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三、代词

发布时间:2014-01-11 09:44:42  

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2011年中考英语专项指导练习——语法和词组

三、 代词

(一) 知识概要

英语中代词可以分为人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、指示代词、疑问代词、不定代词。人称代词主要有主格和宾格之别。请看下表 人称 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们

主格 i you he she it we you they

宾格 me you him her it us you them

人称 我的 你的 他的 她的 它的 他们的

形容词性 my your

名词性

反身代词可见下表

人称 我 你 他 她 你们 他们

反身代词 yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourself this, that, these, those

疑问代词有:who, whom whose, what, which,

还有疑问副词when, how, where, why。

不定代词在初中课本中主要有some, any, many, much, each, neither, other, another, all, both, one, none, either?

(二) 正误辨析

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[误]Tom's mother is taller than my.

[正]Tom's mother is taller than mine.

[析]形容词性物主代词可以作定语,也就是讲它可以作形容词,如:my book,而这句话的意思是:汤姆的妈妈比我的妈妈高。比较的对象是my mother,也就是mine。

[误]hours to finish them.

[正]hours to finish it.

it所代替的是不可数名词homework,

[误][正][析]当两个以上的人称代词并列时其you, he, she, I,而复数时为we, you, they:如男女并列He and she ?如果在表示不好意思,承担责任I, he, she, you, 复数时用They, you, we, 如:Tom and I are good friends.

You, he and I must go to play the game for our team this afternoon. We, you and they have been there before.

I, he and you have to pay for it.

[误]He or his brother is doing their homework.

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[正]He or his brother is doing his homework.

[析]由either?or, neither?nor, or 连接两个主语时,如果两主语是单数时,用单数代词,如两主语是复数时,用复数代词,如:Either teachers or students want to do their best to help the old man.如是一单一复两名词时,一般将单数名词放在前,复数名词放在后,要用复数代词,如:[误]His brother is taller than him.

[正]His brother is taller than he.

[析]than是连词,其后应视为省略句,主格与宾格的用法。

I like you as much as she.

[正]I like you as much as her.

[析]as?as as I like her.所以应用宾格。两句语法都是对的但含义不同。

[误][正]I did it myself yesterday.

[析]反身代词不可作主语,但可以用作主语的同位语。

[误]Take care of ourselves.

[正]Take care of yourselves .(yourself)

[析]祈始句的主语应看作第二人称you.

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[误]Please bring your daughter with yourself.

[正]Please bring your daughter with you.

[析]反身代词不能作介词宾语,除非是由不及物动词与介词组成的动词短语,如: The old woman spoke to herself.

[误]Make yourself home.

[正]Make yourself at home.

[析]这是英语中的习惯用法,意为“像在家里一样”还有:

enjoy oneself 玩得开心make yourself at home

help yourself to something 自己拿某物迷路

seat oneself 就坐dress oneself 穿衣

[误]— Who's this speaking.[正]— This is Mary.

指讲话人自己,而that指对方。

[误][正]that或those取代前面提到的事物,如是单数时用that,复数时用those,如:The weather in Beijing is hotter than that in Chang Chun.

[误]It is so a good book that everyone likes to read.

[正]It is such a good book that everyone likes to read.

[正]It is so good a book that everyone likes to read.

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[析]在可数名词单数时可用so+形容词+不定冠词+名词+that从句,也可用such+不定冠词+形容词+that从句。在不可数名词或可数名词复数时,只用such, 如:It is such good weather that I want to go swimming. They are such good books that I want to buy them all.在many, much, few, little这4个词前仅能用so,如: She has so much money that she can buy everything she wants.而在so与that不能用such,如:She is so sweet that everyone likes her.

[误]I want to buy a same dictionary as yours.

[正][析]same与定冠词theall the same(仍然)。

[误]— — I don't hope so.

[正]— — I hope not.

但作否定回答时为:— So she did.

— So did she.

[误]— English is difficult to learn.— So is it.

