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句法——完形填空与阅读

发布时间:2014-01-11 09:44:36  

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2011年中考英语专项指导练习——句法

四、完形填空与阅读

(一) 知识概要

完形填空是一种在语意封闭的情况下考察学生阅读能力及掌握语言基础知识能力的综合性题目。学生应根据语义完整、语法正确下文,推断出可能的答案。全文时脑海中已出现的答案填入空内。"西游记","水浒传",否全面理解文章的正确意思,在选择后还要前不要急于顺4个选项进行分析,比① 所选答案是否能使全文流畅,逻辑推理是否正确。② 具体实事是否成立,前后关系是否理顺。③ 语法是否正确,其中包括时态的选择、词汇选择、固定搭配等。在通读全文时最好在可能的条件下将所选答案填入文章中,反复阅读。而不要在文章空中只写选项的代号,这样影响全文的理解,不易找出错误之处。在做完形填空时,应注意以下几点:

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(1) 重视首句,首段的开篇启示作用,读懂了第一句,或第一段有可能预测到全篇大意。

(2) 一定要顾及上下文间的语意联系。在完形填空的设计中,一般是以语义为第一要素同时兼顾语法。有的4个选项单独填入这个单句中全是正确的,但拿到文中从下文联系起来看,则文理不通。为此要通篇考虑,顾及上下文的联系是十分重要的。

(3) 式上是一种单项选择式的考察。建文意能力的考察。而命题的。但语意上辩析、排斥才能找到答案。例如:

It took Charlie Mui several save up seven dollars He 

A sell Bbuy C hold D bring

所给答案也都是动词,但只能从意义上考虑

(4) 要认真注意细节,做到语法正确。一些答案在意义上讲都是正确的,但从线索上看要找出语法正确的答案。如:

Mr Evans is an old man of about sixty His wife died a few years ago His children ______ him by then.

A left B would leave C have left D had left

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答案应为D。这句话正确的语意都是"离开",但仔细发现有 by then 之说,由此可得出这是个动作的截止时间,应选为 had left 过去完成时态。下面再看一些例子。

(1) 语意第一原则

A young father was visiting an old neighbour They were standing in the old man's garden and talking about ______ .

A trees B flowers C children D 那么他们谈论的中心是什么呢?谈论。但如果前后的段落配合看,这就是要求我们切勿望文生义。

(2) 在语意正确的前题下,及词语的固定搭配,选择正确答案。如:

One night the dog to bark suddenly It made Mr Erens  ______ ① to sleep He had to get up and tried his ______  to stop it, but the beast wouldn't stop, and kept on ③ ______ 

① A go not B not go C not to go D to not go ② A well B good C better D best

③ A bark B to bark C barking D barked

以上3个小题中所给答案从语意上都是正确的,这就要求选择语法正确的那一个。第一空中根据句子结构,要填一个宾语补足语。而动中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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词 make 后面的定语补足语应省去不定式符号 to, 且其否定式 + not,即不定式的否定式为 not to do, 而省去 to 后则应为 not do. 在动词前直接+ not故应选B。而第二个空显然是一个固定搭配。语意上为: Mr Erens 尽力地阻止狗叫,所以应选D。 try one's best 是尽力而为之意。第三个空显然是 keep on doing something 连续不断之意,应选 ing 的动词形式。其答案为C。

(3)

词的时态、虑是否固定搭配,以及介词、若是连词,若是代词,则应考虑

例如:  They often worked late the night, ______ ① ______  people came to drink they were  ______ ② ______  trainsAt , one man was still at a table in the small bar He was asleep The bar man's wife wanted to leave She looked ______ ③ ______ the bar several times, and each time the man was  ______ ④ ______  there Then at last she went to her husband and said to him, "You  ______ ⑤ ______  that man six times, George ,

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 ______ ⑥ ______ he isn't drinking anything"

