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英语国家常用语态

发布时间:2014-01-13 15:49:35  

英语国家常用语态

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10种最需要注意的时态考点归纳

1. 一般现在时

主要用来表示人、事物的现在状况和特点;表示经常或习惯性的动作,句子中常有often, always, from time to time 等时间状语;表示客观规律和永恒真理等。

He usually goes to work at 7 o’clock every morning.

She has a brother who lives in New York. The earth goes around the sun.

Guangzhou is situated in the south of China.

考点一:表示永恒的真理,即使出现在过去的语境中,仍用一般现在时。如: I learned that the earth goes around the sun when I was in primary school. 考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替一般将来时,常用的引导词有:

时间:when, until, after, before, as soon as, once, the moment / minute / day / year 条件:if, unless, provided If he accepts the job, he will get more money soon.

考点三:在make sure (certain), see to it, mind, care, matter +宾语从句中,从句用一般现在时代替一般将来时。

So long as he works hard, I don’t mind when he finishes the experiment.

只要他努力工作,我不介意他什么时候做完试验。

考点四:在the more… the more … (越…越…) 句型中, 若主句是一般将来时, 从句通常用一般现在时。

The harder you study, the better results you will get.

2. 现在进行时

表说话时或目前一段时间内正在进行的活动;与频率副词,如always,constantly,continually,again等连用,表示说话人的某种感情色彩(赞叹、厌烦、埋怨等)。

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We are having English class. The house is being built these days.

The little boy is always making trouble.

考点一:在时间状语或条件状语从句中表示将来正在进行的动作。

Look out when you are crossing the street.

Don't wake him up if he is still sleeping at 7 tomorrow morning.

考点二: 表示在最近按计划或安排要进行的动作(这时多有表示将来的时间状语)。 Marry is leaving on Friday.

3. 现在完成时

表示动作发生在过去,完成在过去,但强调与现在情况仍有联系,其结果或影响仍存在。现在完成时有一些标志性的时间状语。

考点一:for + 时间段;since + 时间点

They have lived in Beijing for five years.

They have lived in Beijing since 1995. I have learned English for ten years.

考点二:常见的不确定的时间状语:lately, recently, just, already, yet, up to now; till now; so far, these days

Has it stopped raining yet?

考点三:在表示“最近几世纪/年/月以来……”时间状语中,谓语动词用现在完成时。 in the past few years/months/weeks/days, over the past few years, during the last three months, for the last few centuries, through centuries, throughout history 等

In the past 30 years China has made great advances in socialist construction.

考点四:表示“第几次做某事,”或在 “It is the best (worst, most interesting ) +名词+that” 后面用现在完成时。

This is my first time that I have visited China. That is the only book that he has written.

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This is the most interesting film I have ever seen.

4.一般过去时

表在过去某个特定时间发生且完成的动作,或过去习惯性动作,不强调对现在的影响,只说明过去。常与明确的过去时间状语连用,如:yesterday, last week, in 1945, at that time, once, during the war, before, a few days ago, when。

考点一:used to + do 表示过去经常但现在已不再维持的习惯动作。to为不定式符号,后接动词原形。

比较:be / become / get used to + doing 表示习惯于

He used to smoke a lot. He has got used to getting up early.

考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替过去将来时。

He promised to buy me a computer if he got a raise

5. 过去进行时

表示过去某个时间点或某段时间内正在发生的动作。

The boy was doing his homework when his father came back from work.

He was taking a walk leisurely by the lake when he heard someone shouted for help. What were you doing at nine last night?

The radio was being repaired when you called me.

6. 过去完成时

表示过去某个时间之前已经完成的动作,即过去完成时的动作发生在“过去的过去”,句中有明显的参照动作或时间状语,这种时态从来不孤立使用。

There had been 25 parks in our city up till 2000.

By the end of last term we had finished the book.

They finished earlier than we had expected.

