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发布时间:2014-01-11 09:44:39  



六、 介 词

(一) 知识概要


介词 表示时间 表示地点方位 表示原因方式 其 他

about 大约在……时间about five o'clock about five kilometres 关于、涉及

talk about you


above sea level

across 对面 across the street

after supper


one after another


run after you

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against 背靠逆风

against the wall, against the wind


be against you

among 三者以上的中间

among the trees

at 在某时刻

at ten


at the school gate


at high speed

before 在……之前

before lunch


sit before me

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behind 位于……之后

behind the tree

below 低于……水平

below zero


below the standard

by 到……时刻,在……时刻之前

by five o'clock


site by site


during the holidays

for 延续多长时间

for five years


leave for Shanghai 为了,对于

be good for you

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from 从某时到……某时from morning till night 来自何方 from New York

由某原料制成be made from


where are you from

in 在年、月、周较长时间内in a week 在里面

in the room

用某种语言in English 穿着

in red

into 进入……里面

walk into

除 分

turn into water

near 接近某时near five years 在……附近near the park of 用某种原料制成

be made of

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a map of U. S .A

on 某日、某日的上下午on Sunday afternoon 在……上面

on the desk 靠吃……为生live on rice 关于a book on Physics over 渡过一整段时间work over night 在上方

over the desk

超过, 高于over five pairs

past 超过某一时刻

ten past five


walk past the park

since 从某时以来

since 1980

through 经过某一时期through his life 通过、穿过某地 through the forest

tilluntil 直到某时为止till five o'clock

to 差多少时间

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five to ten


to Shanghai


face to face

给予give a book to me

under 在……下面

under the desk


under ten

在……管制之 下 under the rule

with 用某种工具

with me


(二) 正误辨析

[误] We got to the top of the mountain in daybreak.

[正] We got to the top of the mountain at day break.

[析] at用于具体时刻之前,如:sunrise, midday, noon, sunset, midnight, night。

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[误] Don't sleep at daytime

[正] Don't sleep in daytime.

[析] in 要用于较长的一段时间之内,如:in the morning / afternoon, 或 in the week / month / year. 或 in spring / supper /autumn / winter等等。

[误] We visited the old man in Sunday afternoon.

[正] We visited the old man on Sunday afternoon.

[析] in the morning, in the afternoon 修饰词其前面的介词都要改为on, 如:on morning, on the morning of July 14th


[正] 

[析] at来表示。 [误] 

[正] 

at, 如:at the age of 12, at your age, 等等。

[误] We went to swim in the river in a very hot day.

[正] We went to swim in the river on a very hot day.

[析] 具体某一天要用介词on, 又如:on New Year's Day

[误] I'm looking forward to seeing you on Christmas.

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[正] I'm looking for ward to seeing you at Christmas.

[析] 在节日的当天用on,而全部节日期间用at,Christmas是圣诞节期间,一般要有两周或更长的时间。

[误] I haven't see you during the summer holidays.

[正] I haven't seen you since the beginning of the summer holidays. [析] during如:I visited a lot of museums during the holiday. 而for可以用于完成时,如:而用来表示时间时则为"整整,全部的时间"。如:而since [误] 

[正] 

[析] On "。本句的译文应是:我一进入教on hearing… 一听见, on arrival 一到达就……(on)

[误] [析] at the begining与at the end都是指某事物的开始与结束部分,均不指时间范围,而in the beginning 则是指开始一段时间。in the end=at last是指"最终,终于"之意。

[误] Till the end of next week. I will have finished this work. [正] By the end of next week. I will have finished this work. 中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net


[析] by 引起的时间状语表示了动作的截止点,其意思为"不迟于某一时刻将工作做完",所以主句一般是完成时态。当然可以有将来时态,如:I'll be there by five o'clock.而till则表达其一动作一直持续到某一时刻,但句中的动词一定要用持续性动词,而瞬间的截止性动词应用其否定句式,如:I won't finish this work till(until) next weekend.

[误] He came to London before last weekend.

[正] He had come to London before last weekend.

[正] He came to London two weeks ago.

[析] before [误]  [正] 

[析] since

[误]  [正] 

英文中要用in而不要用after。其原因有二,①after 多用于过去时,如:I arrived in New York. After three days, I found a job in the bank. ② after 加时间是表达一个不确定的时间范围,如:after three days, 即三天之后的哪一天都可以。所以在许诺若干时间内会完成某事时,一定要用介词in。

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[误] Three days after he died.