① A as soon as B because C so D though 

② A catching up with B getting on C looking after D waiting for 

③ A at B for C into D out of 

④ A always B often C still D already ⑤ A have woken B wake C had will wake 

⑥ A and B but C yet D 

B。第D。 第三选项给了四个介词,而 into C。第四项是副词 still 意为仍然,C。 而第五项所给的是同个动A。 而最后一 but 转折连词。

除语意第一外,更多地选择了单填空题目,除有较好的阅读能力外,更要有扎实的语言基础知识及日常生活的逻辑推理能力。阅读理解能力在教学大纲中有明确的要求。它是目前条件下考查学生英语运用能力的常规题型之一,也是分值最高的题型之一。学生的阅读理解能力如何,标志着学生继续深入学习的潜力有多大,它是集语法,词汇,逻辑推理背景知识于一体的中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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综合语言能力的测试。它除对学生的阅读理解的正确性进行测试外,同时从阅读速度、技巧、文化背景常识等方面对学生进行测试。从近年各地中考题分析看,阅读类测试除为一般常规测试题型外,在试题中所占分值较大,为此应引起学生特别注意。如何做好阅读理解题呢?首先要求考生有足够的基础知识和较好的阅读速度以及技巧方面的训练。同时还要注意以下几个方面的问题。

1 要了解阅读测试的重点

如上所述,阅读过程是一个综合作用的过程,仅将着眼点放在语言结构的测试上, 文章说的是什么事情(即中心思想是什么)。② 么。③ 作者所持态度如何。④而这些说明性及内隐性的信息正而其难点在于理解、推断、得出结论时,考虑,而不是仅从中国人的语言习惯来作推论。这也是这方面的难点之一。

例: John drove a taxi through the busy streets of Boston every dayJohn was ____________

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由此我们应能由drive a taxi 来得出结论约翰是位出租车司机而不是别的什么人。

例:Mrs Barker's sister was ill She had someone to look after her from Monday to Friday, but not at the weekend, so every Friday neighboring town…This meant that Mr Baker … drive home from the station Then he had to drive to the station to catch her train

A MrBaker B Mrs Baker

C Mr Baker's sister D 

的,只要细心即可。

[答案] D.

由于考虑到考生的能力有限,和大部分学生毕业但对于要考入重点中学因为这一部分分值是往往使学生棘手的那些隐性问题的测试。如: Like many other families in 1870, Katie Olson and her family had come to the grassy plains of Kansas Katie liked the prairie and their new sold house But with no friends to play with, she was very lonely Besides her mother and father, she had only her little brother, Matt, 中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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for company She missed their old home in Wisconsir Then one day her father had exciting news Some settlers had bought the farm near the Olson's land Katie became so excited on hearing the news that she thought she might burst She begged her father to let her ride over with him to greet their new neighborsThe two rode across the prairie They found Mr and Mrs Laski at working building their sod home Katie was She had hoped there would be some children to play withLaski called out" Anna, and Carl, " A boy and a girl jumped down and came  Katie didn't believe it Her wish had come true1 

A Matt B  Anna and Carl  2 

A  She didn't like Kansas.

C  She didn't like Anna and Carl.  信息的获得不是直接的,而是必须通过整个文章的阅读,理清人物关系,掌握中心思想,才能作出正确的判定。如第一问故事中人物众多,但一直到读完才知,故事讲述了一个女孩Katie的事情。则她是故事的中心,所以应选择B 第二问是测试通过阅读是否了解了人物的心理情绪。这些信息必须通过线索,综合判定,从而其结论是A。

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2 阅读理解的解题思路和方法

阅读理解的测试点是在通过由于阅读所能够获取信息的能力上,所以解题思路的重点应放在:

(1) 通读全文,了解文章的主题和大意;了解作者的写作目的、对事件的态度上。

People sometimes change their way of doing business Africa, people are using money for the first time doing business with the world Before this tribe (部落money, ) things they had for things they needed wantBefore using money, one another Their father who was head of the family , and clothing to his sons and their families the sons worked for their father  Instead, they are When a new road was needed. Everyone in Now people must pay money to the village  The chief hires workers to build these new projects More and better roads and schools are being builtIt is not easy for people to change a way of doing business To change from trading goods to using money takes time

① The story doesn't say so, but it makes you think that ____________.