[正]— English is difficult to learn.— So it is.

[析]在对话中如果某一动作同时适用于两个主语,这时在答语中要用缩写且要用倒装句。如第一组句,即studied hard既适用于he,也适用于she.但答语仅仅是对前句的重复,即仅仅是第一句的缩写时则不中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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要用倒装句。如第二组句子为:英语难学。答语为:是的,难学。这时缩写的答语不要用倒装句。

[误]Everyone should do one's best.

[正]Everyone should do his best.

[析]one作代词时,它的复数形式是ones,所有格形式是one's,反身代词为oneself.如果讲One should do one's best.与别的词组成其他词,如: someone, anyone, everyone或则要用his/her,来作其所有格形式。

[误]— Who won the game?— None.

[正]— Who won the game?— [析]由whono one,而由How manyNone.如:How many books are there? None.

[误][正][正]作代词时由两个含意,其一是两者中随便哪一个,如:You can take either.其二是两者中的每一个。但要注意的是either后要加单数名词,如果作主语则谓语动词也要用单数形式。

[误]Either you or I are right.

[正]Either you or I am right.

[析]在either?or,或neither?nor连接两个主语时,其谓语动词要中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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与和其相近的那个主语相配。

[误]I have three sisters. Neither of them is a doctor.

[正]I have three sisters. None of them is a doctor.

[析]neither用于两者中无一是,而none则用于多于两者中的人或事物无一是。

[误]He doesn't like Beijing opera. I don't like too.

[正]He doesn't like Beijing opera, I don't like either.

[析]either作为“也”讲时,要用于否定句中,而句中。

[误]We like both this little boy.

[正]We both like this little boy.

[析]bothbe动词之后,如:We are both students.The parents both want to go to the cinema.We have both read these English novels.Both of us are not right.Neither of us is right.才应译为:我俩都I can't give you both of the books.意为:两本书我不能全给你,而I can't give you either of the books.才为:两本书我全不能给你。

[误]We each has a ticket for the concert.

[正]We each have a ticket for the concert.

[析]each作句子主语时其谓语动词要用单数形式,如:Each of us 中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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wants to learn English well,但each作同位语时,则应以原名词的数

为准。

[误]Every of us has to pass the exam.

[正]Each of us has to pass the exam.

[析]every只可作形容词,不可作代词,而each既可作形容词,又

可作代词,在作形容词时each侧重强调个体,而every 体。

[误][正][析]everyone不可与of则可以这样

用。

[误][正][析]要注意的是是“每天”,而everyday则是形容词为“日

常的”。如:日常英语,everyday life日常生活。

[误] [析]every用于三者或三者以上的每一个,而each用于二者或二者

以上的每一个。因为街道只有两侧,所以只能用each而不能用every.

[误]All my parents are engineers.

[正]Both my parents are engineers.

[析]all用于三者或三者以上的全部,而both 则用于两者的全部。

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[误]All of students might make some mistakes.

[正]All of the students might make some mistakes.

[正]All students might make some mistakes.

[析]非特指的名词前可用all但不可用all of结构,也就是讲all of结构后面的名词前一定要有定冠词。其他与all有关的习惯用法还有: all the year round, all week, all day, all winter

[误]The all village was flooded.

[正]All the village was flooded.

[析]all

[误][正][析]another,而特指时则要用the other,

单数 复数 泛指 作定语 作名词

other others

特指 the other形容词

the other代词

the other the others

[误]There are ten students here Where are the others students?

[正]There are ten students here. Where are the others?

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[正]There are ten students here Where are the other students?

[析]the others=the other students.

[误]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, another is a doctor. [正]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, the other is a doctor. [析]another用于泛指,如:Is it far from here to the station? I'm sorry. here.但在特指时则要用the other.它可以用作定语,也可以用作代词the other,但the other如果指三者或者三者以上的情况时,则要用?the other.或者one?a second?the third?