[正] After three days he died.

[正] Three days later he died.

[析] after 与 later都可以用来表达一段时间之后,但它们所处的 位置不同,after 在时间词前,而later在时间词后。

[误] She hid herself after the tree.

[正] She hid herself behind the tree.

[析] after介词,如:film. 而behind[误]

[正] 

[析] on, 而其他外来的人、物体均要用in the tree.

[误] 

[正] 

3个介词:in, on, to。 in表示在某范围之内; on表示与某地区接壤;to则表示不相接。如:Japan is to the east of China. 

[误] I arrived at New York on July 2nd.

[正] I arrived in New York on July 2nd.

[析] at用来表达较小的地方,而in用来表达较大的地方。at常用中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net


于at the school gate, at home, at a bus stop, at the station, at the cinema, at a small village。

[误] He lived in No. 3 Beijing Road.

[正] He lived at No. 3 Beijing Road.

[析] 在门牌号码前要用at, 并要注意它的惯用法:at the end of the street, at the foot of the mountain, at the top of the page。

[误] There is a colour TV set at the corner of the hall.

[正] There is a colour TV set in the corner of the hall.

[析] 在屋内的角落应用in,而墙的外角用There is a tree at the corner of the street.

[误] 

[正] 

[析] 如:at a tailor's shop (裁缝店)=at a tailor's, ) at the bookseller's (在书店) at uncle Wang's ()

[误]   [析] 在报纸上的新闻要用in, 而在具体某一版上,或某一页上则要用on。

[误] The school will begin on September 1st.

[正] School will begin on September 1st.

[析] 这里的school应看作不可数名词泛指学校的课程,即开学之中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net


意。要注意,有些活动场所当表达正在从事该种活动时不要加冠词,如:at table (吃饭), When I came to Tom's home, they were at table. 还有: at desk (学习),at work (工作) at school (上学), in hospital (住医院) at church 作礼拜如加上定冠词则另有他意,如:at the school 即在学校工作或办事,in the hospital 即在医院工作或去看望病人。 [误] [正]  [析] "在……的路上"应用on one's way…。而 Please move the chair it is in the way。

[误] 

[正] 

[正]  [析] inbreak连用时其后不加介词宾语,而intobreak连用时要加介词宾语。 [误] 

[正] I'll leave for Shanghai.

[析] leave for 是离开某地去某处的固定搭配,不可将for改为别的介词。这样的搭配还有:start for 动身前往某处,set out for, sail for。

[误] I'm sorry. I have to get out the bus at next stop.

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[正] I'm sorry. I have to get out of the bus at next stop.

[析] get in, 与 get out是两个相反的词组。get in 为上车,而get out为下车,但语法家认为这里的in与out为副词,所以其后不能接名词,我们可以讲We'd better get in. 或We'd better get out. 还有一组词组有关上下车:get on/off(a train, a ship, a struck) get into/out of (a car, taxi…)

[误] Be careful.The temperature of the water is ninety over zero.

[正] zero.

[析] over 与 above above.而泛指上方时用over.

[误] 

[正] 

[析] "跨越,横跨"。

[正] The Dead Sea is below the sea level.

[析] 在垂直下方要用below.也就是讲above与below互为反意词,over与under也是反意词。

[误] There is a big tree in the front of the house.

[正] There is a big tree in front of the house. 

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[析] in front of 是在物体外部的前面,而in the front of 是在物体内部的前面,如:The driver sits in the front of the bus.

[误] It took them two days to walk across the forest.

[正] It took them two days to walk through the forest.

[析] across 作为介词有两个主要意思:① 横过,如:I want to walk across the street.② 对面,如:through 多用于三维空间中的穿越。across如:The little girl ran across the room to meet her mother.

[误] The sun sets toward the west.

[正] The sun sets in the west.

[析] towards也可用作toward一定到达,如:而在表示方位east, west, north, south 4个词可以用作副词,如:I went south. I went to the south.也可用作形容词,如:

[误] 

[析] beside 是"在……旁边",如:The students stood beside their teachers.而besides是"除……之外,不仅……而且……,除了……以外还有……", 如:I studied English besides French, when I was in college. 而except 则是从同一类物体中去掉某一部分,如:I come here every day except Sunday. 而except for 是指去掉不同种类的事物,如:中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net


The room is clean except for two chairs. 而except that则要加从句。 [误] Can I write the exam paper with ink?