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A family members often quarrel (争吵) about money

B Africans do not change their way of doing business

C Africans refuse to use money

D families do not help one another in the same way now 

[答案] D.

② On the whole this story is about ____________ 

A the life of some Africans

B changing from goods to using money

C people helps one another

D building roads across Africa 

[答案] B.

从以上的问题看,而是真对整篇文

(2)

例:…  the front of the house The next day they found they couldn't open any of the front windows They get them open at last, but they broke three of the seven and they were very expensive to repair

① They lasted for about ______ days

A two B three

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C more than seven D Less than seven

[答案] A.

② They had to get someone to make repair for ______ windows

A seven B four C ten D three

[答案] D.

, 很可能会选择答案C。事实上,他们只干了两个, 而不是从这个星期六到下个星期六的7天时间。7个窗户中的3个,所以应选D。

(3) 性作用。

例:  He can think, learn and speak……but  They 

这篇文章只要我们注意了首尾句,即可得出结论,它是讲述人类大脑与语言的关系的。人脑的其中一个作用是使他拥有语言,也就是和动物 apes, dogs 有了根本的区别。这样这篇文章的许多细节可以迎刃而解了。

① In what way are men different from animals?

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A Men can understand things quickly.

B Men can learn.

C Men have learned language.

D Men have brains. 

[答案] C.

② Scientists now know ______

A how children learn to speak

B why apes can learn a few words

C men's brain helps him to learn to speak

D what happens when men speak

[答案] C.

③ 

A B 

C

D

[答案] B.

以上只是做阅读练习中的一般分析,要取得优异成绩,还有赖于扎实的阅读基础和语言能力,以及平时的技巧训练和刻苦练习。要坚持每天至少读三四篇文章,以逐步提高自己的英语水平。

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(二) 例题解析

通读下面短文,掌握其大意。然后从短文后各题所给的四个选项中选择最佳的一项。

Once there was a clever farmer Though he was poor, he decided one day to take the king a roast goose (烤鹅) as a present He had not had ____ 1 ____to cat that day, and soon the  of the roast goose became too much for him as (当……时 ____ 3 ____  it to the king, so he ate one of its legsbefore the king and gave him the goose, ____ saw that it had only one legNow, ____ 5 ____  was born with one bad leg, ____ 6 ____  properly (正常地) When he goose with only one leg, he thought the farmer had  this to laugh at him Of course he was very 8 ____  The farmer was told that if , he would be ____ 9____  at once 10 ____  leg of the goose?" the king asked" (goose 的复数) in this  ____ 11 ____  of the country have one leg only, " the farmer answered"Do you think I'm a fool(傻子)?" the king shouted"____ 12 ____ ," said the farmer, "if you look out of the window, you will see geese with one leg by the  ____ 13____ "The king looked, and there the geese were  ____ 14 ____  on one leg beside the water The king at 中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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once told one of his men to  ____ 15 ____  them with a big stick, and of course, they  ____ 16 ____ their other legs and ran away"There, " said the king " You were lying(说谎) That  ____ 17 ____  that the geese here have two legs, like all other  ____ 18 ____  in the country""But it doesn't show anything," answered the farmer, I would grow two  ____19 ____  legs myself to to run away ____ 20 ____ "

1 A less B all C little D 2 A head B neck C temperature

3 A returned B carried Csent D handed

4 A at once B by then D on time

5 A once B himself D yet

6 A come B  see D eat

7 A  done C made D found

8 A worried C sad D angry

9helped B killed C saved D covered

10 A other B another C that D the other

11 A city B village C farm D part

12 A Certainly not B Of course C That's nothing D Never mind

13 A hole B forest C lake D house

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14 A swimming B resting C flying D lying 15 A fill B lock C hit D keep

