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句法——常见习惯用语

发布时间:2014-01-11 09:44:45  

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2011年中考英语专项指导练习——句法

三、 常见习惯用语

(一) 知识概要 

由于英语国家的语言习惯与中国的语言习惯有许多不同之处,所以造成了许多同学在做选择或书写,或与人交谈中造成误用中国方式来对会讲: You are so beautiful 这时的答语应该是 如果外国人发现你的英语不错,他们会讲:  这不符合英语习惯。它正确的答语应是  虽然交际英语有一些规律可讲,了解他们的文化

(二) 正误辨析 

[误] 

- Yes,  

[正] 

 

[析] What can I do for you? 这一问语实际上用于的情景很多,要根据具体情况而定。如在商店中售货员讲这句话应译为:您想要点什么?在其他场合也可以被译为:我能为您做些什么?它的答语应是直接讲出想让对方提供的帮助。

[误] - Which colour do you like?

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- Sorry, I don't like 

[正] - Which colour do you like?

- I prefer blue 

[析] 由 which 来提问的问句是要回答具体的选择,而不能泛指,泛泛的回答。如 Yes, I like it

[误] Do you like to come with us tonight? 

[正] Would you like to come with us tonight? 

[析] Do you like … 问的是对方的习惯,如: Do you like collecting stamps? 而 …

Shall we go? 我们走吧!

Let's go? 让我们走吧!

?

喝杯咖啡如何?

?

Certainly, Yes, O.K. All right, With pleasure[误] Sorry, I've kept you waiting

Not at all 

[正] Sorry, I've kept you waiting

Never mind 

[析] "介意不介意"这一问法与答语在中英文中有所不同。如: 中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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- Do you mind my smoking here?- _________ 

A. Yes, do it please

B. No, of course not

C. Yes, take it please

D. No, you can't take it

这时正确的选择应是B。 其意为:不介意,当然不。而A相矛盾了,它应译为:是的我介意,请抽吧。而D你不能抽。当向对方争求意见时,可以有以下问法:

Do you mind if I open the door?

Would you mind mailing the letter for me其答语如果是同意应为: not at all

而不同意时应为 Yes, 或

[误] What's that man?

He is Mike 

[正] 

He is Mike (He is Mike's father) 

[析] 由 what 提问是问的职业,由 who 提问问的是姓名或身份。

[误] - How much are they?

- Half a kilo, please 

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[正] - How many bananas do you want?

- Half a kilo Please 

[析] How much are they? 问的是价格而不是实际物品的多少。 [误] I'm sorry, but is this the way to the park? 

[正] Excuse me, but is this the way to the park? 

[析] I'm sorry Excuse me 是在打扰对方之前表达歉意的话。

[误] - Have a good time tonight!

- You are the same 

[正] - Have a good time tonight!

- The same to you 

[析] The same to you 中的习惯用法。

[误] 

 

[正] 

 

[析] What's wrong with you? 是询问对方身体状态如何,而 What's the problem?是问对方遇到了什么麻烦。

[误] - Now, I'm back Can I play?

- Perhaps You'd better do your homework first 

[正] - Now, I'm back Can I play?

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- I'm afraid not You'd better do your homework first 

[析] Perhaps 是表示对一种拿不准的事态的推论,如: Am I right? Perhaps而 I'm afraid not 则表达一种不同意的态度。 be afraid 的几种用法有:

I'm afraid that you are right

其后直接加宾语从句。

- Will you come to my birthday party?

- I'm afraid not I have to go to see my father  其后+not,表示否定。

- Sorry, I don't want to go there alone,



其后+ of +



其后+

- Two days 

[正] - How soon will you be ready?

- In two days 

[析] 此题关键是要根据情景,身临其境,要注意的是对方问了什么,就应答什么。或答了什么就应问什么。 How soon 问的是"还有中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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多久才能作完",这时要用 in two days, 即在两小时之内即可以作完。如用 How long 提问,则答语可以用 two days。

[误] - Would you mind if I have some time off?

- I don't mind

- Monday and Tuesday of next week 

[正] - Would you mind if I have some time off?

