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句法——定语从句

发布时间:2014-01-11 09:44:37  

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2011年中考英语专项指导练习——句法

二、 定 语 从 句

(一) 知识概要 

定语从句并不属于中考范围,但由于作者在多年的教学中体会到,这一语法现象影响了许多学生自学英语。这些学生一般是成绩较好的学补习班又都是为一些水平较差的学生开设的,为了特用这一节讲述定语从句,而是从阅读理解方面去讲述。可供同学们在学习时参考。 a good book, 形容词 good 用来修饰书 它起修饰名词的作用,又被叫做定语从句(The clause)。但有一点不同的是这个从句不是像形容词而是放在名词之后。它所修饰的名词又被叫作先行这句中的主句是 Do you know the scientist? (你知道那位科学家吗?)而 who gave us the talk this afternoon (他今天下午给我们作的报告。)是定语从句。所以这两句话合为一体即是:你认识今天下午给我们作报告的那位科学家吗?这里 scientist 叫作先行词,而 who 叫作定语从句的引导词。 who 在定语从句中起主语的作用, who 的数与它中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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的先行词相同。又如: You must do everything that I do 这里先行词是 everything, 而 that I do 是定语从句,此句应译为:你必须作我所作的一切。 that 叫作定语从句的引导词,在句中作 do 的宾语。引导定语从句的引导词有关系代词: that, which, who, whom, whose 和关系副词 when, where, why, how。不论关系代词还是要在定语从句中起语法作用,充当一个成份。中不是作主语便是作宾语,而关系副词则是作状语。代词的用法。① that 如: A plane is a machine that can fly 而 that 是关系代词,在定语从句中作主语。又如:  这里先行词是 book, 关系代词用 that, lend (借)的宾语。要注意的是关 I like the book you lent me yesterday which 关系代词的先行词只能是物。它在定语从 The book shop is a shop which sells books which 在从句中作主语。又如: The book (which) I read last night was wonderful 这里主句是 The book was wonderful 而定语从句是修饰主句的主语 book, 即我昨晚读的那本书,which 在定语从句中作 read 的宾语,可以省略。③ who, whom, whose who 在定语从句中作主语, whom 是 who 的宾格,在定语从句中作宾语,而 whose 则是形容词性物主代词,在从中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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句中作定语,如:The man who visited our school yesterday is an American friend 昨天参观我们学校的人是一位美国朋友。 Who 在定语从句中作主语。又如: Who's that woman (whom) you just talked to ? 你刚才与之谈话的那个女人是谁?而 whom 作定语从句中介词 to 的宾语,可以省略,而在现代英语中,句首的 whom 也常常可用 who代替。This is our classmate, Mary, our school 这是我们的同学玛丽,

1. I saw the man. He closed the door2. The girl is happy 

3.  They sit in the front row

( students 则 who 的数也应看作复数。)

4.  They contain adjective dause

 

5. The taxi driver was friendly He took me to the airport

The taxi driver who took me to the airport was friendly 

6. The book was good I read it

The book that I read was good

The book I read was good 

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7. The people were very nice We visited them yesterday

The people we visited yesterday were very nice

8. The man called the police His wallet was stolen

The man whose wallet was stolen called the police

9. I come from a country Its history goes back thousands of years

10. I have to call the man I picked up his after the meeting

关系代词 whom, which 有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 而将介词置于定语从句的后面,如:  或可以写作: 

 要注意的是此句的关系代词 whom 可以用主格取代,而 look for 是短语动词也不可将 for 放于定语从句之前。that 作关系代词作介词宾语时,不能紧跟介词,而只能将介词置于定语从句的后面。如: The man that we were talking about has come to our school 这时不可用 about that … 请看下面例句:

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1. The meeting was interesting I went to it

The meeting that I went to was interesting 

2. The man was very kind I talked to him yesterday

The man who I talked to yesterday was very kind

3. I must thank the people I got a present from him

I must thank the people who I got a present from

4. The picture was beautiful She was looking at it

5. The man is standing over there 

除关系代词外,还有关系副词, , where, why, 其中 when I never forget the day  而 where 则指地点,如: This is  请看下面例句:

1.  We spent our vacation there

2. That is the restaurant I will meet you there

That is the restaurant where I will meet you

3. The town is small I grew up there

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The town where I grew up is small

4. That is the drawer I keep my newpapers there

That is the drawer where I keep my newspapers

5. Monday is the day We will come then

Monday is the day When we will came

6. 7∶05

7∶05

7. 1960 is the year 

1960 

8.  The weather is usually the hottest then  

即限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。

① 限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语,如果去掉的话,主句的意思就不完整,意义就表述不明。这种句型一般定语从句紧接先行词,如:I was the only person in my office who was invited

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② 非限制性定语从句。它与主句的关系不十分密切,只是对其附加说明,也就是讲即便去掉定语从句,句意也不受影响,仍然清晰明了。这样的定语从句要在它和主句之间加一逗号分开。且关系代词不引导这种非限制性定语从句,如: Abraham Lincoln, who led the United States through these years, was shot on April 14, 1865 at a theatre in washington D. C. 又如:Pisa, where there is a leaning tower about 180 feet high

(二) 正误辨析 

[误]  

[正]  

[析] who 应由 the person 单数决I who am a student want to find a who 应与 I 是一致的,所以其谓语动词应该用

[误] We talked about the things and the people who we met during the Second World War 

[正] We talked about the things and the people that we met during the Second World War 

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[析] 这里的关系代词不要用 who, 因为其先行词有两个一个是 things (物),而另一个是people (人),这时既不可用 who, 又不可用 which, 因前者只能用于先行词是人的情况下,而后者则用于先行词是物的情况下,所以只能用 that, 因为它的先行词既可以是人又可以是物。

[误] The book, that I bought yesterday, was very good[正] The book, which I bought yesterday,  [析] 从句。在非限制性定语从句中 which, whenwhom, where, when, whose that [误]   [正]   [析]

from America

[正] The teacher I want to learn English from is the one who comes from America

[析] the one, anyone, those 作代词并且是指某人、物时,其关系代词不能用 which 应用 who。

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[误] This is the room in that the old man lives 

[正] This is the room in which the old man lives 

[正] This is the room which the old man lives in 

[正] This is the room that the old man lives in 

[析] that 不能紧跟在介词后作介词宾语,但如果介词不前置仍放于句尾,则可用 that 作引导词,而且可以省略。如: the old man lives in

[误] I can do everything which is good for you 

[正] I can do everything that is good for you

[析] 在先行词是 all, much, , everything, anything, nothing, none, the 是物体,但不要用 which 而用

[误]   [正]   [析] only, any, few, little, no, all, one of which 作关系代词,

[误] This is the first American film which I've ever seen  [正] This is the first American film that I've ever seen 

[析] 在先行词是序数词,或由序数词修饰时,其关系代词不可用 which 这样的用法还有在形容词最高级修饰的先行词之后,如: This is the best book that I have ever seen

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[误] He is from Africa, that we can see from the colour of the skin 

[正] He is from Africa, as we can see from the colour of the skin  [析] 当 as 或 which 引导非限制性定语从句时,它可能没有明确的先行词,它们所指代的是前面整个句子。如例题应译为他是从非洲来这个事情是可以从其肤色上看出的。

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