16 A sent up B put down C did with D moved away

17 A shows B talks C sees D knows

18 A geese B animals C legs D 19 A slower B faster C less D 20 A more slowly B more carefully C D earlier

[答案] 1 D 2 C 3 B 4 C

6 B 7 B 8 D 9 B 1011 D 12 A 13 C 14 C

16 B 17 A 18 D 20 C

其中1选 much它应为much food to eat 而将省略。2要知道 smell 可以作系动词,但也可以作at once 立刻, at last 最终, on time 准时。所以应为at once 7则要熟悉英语的习惯用法,即干这件事要用do,而不用make 10之所以要用D则是因为鹅有两只腿,由于只剩一只而问另一只哪里去了,要用特指的定冠词。而 other 则为泛指的形容词,一般指复数, another虽然也指单数,但也应用于泛指的情况。而11题因其后有 of the country, 是在乡村的这个部分,所以只能用part country 是中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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不可数名词作"乡村"讲,作为可数名词则作"国家"讲。而作"乡村"讲时,前面的定冠词不可少。19则是要通读全文才知道鹅一只腿站立体息,而一被哄赶则放下另一只腿跑走了,人是两条腿站着,当被哄赶时那应是再长出两条腿奔跑着逃走。由此可见中考的难题越来越不在语法项,而在阅读和完形上用以选拔高质量的学生。

We were going to play a team from a country school come until the game time arrived They looked   than we had thought 仔裤) and looked like farm boys basketball beforeWe all sat downthat we didn't  ____ 2 ____  any practice (训练It was already so late that no   could be given to them for a warmupOne of our boys  ____ 4 ____  ) a long pass to our forward (前锋) From shirt ____ 5____  the pass and 姿势) he shot and got two points (分)They   usThen they got another  ____ 7____  of points in a minuteSoon it was all over The country team  ____ 8____  usWe certainly learned that even though a team is good, there is usually another  ____ 9 ____  a little better But the important lesson learned was: One can't tell a man, or a team, by the  ____10 ____ 

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1 A stronger B younger C worse D less

2 A get B try C use D need

3 A basket B space C ball D time

4 A got B played C missed D carried

5 A caught B changed C started D stopped 6 A surprised B kept C broke D hit

7 A half B pair C group D double

8 A won B saved C beat D 9 A just B already C 10 A Tshirts B  points [答案] 1 C 2 D 3 A 5 D

6 A 7 B 8 C 9 B

[析] 在1, younger worse, less 四个选项全可以选,从文章开始到这里并看不出其原因为什么要选择C,所以提醒考生要注意的 是后面的情景决 We even thought that they had never seen a basketball before 和 We felt that we didn't need (2) any practice against a team like that 则就肯定会得到第一个空的选项决不是比我们强壮,也不可能是少,更不可能是年轻、而是球技不佳,比我们差得很远。而5题是要仔细考虑才能得到正确的结论。这四个动词都可以用在篮球运动中,但要注意的是,其后面的名词是pass,在这里应译中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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为"长传"。而这个长传这里决不是开始,而是被截住了。所以这里应用stopped。 即"拦截了一个长传。"而 caught 的宾语应换为ball球就对了。B 选项为"改变",用于这里就不合题意了。而7项虽然很多人都知道篮球规则,投一球按两分计算,但这里应选哪个词则拿不准了,主要在B选项与D选项之间发生了问题。不知double的真实意义是"加倍,翻一翻"之意,还是"一对,一双,两倍"还有9项,它的选择应为 just论一个队多么好,总会有一个队会比你强出一点儿,

Peter was a small boy some hills One night it was very dry and windy, Peter suddenly heard some noise 厨房) He got up and  He found that the wood beside the stove (火炉) 水龙头) in the house, so he out (扑灭) the fire He shouted loudly to wake up everyone in the house Then he ran out of his house and knocked on the doors of many houses to wake the people up They all left their houses quicklyAt last the fire was put out by the firemen Many houses were burnt But nobody was hurt in the fire

1 Peter lived with his ______ 

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A sisters B brothers C uncles D parents