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考点一:用于hardly/scarcely...when; no sooner ...than句型中,主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。

I had hardly finished my work when he came to see me.

I had no sooner got into the room than it began to snow.

No sooner had I arrived home than the telephone rang. (注意倒装)

考点二:表示“第几次做某事”,主句用过去时,从句用过去完成时。

That was the second time that she had seen her grandfather.

考点三:动词hope, expect, think, intend, mean, want, suppose, plan 用过去完成时,表示未实现的愿望、打算和意图。

I had hoped that I could do the job. I had intended to see you but I was too busy.

7. 一般将来时

表示在将来某个时间发生的动作或情况。常和tomorrow, next year, in 2008等表示将来的时间状语连用,其表现形式多达5种。

考点一:一般将来时总是用在一些时间状语从句或条件状语从句的主句中。 We will begin our class as soon as the teacher comes.

(主句用一般将来时,从句中一定要用一般现在时替代一般将来时。)

考点二:某些表示短暂性动作的动词如arrive, come, go, leave, start等,用现在进行时形式表示将来。

I am leaving for Beijing tomorrow.

考点三:“祈使句 + and / or + 句子”,这种结构中and后面的句子谓语用一般将来时。 Use your head and you will find a way.

考点四:“be going to + 动词原形”,表示打算要做的事或可能要发生的事。 “be about to + 动词原形”表示按照预定计划或打算准备着手进行的动作。

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“be to + 动词原形”表示必须、必然或计划将要做的事。

They are to be married in May.

8. 将来进行时

表示将来某个时间正在发生的动作,或按计划一定会发生的事情。

I’ll be doing my homework this time tomorrow. 明天这会我正在写作业。

The President will be meeting the foreign delegation at the airport.

9. 将来完成时

表示在将来某时刻之前业已完成的事情,时间状语非常明显。

考点一:常用的时间状语一般用by + 将来时间 ,如:by the end of this year, by 8 o’clock this evening, by March next year以及由by the time…, before或when等引导的从句。

By the end of next month, he will have traveled 1000 miles on foot.

By the time you reach the station, the train will have left.

By next Tuesday, I will have got ready for the exams.

考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,将来完成时则由现在完成时表示。

The children will do their homework the moment they have arrived back from school.

10. 动词的语态

一般用于强调受者,做题时谓语动词后通常不再有名词或宾语。动词的语态一般不单独考,而是和时态、语气和非谓语动词一起考,需要注意以下考点。

考点一:不能用于被动语态的动词和词组

come true, consist of, take place, happen, become, rise, occur, belong, break out, appear, arrive, die, fall, last, exist, fail, succeed

It took place before liberation.

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考点二:下列动词的主动语态表示被动意义, 而且常与well, quite, easily, badly等副词连用:lock, wash, sell, read, wear, blame, ride , write

Glass breaks easily. 玻璃容易破碎。 The car rides smoothly. 这车走起来很稳。 The case locks easily. 这箱子很好锁。 The book sells well. 这本书很畅销。 考点三:一些常用经典被动句型

It is said…, It is reported…, It is widely believed…,It is expected…, It is estimated…, 这些句子一般翻译为“据说…”,“人们认为…”,而“以前人们认为…”则应该说:It was believed…, It was thought…。

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英语16种时态

英语共有十六种时态,其表现形式如下(以study为例)

一般时 进行时 完成时 完成进行时

现在 study be studying have studied have been studying

过去 studied be studying had studied had been studying

将来 will study wil be studying will have studied will have been studying 过去将来would study would be studying would have studied would have been studying

时态(Tense)是表示行为、动作和状态在各种时间条件下的动词形式。因此,当我们说时态结构的时候,指的是相应时态下的动词形式。

1. 一般现在时

英语时态分为16种:一般现在、一般过去、一般将来、过去将来时,以及这四者的进行时、完成时和完成进行时。

用法:A) 表示现在发生的动作、情况、状态和特征。

B) 习惯用语。

C) 经常性、习惯性动作。

例:He always helps others. (他总是帮助别人。)