[误][正]?others?others?来表示某些

[误][正]为每隔一天。是习惯用法,不要随意改动。又如:on the other hand另一方面。

[误]Many know him, but few likes him.

[正]Many know him, but few like him.

[析]few用于可数名词,意为几乎没有,但few作主语时谓语动词则要用复数形式,而a few为有一些。

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[误]You have few friends, haven't you?

[正]You have few friends, have you?

[析]little与few用于句中时,均要按否定句看待。

[误]Much of what you said are true.

[正]Much of what you said is true.

[析]much用于可数名词,它作主语时用复数形式的谓语动词。

[误][正][析]enough 可以用作代词,如:又如:Enough has been done for the work,还可以作形容词来修饰名词,这时enough也可放在名词之后,如:money enough 与enough enough作副词修饰形容词

[误][正]any用于疑问句和否定句,而some用于肯定句。 [误]Would you like any thing to drink?

[正]Would you like something to drink?

[析]在由would you like发出的问句中,表达了说话者真心实意要为对方提供些饮料,或在说话者想得到对方的肯定答复时,在疑问句中要用some而不用any。

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[误]Someone want to meet you.

[正]Someone wants to meet you.

[析]不定代词应被看作单数,即使用and连接两个不定代词,也要看作单数,如:Anyone and everyone has the right. 任何人,每一个人都有这样的权力。

[误]New York is much colder in winter than before.

[正]It is much colder in New York in winter than before.

[析]it常常用在英文的句子中来代表时间、距离、或用在句中作形式主语或宾语,如:

It is ten o'clock now. (代时间)

It is far from here to the airport. (It is very hot.(代天气)

作形式主语)

作形式宾语)

[误][正]所代的应是饮料或水,所以应为不可数名词。

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(三) 例题解析

1 These are ___books. Yours are over there.

A I B my C me D mine

[答案]B.

[析]这里应用形容词性物主代词。

2 —___ is she?

— She is a teacher.

A What B How C Who D Where

[答案]A.

[析]但其意义不同。What is she?应译为“她的工作是什么?”或?”而How is she?应译为“她身体如何?”而?”其答语应为“她叫什么名字。”而应为“她在什么地方?”由答语决3___ ___.

A B Something, to work

C D Anything, to work

[答案]A.

[析]因为是肯定句所以应用Something,其后由于表停止工作了,则stop后要用动名词。

4 Mary, help ___to the bananas, please.

A you B your C yourself D yourselves

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[答案]C.

[析]help oneself to something为“自己拿某物”。yourself为“你一个人”,而yourselves为“你们”。

5 —___ do you go to school every day?

— By bus.

A How B Why C When D Where

[答案]A.

[析]这题的答案是由问句决定的。

6 My skirt is___ popular than___.

A much, her B much, hers C her D more, hers

[答案]D.

[析]因句中有than,than后要选用名词性物主代词。

7 — — .

A a few C little D a little

[答案]D.

[析]因会讲某种语言的多少要用a little,把它看作不可数名词对待,此答语为:是的,但仅仅会讲一点。

8 Mr. Smith is an old friend of___.

A I B me C my D mine

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[答案]D.

[析]这里应选名词性物主代词,这也是英语的一种习惯用法,而不要选择my。

9 “ ___do you hear from your parents?”

“About once a month.”

A How long B How many

C How often D How much

[答案]C.

[析]How often多少次。

10 Mr Green wouldn't say ___A everything B nothing D something [答案]C.

11 “___to eat.” “A B nice anything

C something nice D nice something

[答案]C.

[析]肯定句中用something而不用anything,不定代词的修饰词应放其后而不要放在其前面。

12 — When shall we meet, this evening or tomorrow evening?

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— I don't mind. ___time is OK.

A Some B Neither C Either D Both

[答案]C.

[析]因如选用both则名词要用复数名词,也要用复数谓语动词,由于答语前有I don't mind 则决定不能选择neither.

13 This is not her kite, but___.

A he's B him C he D his

[答案]D.

