(1) Favorable geographical location. Britain was well placed geographically to participate in European and world trade; 优越的地理位置:英国地理位置优越,适合参与欧洲与世界贸易;

(2) Political stability. Britain had a peaceful society, which, after the 17th century, was increasingly interested in overseas trade and colonies. International trade brought wealth to merchants and city bankers. They and those who had done well out of new farming methods provided capital in large quantities for industrialization.

政治局面稳定。17世纪后的英国社会宁静,对海外贸易和殖民地兴趣日增。国际贸易给商人和城市银行家带来财富,他们加上由于新农作法而发家的人们为工业化提供了大笔资金。

(3) The limited monarchy which resulted from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 ensured that the powerful economic interests in the community could exert their influence over Government policy.

1688年光荣革命限制了君主的权力,这使得强大的经济利益集团能对政府政策施加影响。

(4) It was a country in which the main towns were never too far from seaports, or from rivers, which could distribute their products.

英国的主要城镇皆靠近海港或河流,货物运送便利。

(5) Britain had many rivers, which were useful for transport but also for water and steam power. Britain also had useful mineral resources.

英国许多河流不仅用于交通,还提供水力及蒸汽动力。英国还有可用的矿产资源。

(6) British engineers had sound training as craftsmen.

英国工程师为训练有素的手工艺人。

(7) The inventors were respected. They solved practical problems.

发明家受人尊重,他们解决了实际难题。

(8) Probably laissez faire and “Protestant work ethic” helped.

自由贸易及“新教工作伦理”可能起到一定作用

(9) England, Scotland, and Wales formed a customs union after 1707 and this included Ireland after 1807. So the national market was not hindered by internal customs barriers.

1707年后,英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士形成海关协会,1807年后爱尔兰加入。因此,全国市场不再受制于国内海关的约束。

(10) The enclosures and other improvements in agriculture made their contributions by providing food for the rising population, labor for the factories, and some of the raw materials needed by industry.

圈地运动和其它农业改良为增加的人口提供了粮食,为工厂提供了劳动力,为工业提供了所需的一些原材料。

3.Typical examples of the inventions during the Industrial Revolution 工业革命中一些重大创新

(1) John Kay’s flying shuttle in 1733;

1733年,约翰凯的飞梭;

(2) James Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny in 1766;

1766年詹姆士哈格里夫斯詹妮纺纱机;

(3) Richard Arkwright’s waterframe in 1769;

1769年理查 德阿克赖特的水力纺织机;

(4) Samuel Crompton’s mule in 1779

1779年塞缪尔克朗普顿的走绽纺纱机;

(5) Edmund Cartwright’s power looms in 1784;

1784年爱德蒙卡特莱特发明的力织机;

(6)James Watt’s steam engine in 1765

1765年詹姆斯瓦特的高效蒸汽机。

4. Consequences of the industrial Revolution 工业革命的结果

(1) Britain was by 1830 the “workshop of the world”;

使英国在1830年成为了“世界工场”;

(2) Towns grew rapidly and became the source of the nation’s wealth.

城镇迅速兴起,成为国家财富的源泉。

(3) Mechanization destroyed the livelihood of those who could not invest in it . The working men worked and lived in a appalling conditions.

机械化摧毁了无法投入其中的人们的生活。工人们在极其恶劣的条件下劳动与生活。

(4) The industrial revolution created the industrial working class, the proletariat, and it later led to trade unionism. 工业革命产生了工人阶级,即无产阶级。后来形成了工会制度。

Step 4 趣味英语 The Hong Kong dog

一次在一堂电脑课上,铃响后,系里的女秘书突然跑到教室来宣布:“Dr. Walker has a touch of the Hong Kong dog and will be here a little bit late。” 听完宣布后,我一脸正经地向坐在隔壁的美国朋友抱怨说:“Dr. Walker 怎么可以抚弄他的爱犬以至于来不及上课呢?”老美听完后居然大笑着说:“真是太好笑了!The Hong Kong dog 并非指一种狗,而是指某人吃坏了肚子、拉肚子的意思。”这一解释让我尴尬得无地自容。

Step 5 每课必练

阅读下面短文,根据短文内容及首字母提示补全文中所缺的单词, 答案写在题后的横线上。

“Sorry” is a word that people in Britain often say in their daily life.

(轻擦)against my handbag. He to say “sorry”. One day, after I bought some bananas, the shopkeeper was passing me the change, but I wasn’t ready for it and a coin dropped onto the ground. “Sorry, Madam,” he said wwhy he said “sorry” to me. Another time, I stepped on a man’s fsaid “sorry”.

Slowly, I got to know that when something unpleasant happens in daily life, the British don’t

c I seldom see people quarrel on the buses or streets in Britain.

阅读理解

My mother was telling me about how she and her family got their first television when she was a teenager. Of course it was black and white. She said she only watch it at night. She doesn’t remember over watching it in the morning or afternoon. When I was young we had only about 3 or 4 different channels. My bothers ,my sisters and I would sometimes fight about which channel to watch. But we usually enjoyed the same shows.

Nowadays we can get hundreds of channels on TV.I can’t believe it! There are channels with old movies, cooking ,fishing and so on. It’s amazing! There is a channel for everything. I wonder how much my bothers, my sisters and I would fight if we had hundreds of channels when I was a child. Of course we had only one television set. These days I notice families with 2 or 3 or more television sets in their homes. I guess it stops people from arguing over which channel to choose from .

1.In those days, what kind of television sets did people only have?

A. Black and white ones. B. Colors Ones.

C. All kinds of televison sets.

2. My mother watched TV ________when she was young.

A.in the morning B.in the afternoon C.at night

3.Nowadays,how many channels can we g et on TV?

A.3 or 4 different channels. B.Only once channel C.Hundreds of channels.

4.When I was a teenager ,my brothers ,my sisters and I usually enjoyed______.

A. four shows B.the same shows C.different show

5. Which of the following in NOT true ?

A. My bother , my sisters and I would sometimes fight about which channel to watch when I was a child.

B. These days, there is only one channel with old movies, cooking and fishing.

C. People have many channels to choose from now.

Step 5 homework 作文一篇

学校英语广播“热点关注”栏目正在征稿。请结合健康饮食问题,根据生活实际,谈谈你的看法。内容应包含:

(1) 健康饮食的重要性;

(2) 良好的日常饮食习惯。

注意:

(1) 要求意思、语句连贯;

(2) 词数80-100;首句已给出,不计入总词数;

(3) 不得出现真实姓名。

Food is very important to people’s health.______________________________________

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