[正] Can I write the exam paper with a pen?

[正] Can I write the exam paper in ink?

[析] with后要加拿得起来放得下的工具,而墨水、颜料等原料则要用in。

[误] I'm earlier today. I came here by his car.

[正] I'm earlier today. I came here in his car.

[析] 在交通工具前加介词by否则要改换相应的介词。by train=in a train

by bicycle=on a bicycle

by ship=on a ship

by boat=in a boat

by bus=on a bus

by land 陆运

by sea 海运

on foot on horseback

by phone by letter by radio

by air mail by hand

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[误] A lot of French wines are made of grape.

[正] A lot of French wines are made from grape.

[析] made of 是指由原材料到成品过程中原材料未发生质地的变化,而发生了某种变化则要用from,如:The desk was made of hard wood.

[误] This is a good dictionary in English grammar.

[正] This is a good dictionary on English grammar.

[析] 关于某方面的书籍、报告等有两个介词,其中用书,about则为某方面的普通读物,如:即物理科普知识。


[正] 

[析] key to the dooranswer to the question, 千万不要用of。

[误] 

[析] have interest in是在某方面有兴趣。

[误] I didn't do my homework, so the teacher was angry to me. [正] I didn't do my homework, so the teacher was angry with me. [析] be angry with其后接人,而be angry at其后接事。如:He was 中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net


angry at what she said.

[误] He was good for skating.

[正] He was good at skating.

[析] be good at 为"擅长某事",而be good for somebody为对某人很好。

[误] It was good to you to help my little boy.

[正] It was good of you to help my little boy.

[析] be good to somebody 是对某人态度好。如: [误] [正] 

[正] 

[析] be pleased with而be pleased at后加something。

[误] 

[正] 

[正] He is against me.

[析] 同意agree为动词,而反对against则为介词。在使用中一定要注意。

[误] I haven't heard letters from him.

[正] I haven't heard from him.

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[析] hear from 即为:从某人处得到信件。不要再加letter了。 [误] Teacher. May I call at you this weekend?

[正] Teacher. May I call on you this weekend?

[析] 作为"拜访"讲call at其后接地点,如:May I call at your home this weekend?而call on其后接人。

[误] Do you know the girl on white?

[正] Do you know the girl in white?

[析] in white为穿一身白。与in有关的词组有:睡觉),in hospital(住院),in a hurry(匆匆忙忙),),in joy (高兴),in good health(身体好),in love(恋爱),困境),与之相反的是out of ,如:out of trouble (过时了), out of order(出故障)

[误] 

[正] 

[析] surprise①用于句首,To one's surprise, 如:② be surprised at, 如:I was surprised at in surprise.

[误] She didn't come to school because of she was ill.

[正] She didn't come to school because she was ill.

[析] because of 后接名词,如:The game was put off because of the rain.

(三) 例题解析

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1 - Thank you ___ the beautiful flowers!

- Not at all.

A in B on C at D for 

[答案] D. 

[析] 由于某事向某人道谢应用for。

2 Can you answer this question ___ English?

A by B in C with D from

[答案] B. 

[析] in 表示用语言、声音、或材料,如:in a low voice.

3 Look ___ the map ___ ___ the wall, please. A after, of, in B at, of, in C  at, of, on  [答案] D. 

[析] look at 为"看为"在墙表面挂着",而in the wall 则是"在墙内"There is hole in the wall.墙上有个洞。

4 

___ the evening of December 6th.

A at B in C on D to

[答案] C. 

[析] in the evening / afternoon这两个词组不论是在其前或后加上任何修饰词都应将介词换为on,如:on a cold morning, on a spring morning等。

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5 We won the relay race. And there was a big smile ___ our teacher's face.

A off B near C on D between

[答案] C. 

6 The twins got on well ___ their classmates.

A to B in C with D about

[答案] C. 

[析] get on well with与人相处很好。


- I see. I'll come ___ A in B at C on D for

[答案] C. 

8 Let's hurry, ___ school

A to B at C  for

[答案] D.[析] 而 come late to, 如: Don't come late to school 9___ two days

A for B at C in D after

[答案] C.