D) 客观事实和普遍真理。尤其要注意,如果前后文不是一般现在时,则无法保持 主句、从句时态一致。

E) 表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作,(仅限于某些表示“来、去、动 、停、开始、结束、继续”等的动词)可以与表示未来时间的状语搭配使用 。常见的用法是:飞机、火车、轮船、汽车等定期定点运行的交通方式。

例:The next train leaves at 3 o'clock this afternoon.(下一趟火车今天下午3点开车。) How often does this shuttle bus run? (这班车多久一趟?)

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F) 在时间和条件状语从句里经常用一般现在(有时也用现在完成时)表示将来事情。 例:When you have finished the report, I will have waited for about 3 hours.

(等你完成这份报告的时候,我就已经等了将近3个小时了。)

2. 现在进行时(be doing)

用法:现在正在进行的动作。

3. 现在完成时(have done)

用法:A) 表示动作到现在为止已经完成或刚刚完成。

例:I bought a new house, but I _________ my old one yet, so at the moment I have two houses.

A) didn't sell B) sold C) haven't sold D) would sell

答案是C) haven't sold。

B) 表示从过去某时刻开始,持续到现在的动作或情况,并且有可能会继续延续下去。此时经常用延续性动词。时间状语常用since加一个过去的时间点,或for加一段时间,或by加一个现在时间。

例:Great as Newton was, many of his ideas ___________ today and are being modified by the work of scientists of our time.

A) are to challenge C) have been challenged

B) may be challenged D) are challenging

全句的意思是:“虽然牛顿是个伟大的人物,但他的许多见解直到今天还在受到挑战,并且被现代科学家的工作所修正。”challenge是及物动词,在本句中应当是被动语态;其动作延续到今天,所以要用现在完成时态。可见答案是C) have been challenged。A) are to challenge和D) are challenging都是主动语态,不可能是答案。B) may be challenged虽然是被动语态,但意思与全句内容不合,所以不对。C) 表示发生在过去,但对现在仍有影响的动作或情况。通常用点动词,如:arrive, begin, find, give, lose等。

例:John has broken his left leg.(约翰摔断了左腿。)

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注意事项:A) 现在完成时是联系过去和现在的纽带。现在完成时和过去时的区别在于:现在完成时强调动作的动态,或受动态的影响,是动态的结果,对现在有影响;过去时只表示过去的某个具体时间里发生的动作,与现在没有联系。

例:He worked in that hospital for 8 years.

(他曾经在那家医院工作了8年。这只是讲述一个过去的事实,他现在已经不在那家医院了。)

He has worked in that hospital for 8 years.

(他已经在那家医院里工作了8年。表示他从过去开始工作,一直工作到现在,现在仍在那家医院工作。)

B) 因为含有for加一段时间或since加一个时间点这样的时间状语的完成时,有动态和延续性的特点,所以不能使用终端动词或瞬间动词。

例:My sister has been married for 5 years.(过去分词做表语表示状态,可以延续) My sister has married. Don't disturb her.(终端动词)

C) 在"this is the first/ second/ third…… time that……"句型里要求用完成时。

例:This is the second time that the products of our company have been shown in the International Exhibition.(这是我公司产品第二次参加国际展览会。)

D) 句型"It is/ has been……since"所使用的两种时态都正确。

例:It is/ has been 10 years since I last saw him.

(从我上次见到他以来已经10年了。)

E) 在"no sooner than"、"hardly/ scarcely ……when"、"before"、"prior to"等句型中,主句要求完成时。

例:I haven't met that professor prior to today.(以前我从未见过那位教授。)

4. 现在完成进行时(have been doing)

用法:表示某一动作开始于过去某一时间,延续或重复地出现至今,或将继续延续至将来。

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例:We have been working on this project for over a month now.(到目前为止,我们一直在处理那个项目,已经花了一个多月时间了。)

注意事项:与现在完成时相比,现在完成进行时更强调:在从过去到现在的时间里,动作或状态一直持续或一直反复出现。

例:It seems oil ___________ from this pipe for some time. We'll have to take the machine apart to put it right.

