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七、数词

发布时间:2014-01-11 09:44:32  

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2011年中考英语专项指导练习——语法和词组

七、 数 词

 (一) 知识概要

数词用来表示人或物的数目多少和顺序。所以数词主要有两种:基数词,用于计数,如:one, two…而序数词用于表示位置先后或次序,台:first second…其构成法如下:

阿拉伯数字 基数词 序数词 简写序数词

1 one first 1st

2 two second 2nd

3 three third 3rd

4 four fourth 4th

5 five fifth 5th

6 six sixth 6th

7 seven seventh 7th

11 eleven eleventh 11th

12 twelve twelfth 12th

13 thirteen thirteenth 13th

14 fourteen fourteenth 14th

15 fifteen fifteenth 15th

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16 sixteen sixteenth 16th

17 seventeen seventeenth 17th

18 eighteen eighteenth 18yh

19 nineteen nineteenth 19th

20 twenty twentieth 20th

21 twenty-one twenty-first 21st

30 thirty thirtieth 30th

40 forty fortieth 40th

50 fifty fiftieth 50th

60 sixty sixtieth 60th

70 seventy seventieth 70th

80 eighty eightieth 80th

90 ninety ninetieth 90th

1000000 one million millionth 1000000th

基数词与序数词都有一定的构成方法,但都有特殊例外的几个字,所以除了要学会一般构成法之外,还要特别记熟一些例外。因它们在考试中出现的频率很高。

1 基数词构成结构

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21~99的两位数字,在10位和个位之间加连字符构成,如89-eighty-nine.101~999的三位数字,由hundred 加and 再加二位数或未位数字,如: 101-one hundred and one, 223-two hundred and twenty-three.四位以上数字,应从个位起向前数三位加逗号,读作thousand,再数三位加第二个逗号,读作million,再数三位加逗号,读作billion,其读法如下:

1001-one thousand and one5386and eighty-six要注意的是与的用身都不要加s,如: 若表示成百,成千或数百,数千时,前面不能有基数词,然后+of+名词复数。如:。 (成千上万)

2 序数词的构成法序数词除first, 以外,其余一般在词尾加th构成,除很容易掌握。其二位数或多位数只将后 3

小数的小数点读作point,零读作o[u]或zero,小数点后面的数字按个位基数词依次读出。分数分子用基数词,分母用序数词,当分子大于1时,分数要在序数词上加s,但1/2用one half, 1 4 用a quarter. 1 3 读作one third而 2 3 读作two thirds。百分数(%),读作per cent (percent),但不论是多少均用作单数形式不能加s。中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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表示日期有两种说法和四种写法,如:2月1号英语表达法为:the first of February而美语为February (the) first,但其书写上可有四种写法① February 1 ② February 1st ③ 1st February ④ 1/2。倍数的讲法有所不同。两倍用twice,而三倍以上用序数词加times,如:He has three times as many books as I have.

 (二) 正误辨析

 [误]  [正]  [析] 在读数字时,如:andone hundred/ one thousand 还是a hundred /a thousand千时,则只能用one不要用a。 and时,如:1100也只能读作one thousand one hundred  [误]  [正]  [析] half an hour, 半天为half a day, 半镑为half a pound, year, half a month, 要用six months, two weeks 或 Half of the work is done Half of the books are sold. 当Half 作名词时,其谓语动词要看of后面的名词而定。如名词是不可数名词则用单数谓语动词,如是复数名词时,则要用复数谓语动词。要注意的是一个半的表达法,如:One and a half apples is left on the table.其名词要用复数,但谓语动词则要用单数。

 [误] 60 students are playing on the ground.

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 [正] Sixty students are playing on the ground.

 [析] 在句首的数字要用文字而不要用阿拉伯数字,如数字过大则应放于句中,用阿拉伯数字。如: There are 166 students playing on the ground.

 [误] He became famous around fifty years old.

 [正] He became famous in his fifties.

 [析] in his fifties 50多岁时,而in the fiflies 在50  [误]  [正] 

 [析] 或加hundred,而且均不要加s。这样的单位还有), score (20年)等。

 [误] park.

 [正] park.

 hundreds of和thousands of 这 [误] The class begins at eight a. m.

 [正] The class begins at 8 a. m.

 [析] 与符号或与缩写的字母连用时一定要用数字,如:43%, 67, No.2…

 [误] Twofifth of the books are sold out.

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 [正] Twofifths of the books are sold out.

 [析] 分数表示法,分子用基数词,分母用序数词,但分子大于1时,分母要在序数词后加s。

 [误] Tom was born on July eighteen.

 [正] Tom was born on July eighteenth.

 [析] 月日的表达法有美语和英语两种。 美语 July eighteenth 英语 July 18th 读作  [误] I'll go to school at 7∶30  [正] I'll go to school at 7∶30 in the morning.  [析] a. m  [误]  [正]  [析] 大于30past,而要用差多少不到几点的to来表达。

 [误]   此处作为"乘"讲一定要加s。 英语中乘除法表达式如下:

算法 种类 例 句

加法 一般 Five and six is eleven.

正式 Five plus six is (equals) eleven.

减法 一般 Eight take away four leaves (is) four.

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Four from Eight leaves (is) four.

正式 Eight minus four equals (is) four.

乘法 一般 Three fours are twelve 3×4=12

正式 Three times four equals (is) twelve.

一般 Two in to four is two.

正式 Four divided by two equals two.

(三) 例题解析

1 - There are over ___ A. two thousands B. two thousands of C. two thousand D. two thousand of

 [答案] C.

 [析] , hundred 等词不能加s,也不能加of时才可以使用。

2 ___ floor. He doesn't use a lift to go up and down.

 [答案] B.

 [析] 序数词前加定冠词,nine 与 ninth 的拼写上有一个e字母相差别。

3 Wu Dong won the girls' ___ race in the school sports meeting last week.

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A. 100 metresB. 100-metresC. 100 metreD. 100-metre

 [答案] D.

 [析] 数词、名词、形容词等词用连字符连接成的形容词中,名词都不要加s,如: I have to write a two-thousandword report.而且由连字符组成的形容词只能放于名词前,不能放于名词后,作后置定语,或用在be动词后作表语。

4 There are ___ students in our school.

A. four hundred twentyB. four hundred and twenty

 [答案] B.

5 - There are ___ .

 C.

6 We have learned about ___ English words.

A. nine hundreds B. nine hundred

C. nine hundred of D. nine hundreds of

 [答案] B.

7 Autumn is ___ season of the year.

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A. thirdB. the threeC. thirdsD. the third

 [答案] D.

8 They are learning ___ now.

A. Lesson EightB. the eight lesson

C. Lesson EiththD. Eighth lesson

 [答案] A.

 [析] Lesson Two, Gate Two second lesson, the second gate 如:

p. 8-第8页(page eight)

$ 8.50-8.5美元电话号码66164532-9 ___ .

 B. three bowl of rice

 D. three bowls of rice

 D.

 [析] rice 是不可数物质名词,而bowl是可数名词。

10 There are ___ months in a year.

A. twelve B. twelf C. twelveth D. twelfth

 [答案] A.

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