2 One night he found that ______ beside the stove was burning

A the table B the wood C the door D the window 

3______ , so he could not put out the fire

A Everybody was asleep B

C The kitchen was very big D There water tap in the house

4  A to get some water

C  to visit them 

5______ 

A  Peter's parents were C Peter was 

[答案] 1 D 2 B 3 D 4 A 5 C

[析] 本题属于表层理解阅读考查题目,因为完成其答案所需要的信息基本上可以直接从文章中获取,并不太多的需要推理和对环境,习俗的分析与了解。例如1题可直接从文章中 He lived with his parents in a small…中获取。2 题则可以从 He found that the wood 中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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beside the stove was buring 获取答案。3 题几乎是文章中的原句, There was no water tap in the house 所以得分率会很高。4 题也可从文章中:Then he ran out of his house and knocked on the doors of many houses to wake the people up 直接找出答案。5题的答案则可以从文章中最后一句获得,如: But nobody was hurt in the fire。 这样的阅读题目,是属于表层理解题目,的分数所设计的。以免不必要的丢分。

"You're just in time, Joe 牛仔) and Indians, and you can be the Indians, 堂兄弟) said"How many Indians?" I "Oh, about a thousand," he answered, , I was pushed out into the night  Two minutes later I was running in  The shouts of "After them killers!" and other such TVplay language came "We've got him, boys Let's go and catch him!"But no one wanted to come to get me All of my cousins except one were always very friendly with me It was quiet outside And I went out of the car to have a lookJust then I heard a shout, "Bring the rope (绳子), and we can burn him""Only Indians burn people Cowboys …,中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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" I stopped just in time I had almost said, "Cowboys hang (绞死) people"I was tied to a tree, and the cowboys were looking for some wood when my dear mother called, "We're leaving now""Untie me," I shouted "We're going""Why did Bobby want matches (火柴)?" Mum asked when we were in the car "He was asking Dad whether he had any""Oh, MATCHES? Are you sure he wanted matches?"quite sure, and I didn't say any more

1 How many children played the Indians?

A One thousand. B  One. 

2 Why did Joe's cousin Joe was just in time? Because ______ 

A 

B 

C 

D

3 Joe didn't say "Cowboys hang people" out because ______

A he was tied to a tree

B that would make things worse

C he was caught by the cowboys

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D that would make the cowboys angry 

4 Which of the following is TRUE?

A One of Joe's cousins was looking for matches.

B Dad didn't want to give the children any matches.

C Bobby wanted to get some matches from his father.

D Mum didn't think children should play with matches.

5 The name of the story should be "______ "

A Joe and his cousins

B C Cowboysand D 

[答案] 1 D 2 B 4 A 5 B

[析] 困难。而且要对问题和问题中的选择如1题的问句之意是有多少个孩子在游戏中扮"How many Indians?" I asked 当作者问到有多少印第安人时,其答语为" about a thousand" 这对于看不懂全文,而只认识个别单词的人就是一种很强的误导作用。因题目中问的是 How many,而文章中的数字是 a thousand 但如果认真往下看则会发现: I was pushed out into the night and became a thousand Indians 我被推入了黑暗之中变成了一千个印第安人。所以文章中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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暗示了一个小孩来扮演一千个印第安人。这种题目的得分率自然不会很高。紧接而来的2题则更困难,问题问的是 Joe 的堂兄说他来的正是时候,是因为 ______。这是要认真去推理来判定的。由文中的句子 and before I could say no …这显然暗示了作者并不想扮演这样的角色,所以可以推论是没有人愿意扮演这个角色,但正在这个时候 Joe 来了,而且不由分说把 Joe 推入了角色之中。而3难,其题目之意是"Joe 没有说出牛仔是绞死人"么 ______。从文章中 Joe Joe 为了摆脱困境而要讲出的话是:"死人。"是立刻马上之事。B。 这样的话可能会使事情更糟。4 所以只有一个是符合标准的。这时可以采用选取正把不正确的排除后再是C选项,因文章中讲在他们上车回家的路上妈妈问他:"为什么 Bobby 要火柴,他问爸爸是否有火柴。" 这里的爸爸显然指的是 Joe 的爸爸而不是 Bobby的爸爸。而其他三个选项则都处于可选之例:如A项应为 Joe 的一个堂兄在找火柴。B项是爸爸不想给孩子任何火柴。D项是妈妈认为孩子们不应玩火柴。而B项,在文章中根本没中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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有进述Joe 爸爸的态度,所以应首先放弃,而D项是可以从推理中得到的,要不然他的母亲不会在车上问这个问题,但是文章中并未直接提出来,所以只有A是对的。因其妈妈讲 Bobby 是向 Joe的爸爸寻找火柴。而5项则更是要全文反复阅读才可能领会到其中的原由的。文章的题目要概括全部文章内容,但更重要的是从中抽取最重要时说:"他真的在找火柴?十分肯定,而作者再也不讲什么了。在。所以其答案是B多但对要进入重点高中的学生来说,也就是成功与失败的焦点所在。

