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新目标八年级上学期unit 5 & unit 6知识点复习

发布时间:2014-01-14 16:58:50  

unit 5 & unit 6

一、词组:

think of How about doing??

learn from be ready to do sth.

find out try one’s best to do sth.

go on grow up

a pair of be able to

try one’s best at the beginning of

as famous as write down

have a discussion about agree with

one day be sure about

such as make sure

dress up go to a cooking school

take sb.’s place move to Shanghai

do a good job learn to play the piano

look like get lots of exercise

around the world make resolutions

a symbol of the meaning of.. …

let sb. do sth. write down

plan to do sth. have to do with

hope to do sth. take up

happen to do sth. make a weekly plan

expect to do sth. make promises to sb.

二、词语讲解:

1、happen是不及物动词,它不与be动词连用,所以没有进行时和被动语态。它的用法常见的有如下几种情况:

1) 表示"某地(某时)发生了什么事",常用"sth.+ happen +地点/时间"这一结构来表达,此时主语应是事情。例如: The story happened in 2003. 这个故事发生在2003年。

An accident happened in that street. 那条街上发生了一起事故。

2) 表示"某人出了某事(常指不好的事)",要用"sth.+ happen+to sb."这一结构来表达。例如:

A car accident happened to her this morning. 今天上午她发生了交通事故。

What happened to you? 你怎么啦?

3) 表示"某人碰巧做某事",要用"sb.+ happen+ to do sth."这一结构来表达。例如:

I happened to meet a friend of mine in the street yesterday. 昨天我碰巧在街上遇到了我的一个朋友。

4) happen表示"碰巧或恰巧发生某事"时,还可用"It happens / happened that..."这一结构来表达。例如:

It happened that Brian and Peter were at home that day. 碰巧那天布莱恩和彼得在家了。

It happened that he had to take part in a meeting that afternoon. 碰巧那天下午他不得不参加一个会议。

注:that从句中的主语是人时,此种结构可以与"sb.+ happen + to do sth."结构互换。例如:

It happened that Brian and Peter were at home that day. = Brian and Peter happened to be at home that day.

在使用 happen 时,以下三点情况值得注意:

1) happen 为不及物动词,不能用于被动语态。例如,要表示"这个故事发生在去年。"

不能说:The story was happened last year.

可以说:The story happened last year.

2) happen 为短暂性动词,不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。例如,要表示 "这事发生一年了。"

不能说:This happened for one year.

可以说:This happened one year ago.

3) happen 一般用来强调某事发生的偶然性。如要表示事先安排或有准备的事情或活动,则不能用 happen,而要用 take place。例如:

A sports meeting took place(=was held) in our school last week.上周我校举行了运动会。

(不能说:A sports meeting happened in our school last week.)

2、mean

mean作为动词的用法:

mean doing sth.的意思是“意味着(必须要做某事或导致某种结果)”,其主语通常是指事物的词。例如:

Being a student means studying hard. 作为一个学生,(意味着)你要努力学习。

Success means working hard. 成功意味着工作努力。

mean to do sth.的意思是“打算或企图做某事”, 其主语通常是表示人的名词或代词,其过去完成式表示“本来打算做某事”。例如:

What do you mean to do with it? 你打算把它怎样处理?

We mean to call on you tomorrow. 我们打算明天看望你。

He had meant to leave on Sunday, but has stayed on. 他本来想星期天走的,但又留了下来。

don't mean to do sth. 是其否定式,通常表示“无意做某事”。例如:

John really upset Granny,but I'm sure he did not mean to. 约翰真让奶奶心烦, 不过我相信他是无意的。

mean sb. to do sth.的意思是“打算让某人做某事”。例如:

I mean you to work as our spokesman. 我想请你当我们的代言人。

Do you really mean him to believe that your plan was right? 你真打算让他相信你的计划是对的吗?

mean后接名词、副词或从句

mean后接名词或副词,意为“表示;打算;存心”等意思;后接 that 从句,意为“表示??”。例如:

“I meant well,”he said. 他说,“我是好意。”

The sign means that the road is blocked. 这个标志表示此路不通。

mean用来解释某个词语的含义

mean 可用来解释某个词语的含义,表示“意思是??”,其后面的单词形式常与被解释的单词形式保持一致。如解释一个动词时,后接动词不定式;解释一个动名词,后接动名词形式。例如:

“Quake” means “to shake”. “Quake”的意思是“震动”。

Having good table manners means knowing, for example, how to use knives and forks, when to drink a toast and how to behave at the table.(Unit 6)餐桌上,懂礼貌意味着了解诸如如何使用刀叉,该何时祝酒,如何体面用餐等。

What do / did you mean by...? 该句型的意思是“你??是什么意思?”例如:

What do you mean by acting like this? 你这样做是什么意思?

be meant for该短语的意思是“打算给予;打算作??用”。例如:

What is this meant for? 这准备作什么用?