A) had leaked B) is leaking

C) leaked D) has been leaking

从本题上下文看,这两个句子的意思是:“看来,这个管道漏油已有一段时间了,我们将不得不拆卸机器排除故障。”第二句表示将要采取的措施。第一句动作发生在第二句之前,并且延续到现在为止仍在继续。因此,空格中需用现在完成时或现在完成进行时。D) has been leaking是现在完成进行时,因此是本题的答案。有11%的考生误选了B) is leaking。由于本句有时间状语for some time,表示谓语动作延续,谓语不能用现在进行时,必须用和完成时有关的时态。有些考生误选了C) leaked或A) had leaked。是因为他们没有注意到本题第二句是一般将来时,所以第一句的谓语不能用过去时或过去完成时。

5. 一般过去时

用法:A) 表示过去某个时间发生的动作或情况。

B) 表示过去习惯性动作。特别是由would/ used to do表达的句型,本身表示的 就是过去时。

例:The old man would sit on a bench in the quiet park and look at others for hours without doing anything or talking to anybody.(老人过去常常坐在宁静的公园里的一条长椅上,看着其他的人,一坐就是数个小时,什么也不干,也不和任何人交谈。)

He used to visit his mother once a week.(他以前总是每周看望一次他的母亲。)

C) 有时可代替一般现在时,表达一种婉转、客气、礼貌、商量的语气。

例:I wanted to ask you if I could borrow your car?(我想向您借车用一用,可以吗?) Would you mind my sitting here?(您介意我坐在这里吗?)

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注意事项:A) 注意时间状语的搭配。一般过去时的时间状语应该是表示过去某个时间的词或词组,如:yesterday, last month, in 1999, two days ago等,绝对不可与recently, in the past 10 years, this month等连用,因为这样的时间状语都与现在有关系,应该用现在完成时或一般现在时。

B) used to do的否定形式和疑问形式很特别:你怎么写都正确。以否定形式为例:used not to do, didn't used to do, didn't use to do都对。Used to do经常与 be used to doing sth/ sth结构进行对比。前者表示"过去常常或过去曾经",要求加动词原形;后者表示"习惯于",要求加名词或动名词。

6. 过去完成时(had done)

用法:表示在过去的某个时间或动作以前已经发生的动作或已经存在的状态。就是我们常说的:表示"过去的过去的动作或状态"。

Until then, his family _________ from him for six months.

A) didn't hear C) hasn't heard

B) hasn't been hearing D) hadn't heard

全句的意思是:“到那时为止,他家里已经有六个月没得到他的消息了。”由此可以看出,谓语动词的动作延续到过去的某一时刻才完成,因此谓语要用过去完成时。答案是D)。其它选项中:A) didn't hear,因为一般过去时只表示过去发生的事情或存在的状态,所以不能与时间状语for six months连用。B) hasn't been hearing,现在完成进行时表示过去某时刻继续到现在或现在还在进行的动作,与题意不符。C) hasn't heard,现在完成时表示从过去某一时刻到现在为止发生的动作。而题中的then只表示过去的某一时刻,不能表示现在时间。

注意事项:“过去的过去”这种逻辑关系常通过上下文体现出来,而不一定受某个时间状语的限制。

例:There had been some one in our room just now, because I noticed a burning cigarette end on the floor when we opened the front door.(刚才有人在我们的房间里,因为我们打开前门进来时,我注意到地板上有一支仍在燃烧的香烟。)

分析:虽然时间状语是just now,似乎应该使用一般过去时,但是“在房间里”这个状态是在"开门"和"注意"这两个过去的动作之前就存在的,所以应该用过去完成时。

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