- When exactly

- Monday and Tuesday of next week 

[析] 选错了答案是不容易找出错来的。 I 是可以用来回答 Would you mind when exactly?

[误]  The phone rings and you pick it up 

[正]  The phone rings and you pick it up word you say will probably be "Hello? This is Tom speaking?" 

[析] 在英语学习中,习惯用法实际上在某种情况,或某种意义上讲比语法更为重要。如果只从句子的角度上去分析,它们可能都是对的。比如,当你拿起电话时,如果你想知道对方是谁,可以问"Who's that(speaking)?"但不要讲"Who are you?"如果你想先介绍一下自己可中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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以讲"This is ×××× speaking"而不要讲"I'm ××××"也不要讲"My name is ×××××." 就语法而论,"Who are you?" "I'm ××××""My name is ×××××"并不错,也是英语中可用的句子,但就打电话这一场合,就不宜用了。

[误] - Do you think it's going to rain over the weekend?

- I don't hope so 

[正] - Do you think it's going to rain over the weekend?- I hope not 

[析] 如在肯定答语中 I think so I hope so 是相同的,但在否定句中却常用 I don't think soI don't believe so 和 I don't hope so I believe not 和 ! [误] 

- No,  

[正] 

- No 

[析] 许多学生在写作和选择答语或问句时总要语法在前,而不是习惯用语在先。所以总是要拘泥疑问句中的不定代词,用 anybody。 但是Is anybody there? 在英语中为:这里有人吗?而Is everybody there?为:全都到齐了吗?所以首先要考虑的是其答语。 No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave

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[误] - Your handwriting is very good!

- No, my handwriting is very poor 

[正] - Your handwriting is very good!

- Thank you 

[析] 中国人遇到别人称赞,总是以谦逊为美德。但英美人则往往认为自信是美德。所以当别人夸奖你或赞美你时,就应说:  又比如中国人见面时常讲 Where are you going? 或 your breakfast yet?他们见面时往往问一些无关紧要的话,如: (你过得怎样) Morning! 等。而 good 和 How do you do

[误] leave you may say: I'll go first" 

[正] : "Excuse me I have to go" 

[析] I'll go first 朋友们会迷惑不解,而 I have to go 则表示由于外界的特殊原因而造成的你要离去,而你本人则十分不愿做此事。

[误] - Would you like to come to dinner tonight?

- I'd like to, and I'm too busy 

[正] - Would you like to come to dinner tonight?

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- I'd like to, but I'm too busy 

[析] I'm too busy 与 I'd like to 在意义上正好相反。所以要用转折连词。这里考查了对词义合乎逻辑的表达能力。所以要强调语言环境,更要强调在语言的基础上的词语辨析。

[误] - Where's Deter?

- Deter will come with us tonight but he isn't very sure yet

[正] - Where's Deter?

[析] 由于 but 所引出的句子可以看出 确定的,所以应用 may

[误] - Hi, 

- Great You look well too

[正] - Hi, 

- Thanks  

[析] Great 在口语中多表示惊叹,而 Thanks 则表示周密思考,弄清场合,注意英美人的风俗习惯,注重语义上的词语辨析,并要进行大量的语言实践练习,扩大实际交际能力。

(三) 例题解析 

1 - Would you like to have some rice?

- _________ .

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A Yes, I like B Yes, please C of course D Yes, I have

[答案] B.

[析] 当对方对你发出邀请的问语时,如果你想接受则讲 Yes, please 如不想接受则用No, thanks

2 - Nice to see you

- _________ .

A Good morning B 

C Nice to see you, too D , too

[答案] C.

[析] 虽然A、B、D 3 

- .

A I would B Certainly C No, thanks D Yes, please

[答案] B.

[析] 当对方发出十分礼貌的请求帮助的问语时,一般的回答是肯定的。而Yes, please 为"是的,您请做某事吧"。这一含意显然中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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不对。

4 - Thank you very much for helping me

- _________ .

A You're welcome B It doesn't matter

C No need D Don't say that

[答案] A.

[析] You're welcome 译为中文为:不用谢。而 则为:没关系。

5 - Hello, Lucy How are you?- _________ And you?