These rooms are meant for the children's center. 这些房间是打算用作少年活动中心的。

I mean 的意思是“就是说;我是说”的意思,常用来更正或补充前面所说的话。例如:

She is smart─I mean, she knows exactly what I think. 她很聪明——我的意思是说,她完全知道我的想法。

Well, eh yes, I mean no. I mean, I found the bathroom, but I didn't find what I was looking for!(Unit 2) 嗯,呃,是呀,我的意思是没有。我是说我找到了浴室,但我没找到我在找的东西!

3.mind

1) mind用作名词时,意为“思想”、“想法”、“头脑”、“智力”。常见的含名词mind的短语有:

change one’s mind(改变主意) keep in mind(记在心里)

make up one’s mind(下定决心) come into one’s mind(计上心来)

set one’s mind to (do) (专注于??)

2) mind用作动词时,意为“介意”、“反对”,常用来表示委婉、客气的请求。含动词mind的常见句式有:

(1) “Would/Do you mind doing ...?意为“??你介意吗?”。例如:

Would you mind closing the door?关上门好吗?

(2) “Would/Do you mind + 人称代词宾格或形容词性物主代词 + doing ...?”意为“某人做某事,你介意吗?”。例如: Do you mind my closing the window?(= Do you mind if I close the window?) 我把窗户关上,你介意吗?

构成“Would you mind doing ...?”的否定式时,通常在doing的前面加not。例如:

Would you mind not swimming in the river?

Would you mind not being late again?

“Would you mind ...?”后面接从句时,从句中的谓语动词常为过去式,用来表示委婉的语气。例如:

Would you mind if I closed the window?你介意我把窗户关上吗?

Would you mind if I turned up the radio?我把收音机声音开大点,你反对吗?

“Would you mind ...?”的同义句式是“Do you mind ...?”。二者表达相同的意思,只是“Would you mind ...?”比“Do you mind ...?”语气显得更客气一些。两者后接从句时,前者从句中的谓语动词常为过去式,而后者从句中的谓语动词则用一般现在时。试比较:

Would you mind if I sat here?(= Do you mind if I sit here?) 我坐在这儿你介意吗?

Do you mind if I smoke here?(= Would you mind if I smoked here?) 我在这里吸烟你介意吗?

在回答这种问题时,必须注意英、汉两种语言之间的差异:

(1) 表示不反对或不介意时常用以下句式:

No,please do. (好吧,请。)/Certainly not. (当然可以。)/Of course not. (当然可以。)/No,go ahead. (完全可以。)例如: ---Would you mind me smoking here?我在这儿抽烟你介意吗? ---No,please do. 好的,请便。

---Would you mind if I turned on the TV?我打开电视你介意吗? ---Certainly not. 当然可以。

---Would you mind my standing here?你介意我站在这里吗? ---Not at all. 没关系。

(2) 如果不同意或不赞成某人做某事,就不要说“Yes,I mind”,应说“Sorry/I’m sorry”或“I wish you wouldn’t”,然后再陈述拒绝或反对的理由。例如:

---Would you mind my turning off the light?我把灯关掉,你介意吗?

---I’m sorry. I haven’t finished my work. (= I wish you wouldn’t. I haven’t finished my work.) 对不起,我还没有完成我的工作。

“I don’t mind.”意为“我不介意”。例如:

---What do you think of sitcoms?你觉得情景喜剧怎么样? ---I don’t mind them. 我不关心那些节目。

Never mind意为“没关系”、“不要紧”,常出现在下列场合:

(1) 应答对方的致歉。例如:

---I’m sorry. I came in a hurry and forgot to bring food. 对不起,我来得匆忙,忘记带吃的了。

---Never mind. You can have ours. 没关系,你可以吃我们的。

(2) 安慰对方。例如:

---Did you watch the baseball match yesterday?昨天你看棒球比赛了吗?

---No,I missed it. By the time I got there,it had already finished. 没有,我错过了。当我到达那里时,比赛已经结束了。 ---Never mind. It was a boring match. 没关系。那是一场枯燥乏味的比赛。

(3) 回答对方的求助。例如:

---Sorry to trouble you. 抱歉,麻烦您一下。

---Never mind. What can I do for you?没关系。我能为你做些什么呢?

练习:

1. ---So hot in the classroom. Would you mind ____ the windows? ---OK. I’ll do it right now.