[析] 三天之内应用in,而不要受中文影响用after, after three days 是个不定的时间范围,即没有一个准确的时间。5天、6天、10天全是after three days。

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10 My brother joined the army ___

A 1989, March B in March, 1989

C March, 1989 D 1989, in March 

[答案] B.

[析] 在月份、年、前用介词in,而日子前用on。

11 He couldn't work out the math problem ___ A without B under C for D with

[答案] A.

[析] 在某人帮助下应用with, 如:With of the teacher I passed the exam easily

而要是没有你的帮助则用 

12 her glasses

A by B  in

答案] B.


13 ___ a quarter ___ seven A in, to C at, to D on, to

[答案] C.

[析] 具体时间点前用at,而差几分几点用to,这里应译为:我在差一刻七点吃的早饭。

14 I learn French ___ the radio every day

A on B in C from D at

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[答案] A.

[析] 从收音机中听到某事应用词组 on the radio。

15 It's good manners to wait ___ line

A in B on C at D with

[答案] A.

[析] in line 为排队。

16 How many English words had you learnt ___

A by the end of B at the end of C to the end of 

[答案] A.

[析] by the end of 17 ___ his work

A in B on D with

[答案] D.为固定搭配。

18 ___ face

A in the C on his D in his

[析] 英文中的某些动词其后要接人,然后加介词+the+身体部位,如:He caught the boy by the arm。

19 I was born ___ the night ___ September 15, 1978A in, on B at, on C at, in D on, of 

[答案] D.[析] 在时间前加介词时应以最小的时间单位为准。 中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net


20 It's a bad manner to laugh ___ people when they are ___ trouble

A over, in B at, in C in, at D at, for

[答案] B.

[析] laugh at 嘲笑某人, laugh over 笑着谈论某人或某事, in trouble 陷入困境。

21 I can't do this work well ___ Tom's help

Aunder B for C without Dfrom

[答案] C.

22 Don't shout ___ You should be more polite ___ her

A to, at B at, to C for D from, for [答案] B.

[析] shout at 为"",而 be polite to somebody 为"对某人和气。"

23 ___ our selves ___ everything A in B in, with C with, to D to, of [答案] A.[析] be strict with 对某人严格要求。

24 He went to the football match ___ lunch last Sunday A to B without C behind D between

[答案] B.[析] without lunch 未吃午饭。

25 The people's Republic of China was founded ___ 1949 中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net


A with B on C since D in

[答案] D.

[析] 在年代前用in。因句子是过去时而不是完成时,所以不能用since。

26 Mr Black gets to Hangzhou ___ a few days

A in B after C on D at

[答案] B.

[析] 这句话应译为:几天之后 Mr Black 是在几天之内一定要做完某事,所以选B27 - Has the teacher given you ___ your English study?

- Yes, he has

A from B  in 

[答案] C.on。 28 ___ him He is ___ honest man A in, an C on, an D at, the

[析] depend on 为"依靠某人或某事",而 honest 的首字母 h 不发音。

29 ___ my joy, I can answer this question

A With B To C By D For

[答案] B.[析] To one's joy 意为"使我高兴的是。"

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30 The teacher asked the students to look ___ the word in the dictionary

A for B at C up D after

[答案] C.

[析] look for 寻找, look at 看, look after 照顾, look up 查字典。

31 A little monkey is playing ___ bananas ___ it

A on, on B in, on C on, , in

[答案] B.

[析] 树上长出的果实为

而其他外来之物要用 in the tree

32 I go to school [答案] B.[析] ___ bad manners.

A. without B. on C. out of D. with

 [答案] D. [析] with bad manners 有不良习惯的人。 34 The policeman was surprised ___ the news.

A. into B. for C. at D. out of

 [答案] C. [析] be surprised at 对某事吃惊。

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35 He had to sell newspapers ___ seven.

A. at an age of B. at the ages of C. at the age of D. at age of

 [答案] C. [析] at the age of 在几岁时。

36 The little girl couldn't help ___ when she saw a large dog. A. cried B. to cry C. crying D. cries

 [答案] C.

 [析] couldn't help做某事。

37 Jack was born ___ A. on B. in C. at D. of

 [答案] A.

 [析]

38 ___ science when he was a boy. 

 [答案] [析] be interested in something 对某事感兴趣。 39 ___ her answer.

[答案] D.

40 The story happened ___ Beijing.

A. in B. with C. for D. on 

[答案] A.

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