A Fine, thanks B Yes

C 

[答案] A.[析] How are you? 很好,谢谢!"

6 - Help yourself to some meat

- _________ 

A It sounds nice. B Yes, please. 

C Yes, Let's help each other. D Thank you.

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[答案] D.

[析] Help yourself to some meat. 你自己拿些肉吃吧。其意为主人劝客人不要客气,像在家里一样。

7 - Oh, I am not feeling well I've got a cold

- _________ 

A Fine, How are you? B Never mind Take care C Well, I 'm sure to get weel soon. D 

[答案] D.

[析] 、 C则是中国人常讲的答语。

8 

-

A No,  Thank you very much

C  That's all right

[答案] B.

9 - "Kate, could you answer the telephone, please?"

- _________ , Mum I'll get it.

A Yes, I could B No, thanks 

C OK D Yes, but I have no time

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[答案] C.

[析] 要注意 could 用于口语中是为了讲话的口气委婉,但它不是过去时态,也不是助动词,而应看作情态动词。所以在答语中则不应这样用。

10 - Could you look after Polly for me while we're away?- _________ 

A No, thanks. B With pleasure. 

C I'm not afraid. D I'm sure you will

[答案] B.

[析] With pleasure 表达自己十分乐意为对方效力的口气。

11 , please?

- 

A, please. B That's the headmaster, please.  C Who are you ? please. D Sorry I'm not the headmaster. 

[答案] A.

[析] hold on, please 是指请对方等一等不要将电话放下的用语。如果要讲我就是的话不能用 that, 而要用 this, 在电话用语中 中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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that 指对方, this 指自己。

12 - Happy birthday!

- _________ 

A Thank you. B The same to you. 

C Good luck. D Congratulations.

[答案] A.

[析] the same to you 祝贺语,除非两人的生日在同一天。

13 - I'm sorry I don't know the way You'd better ask that policeman for help

- _________ 

A Good night. B. 

C Very well. Thank you all the same.

Thank you all the same 意为不管如何还是要谢谢你。

14 - I fell and hurt my leg last week, So I can't do anything - _________ .

A I'm sorry B Don't worry

C Good luck D Bad luck

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[答案] D.

[析] 如果用A则要用 I'm sorry to hear that而不能单用 I'm sorry 因I'm sorry 是向对方道歉。而 bad luck 为真是不幸啊。 15 - _________ 

- I have got a cough

A What's your trouble? B What have you got?

C Why did you come here? D 

[答案] A.

[析] What's your trouble? 什么病。这种用语还有 

16 

-

A Yes, . B That's right.

C . D Quite well.

[答案] A.

[析] 表示愿意作某事应讲:I'd love to I'd like to

17 - What's the weather like today!

- _________ 

A It's nice for a walk. B I like autumn best of all. 中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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C It will be fine tomorrow. D It's rather cold today.

[答案] D.

[析] 本题要注意问的是什么,不要所问非所答。因问题是今天的天气怎样,所以只能选D

18 - Is Jane in ,please? I want to speak to her

- Sorry, she is out You'd better A visit her in the office B call her later 

C see her this afternoon D 

[答案] B.

[析] call her later

19 -

- Very well, and you?

A  Good morning 

C  How do you like English? 

[答案] C.

[析] 本题是由答语来推断问话,所以应熟悉英语的问答习惯: How do you do? 的答语应为 How do you do?

20 - How is your mother?

- _________ 

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A She is old. B She is no better than she was. 

C She is kindhearted. D She is in her forties.

[答案] B.

[析] How is your mother? 问的是你妈身体如何,而B选项则是"她不比以前强"。而其他三个选项则是所问非所答。

21 - Thank you very much for your help

- _________ .

A You're welcome B Please don't

C There's no trouble D No, 

[答案] A.

22 Your uncle has to the cinema Afterwards you thank him

He says " ."

A  I'm glad you enjoyed it 

C No, needn't

[答案] B.

[析] 这是英语的答语,千万不要选A,因它是中文习惯的答语。

23 - Thank you for your good present

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- _________ .

A It's not good B No, no

C My pleasure D Never mind

[答案] C.