例: Our car was full of flowers way home we had to stop at traffic lights, and there saw the bookshelfIt stood outside a furniture (家具 "Buy it," she said at once "We'll carry it rack(车顶架) I've always wanted one like that", and the bookshelf was tied on to the roofrack It was tall andnarrow, quite heavy tooAs it was getting darker, I drove slowly Other drivers seemed more polite than usual that evening The police even stopped traffic to let us through Carrying furniture was a good ideaAfter a time my wife said, "There's a long line of cars 中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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behind Why don't they overtake(超车)?"Just at that time a police car did overtake The two officers (警官) inside looked at us seriously when they went past But then, with a kind smile they asked us to follow their car through the busy traffic The police car stopped at our village church(教堂)One of the officers came to me"Right, sir,"he said"Do you need any more help now?""Thanks, officer," I said "You've been very kinddown the road", then at the bookshelf "Well, well, "It's a "My wife began to laugh here I smilcd at the officer, it's a bookshelf, but thanks again

1 

A  B 

C D the writer was not very glad to buy the bookshelf for his wife 

2 What made the writer think that carrying furniture was "a good idea"?

A He could drive slowly and it was safe

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B Other drivers would let him go first

C His wife could use a new bookshelf

D He could save a lot of money and time 

3 Why were the police and other drivers so kind to the writer?

A Because they thought the writer liked studying very much and needed a bookshelf

B Because they didn't think it was polite to with a bookshelf on it

C Because they thought somebody in the family had died and he needed help

D car

4 

A  B C Because the officer was always looking at the flowcrs and the bookshelf

D Because the police had helped them a lot 

5 When did the officers begin to realize(意识到)they had made a mistake?

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A Before they arrived at the church

B Before they overtook (overtake的过去式) the writer's car C After one of them looked at the flowers and the bookshelf carefully at the church

D After the writer's family left the church 

[答案] 1D 2B 3C 4A 5C

[析] 一般都是讲述一个故事,对于这样的文章要从头认真看到尾,了,其实则不然。愿地为其妻子买了个书架呢。"Buy it"这样的祈使句。What can I do?"我还能作什么吗?"其后又是一句风趣的抱怨:即暗示十分不情D。其后2题则是推理题,从作首先是其他的驾驶员开车对他十分的礼貌,甚至警察阻挡其他车辆让他先行。所以其答案是B。第3题则一句道破天机。因为前两件事已使作者感到奇怪了。后来警察竟然亲自驾驶汽车为他开道。而且警察并不知道他要去什么地方就把他带到教堂来了。这是因为英美人一生三件大事都要在教堂做:其一是出生时在教堂洗礼,其二是结婚,其三则是死亡。所以警察不问中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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其由而将他带到教堂是为了帮助他。所以答案是C。当警察讲到We thought it was …er something else?时,显然有个词是不好意思讲出口的,所以道出了文章的真实情况。这时不难对5题作出答复其答案是C。

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