[析]要注意“他的”

14 Don't worry, Mum! ___ come back soon.

A No B Many D Two

[答案]A.

15 Mary Her brother has three. She has ___apples A few B many C more D fewer

[答案]C.

[析]由于是比较级,根据题意应选“多于”而不是“少于”。 16 There isn't ___in today's newspaper.

A anything interesting

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B something interesting

C nothing interesting

D interesting anything

[答案]A.

[析]由于句子是否定句,应选择anything,而且不定代词的修饰语应放在其后面。

17 September 10th is___ Day?

A Teacher B Teachers C Teacher's [答案]D.

[析]教师节Teachers' Day,儿童节 妇女节 Women's Day

18 — takeaway” food. What about people in your country?

—___

A So we do. C So do we. D We so do.

语时,则要采用倒装句,但如果仅仅是对上句的重复则不要倒装。 19 — Shall we go into that shop and have a look?

— Sorry. I won't. I have ___to do there.

A everything B anything C something D nothing [答案]D.

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[析]这个答案的选择应由上下两句对话内容作出决定。

20— Oh, dear! Who broke the glass?

—___ Sam ___Bruce. It was the cat.

A Both, and B Not, but C Neither, nor D Either, or [答案]C.

[析]neither?nor意为既不??也不??

the lake.___are climbing the hill.

A Others B Other C Another D The other

[答案]A.

.

A also D too

[答案]B.

either,而不用too和also.

___ is blue.

A the other B another C others D the others

[答案]A.

[析]两者中的另一个应为特指。而且应为单数形式的代名词。而another是泛指单数代名词。others是泛指复数代名词,而the others是特指复数代名词。

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24 Sorry, I can't answer your question.

I know ___about the subject.

A little B a little C few D a few

[答案]A.

[析]中文讲我对此知道的不多,而英文中要用little。其含意为否定句。

25 My sister doesn't like skating___.

A So do I B So I don't

C Neither I don't D Neither do I

[答案]D.

于第二个人。所以要用neither,

___.

A you, he and I C D you, I and he

27 All the students are busy, so___of them will go to the concert.

A many B little C a few D few

[答案]D.

[析]student为可数名词。

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28 The teacher gave ___student a new book.

A nobody B both C each D any

[答案]C.

[析]both其后的名词应为复数,而any用于疑问句和否定句中只有each可以修饰单数可数名词。

29 Black is neither a teacher ___a worker.

A or B either C nor D and

[答案]C.

[析]neither?nor

30 Our teacher gave us___A many advices B some advices

C an advice

[答案]D.

[析]advicesome可用于可数或不可数名词之前。 C the other D the others

[答案]C.

[析]因为是两者中的一个,所以另一个应用单数特指代词。 32 Are there ___on the table?

A some cups B any cup C some cup D any cups

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[答案]D.

[析]此句是疑问句,应用any cups, 因提问时的be动词用的是are。 33 I've just bought five stamps. One is a German stamp, ___are American stamps.

A the other B the others C other D others

[答案]B.

the other只能用作单数,而othersB。 34 It was___ A a so B so a C such a

[答案]C.

such+不定冠词+形容词+,或者用so加形容词+不定冠词+so good a day.

35 At that the train was slow and noisy. So___people liked a little C few D a few

[答案]C.

[析]这是英文的表达法与中文不同之处。中文讲只有少数人喜欢坐火车,英文要选用“few”。

36 We must help and understand each___.

A other B another C others D the other

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[答案]A.

[析]each other意为“互相”,是习惯用语。

37 ___is difficult to walk on the moon.

A Man B One C That D It

[答案]D.

[析]这里的真正主语应为不定式to walk on the moon.能用it.

38 Jane has sent several letters, but ___A all B both C either D none

[答案]D.

[析]several lettersA、D中作选择,仅D符合句意。

39 I don't know ___A something C nothing D anything [答案]D.

anything.

the students in the whole class could do this physics question.

A No B None C Not D Neither

[答案]B.

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