24 When someone did a good deed for you, _______ .

A.you are too good B.It's very kind of you kind D.I'll thank you

[答案] B.

25 - I am very sorry  

- _________ .

A.No, C.Yes, you are D.No, you don't [答案] B.

[析]  没关系。

26 

- .

A I'm sorry B It's not true 

C It doesn't matter D Don't say sorry

[答案] C.

27 - I should have gone to see the exhibition with you  中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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- _________ .

A I'm sorry B What a pity 

C It doesn't matter to me D That's terrible

[答案] B.

[析] What a pity. 真遗憾。第一句应为我真该和你一起去展览会。

28 - Help yourself to some fish

- _________ .

A You are very kind B Yes, 

C Thank you D Yes, [答案] C.

29 - Are you ready?

A I'm very sorry B

C Not yet,  Do you have the time, please? [答案] C.[析]

30, I have passed the exam

- _________ .

A That's all right B Congratulations

C You are luck D Good luck to you

[答案] B.

31 - I think I have to leave I hope we can get together again中小学教育资源站 http://www.edudown.net

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- _________ .

A All right B That's all right

C OK D I hope so, too

[答案] D.

32 Must I wait till he comes back?  .

A No, you needn't B No, you mustn't 

C No, you may not D No, you can't

[答案] A.

[析] must 提问表示必须这样做吗? must, 表示必须做,而否定句则要用 needn't

33 - _________  - Yes, you have to do it

A Shall B  Must D Have

[答案] C.34 

- 

A Yes, I agree. B Yes, but I don't think so. 

C Yes, of course not. D Yes, what's wrong?

[答案] A.

35 - It was cold yesterday

- _________ .

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A So was it B So it was

C I believe not so D I believe not

[答案] B.

[析] 当答语只是重复对方讲的话时,则不用倒装。因 so it was即为:是的,天气昨天很冷。而当讲前面讲的动作也适合于另一个人时,则要倒装。如: I went to the cinema yesterday So did I 方去了电影院,我也去了。

36 - What do you think of the song?

- _________ .

A I like music very much B

C With pleasure D [答案] D.

[析] sound

37  _________ . A  Thank you

C Either will do

[答案] D.

[析] either will do 为两者哪个都可以。

38 I like your sweater very much _________ . A No, it's ugly B Sorry

C Thank you D You're welcome

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[答案] C.

[析] 这是英美语言的习惯。

39 He likes travelling by train  _________ . A So do I B I dos

C I like so D I like it, neither

[答案] A.

40 - How do you like your school?

- _________ .

A I like it very much B 

C I doesn't like it D Very well

[答案] B.

[析] How do you like … 41 _________ 

A . B No, isn't it?

C  Really?

[析] Yes, isn't it 是的,难道不是个好天气吗?

42 - Hello, _________ ?

- This is Della speaking

A Who are you B Are you Tom 

C Who is that D Please tell me who are you

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[答案] C.

[析] 电话用语中 that 指对方,而 this 指自己。

43 -What's he like? 

- _________ .

A He likes English B He is old 

C He is like a farmer D He is tall and this

[答案] D.

[析] 要区分 What's he like? 如 What does he like? 得什么样?而后者是:他喜欢什么。

44 How did you do your job? 

Not very well,

A I'm sure B I am afraid C Thank you D [答案] B.

[析] 我恐怕是,我想是。

45 your aunt?



A What does B Where does

C What is D Whom is

[答案] C.

46 - _________ 

- He is my boss

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A What's the man? B Who is the man? 

C How is the man? D What does the man do?

[答案] B.

47 - May I have your name? 

- _________ .

A No, no B You're polite

C Call me John D It's kind of you

[答案] C.

48 - Shall I make coffee for you? - _________ .

A Yes, thank you B 

C Don't trouble this  No, don't make it 

[答案] A.49  Buown's office? - .

A Not at all B I'm sure

C All right D I can do it

[答案] C.

50 - Shall we go swimming tomorrow afternoon?

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- _________ .

A It's very kind of you B You are so thoughtful  C That's a good idea D Yes, we'll go

[答案] C.

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