A. not closing B. not opening C. closing D. opening

2. Would you mind____ me how____ English words?

A. tell; to remember B. telling; remember C. telling; to remember D. tell; remember

3.Would you mind____ more slowly?I can’t follow you.

A. speak B. spoke C. spoken D. speaking

4.Do you mind____ the radio a little bit?I am doing my homework.

A. turning off B. to turn down C. turning down D. turning up

5. ---I’m terribly sorry to have stepped on your foot. ---____.

A. Don’t say that B. Never mind C. You’re welcome D. That’s right

6. ---Would you mind opening the window? ---____.

A. Of course,open it B. Not at all C. Certainly D. No,don’t do it

7. ---I can’t surf the Internet.____?---OK.

A. Can I help you B. Do you mind helping me C. What shall I do D. Can you give me a hand

8. ---It’s too hot. Would you mind my____ the window? ---____. Do it as you like,please!

A. to open; OK B. opening; Certainly not C. closing; Of course D. open; Good idea

9.---Do you mind if I smoke here? ---____.

A. You’re welcome B. I’m afraid not C. Please don’t. It’s a non-smoking car D. Yes,I mind

10. ---Mary is ill. When shall we go to see her,tonight or tomorrow night? ---____. Either night is OK.

A. I’m sure B. I’m afraid not C. I don’t know D. I don’t mind

三、非谓语动词:

非谓语动词的概念

动词的基本用法是作谓语。当句中已经有了谓语动词了,要选或要填的动词就只能用非谓语形式了。

非谓语形式有三种:1、动词不定式:to do 2、动词的ing : doing 3、动词的过去分词:done

1、动词不定式:to do

不定式作主语

动词不定式作主语时,常用it作形式主语,而将真正的主语放在句末。其结构为:____________________________如: To learn English well is useful.→ It is useful to learn English well.

It’s important for us to protect the environment.

注意:在_______________________________等表示人的_____________________后,不用for而用_____。如: It's very kind of you to help me.

It's very clever of you to do like that.

不定式作宾语

有些谓语动词后只能用不定式作宾语,常见的这类词是____________________________的,如:would like, like, want, wish, hope, decide, plan, expect等。如:

Would you like to see a film this evening? 你今晚想去看电影吗?

在find, think后跟___________作宾语时,常用_______代替,而将真正的宾语放在后面。如:

I find it easy to read English every day.

常见的一些不带to的动词不定式

Why not do..., Why don't you do..., had better(not)do..., would rather do, could/would/will you please(not)do...,如: I would rather stay in the room.我宁愿待在房间里。

不定式作宾语补足语

不定式作宾语补足语时与宾语有逻辑上的主谓关系。如:

Lucy asked him to turn down the radio.

tell, ask, want, allow, get, would like, encourage后常跟动词不定式作宾语补足语。如:

My mother encourages me to learn Japanese. 我妈妈鼓励我学日语。

不定式作定语

①不定式作定语时,应放在名词之后。它与名词有逻辑上的动宾关系。

②如果是不及物动词,且与所修饰的词之间有动宾关系,要在不定式后加上适当的介词。如:

There is nothing to worry about. 没有什么可担心的。

不定式常和疑问词________________________________连用,相当于一个宾语从句。如:

The teacher is telling the students what to do.

He didn't know where to go.

*注意:

1) 只能接 to do作宾语的动词

三个希望两答应:

两个要求莫拒绝:

设法学会做决定:

不要假装在选择:

2)某些及物动词___________________________________________________等后常用it作形式宾语。如:

Ifound it easy to work out this problem.

3)后接宾补略去to之八字言:

________________________________________________________________________________

2、动词-ing形式的要点

句法功能:动名词一般由“动词原形+ing”构成

1)主语:谓语动词用___________。 Eating too much is bad for your health.

2)宾语:表示一般的___________或____________或___________的动作。

I like playing basketball very much.(动词宾语) Stamps are used for sending letters.(介词宾语)

3)表语:多数情况下,动名词作表语可转化成主语。

His hobby is collecting stamps. = Collecting stamps is his hobby.

4)定语:只表明他所修饰的词的__________,__________等。至于所修饰词之前。如:

She is in the reading room.

We should improve our teaching methods.

注意:英语中有一些词后面常跟动名词作宾语。我们初中阶段常见的有:finish, mind, be worth, be busy, practice, have fun, have trouble/problem(in), spend...(in), feel like, be used to(习惯于), give up, keep on, consider, suggest, can't help。我们可按下面的顺口溜记忆这些词。

完成实践值得忙

继续习惯别放弃

考虑建议不禁想

喜欢思念要介意

3、不定式和动名词作主语的区别:

(1)动名词作主语通常表示抽象动作;而不定式作主语表示具体动作。

smoking is prohibited(禁止)here.这里禁止抽烟。(抽象)

it is not very good for you to smoke so much.你抽这么多烟对你身体很不好。(具体)

(2)动名词作主语时,通常用以表示一件已知的事或经验。

不定式短语通常用来表示一件未完成的事或目的。

climbing mountains is interesting.爬山很有趣。(经验)

driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在高峰时刻开车令人厌烦。(经验)

(3)不定式做主语,一般用it当形式主语,把作主语的不定式短语后置。

It took me only five minutes to finish the job.

动名词或不定式都可以在句中作主语,但在下列句型中常用动名词作主语。

It is / was no use / good + doing sth.

It is / was not any use / good + doing sth.

It is / was of little use / good + doing sth.

It is / was useless doing sth.

It is no use crying over spilt milk. 覆水难收。

it is of little good staying up too late every day.每天都熬夜没有什么好处。

4、有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差别:

stop to do stop doing

forget to do forget doing

remember to do remember doing

regret to do regret doing

can’t help to do can’t help doing sth

try to do try doing

go on to do go on doing

mean to do mean doing

练习:

( ) 1. She reached the top of the hill and stopped _______ on a big rock.

A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest

( ) 2. Do you know the boy _______ under the big tree?

A. lay B. lain C. laying D. lying

( ) 3. The mother asked the boy _______ down the ladder, but he went on _______ instead.

A. come, climbing B. to come, to climb C. to come, climbing D. coming, climbing

( ) 4. -- Look! The lights in the classroom are still on. -- Oh, I forgot _______.

A. turning them off B. turn them off C. to turn them off D. having turned them off

( ) 5. -- What’s the language _______ in New Zealand? --English.

A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak

( ) 6. He didn’t feel like _______ out for a walk, because he had caught a cold.

A. to go B. goes C. gone D. going

( ) 7. Paul doesn’t have to be made _______. He always works hard.

A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning

( ) 8. The house is not big enough for us all _______.

A. to live in B. to be lived in C. to live D. for living in

( ) 9. I have no paper .

A. to write B.write on C.to write with D.to write on

( ) 10. Is there any time _______ to the museum?

A. going B. to go C. goes D. gone

( )11. The teacher asked the students to close the windows ______ the wind from ______ the papers away.

A. to stop, blowing B. stopping, blowing C. to stop, blow D. stopped, blow

( ) 12. A clock is made for _______ us the time.

A. tell B. telling C. to tell D. tells

( ) 13. You’d better _______ at home all the time. It’s bad for your health.

A. don’t stay B. no to stay C. not stay D. not staying

( ) 14. The students are busy _______ ready for the exam now.

A. getting B. get C. got D. to get

( ) 15. A bird was seen _______ into the classroom yesterday.

A. flew B. to fly C. fly D. was flying

( ) 16. There are many people _______ to buy cars in the modern world.

A. want B. wanted C. wanting D. to want

( ) 17. -- I’m too busy _______ to my family. -- Why not call them instead?

A. writing B. to write C. written D. write

( ) 18. The little boy woke up his father, _______ “Happy Birthday!”

A. call B. to call C. called D. calling

( ) 19. It’s too hot today. Why not _______ your coat?

A. take on B. to take off C. take off D. taking off

( ) 20. He made it _______ for people ______ the computers by inventing new software.

A. easy, use B. easy, using C. easily, to use D. easier, to use

( ) 21. - -The boy was seen _______ his bike a moment ago. -- I am sorry to hear that.

A. fell off B. to fall off C. fall off D. to fall down

( ) 22. There’re so many beautiful presents in the shop that I don’t know _______.

A. to choose which one B. what choose C. which one to choose D. to choose what

( ) 23. --How bad! They still have no ideas how _______ the problem. -- Let’s go to help them.

A. solving B. solved C. to solve D. solves

( ) 24. What is the best way do you think ______ the wild animals?

A. protecting B. to protecting C. protected D. to protect

( ) 25. Boys, don’t forget _____ the windows before you leave the classroom.

A. closing B. closed C. to closing D. to close

( ) 26. -- The little boy was made _______ English for another hour. -- Poor boy!

A. read B. reading C. reads D. to read

( ) 27. All of the plans are very good. I really don’t know _______.

A. which to talk B. which to talk about C. to talk about which D. I asked you for help

( ) 28. Would you please _______ any noise? The baby has just fallen asleep.

A. make B. to make C. not to make D. not make

( ) 29. -- Would you please try _______ late again? -- Sorry, I won’t be late again.

A. not to be B. to be not C. not be D. be

( ) 30. We can’t help crying after _______ the sad news.

A. hear B. heard C. hearing D. to hear

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