Module 9 English for you and me
Unit 3 Language in use
speaker 说某种语言的 人；发言者; 演讲者 period 阶段；时期
Look at the sentences. what kind of causes are they?
It’s the subject that I’m best at, although my handwriting could be better.
It’s the most important foreign language that children will learn at school, because it’s essential for tourism…
Until English became important in the 20th century, people who had any education spoke French. 时间状语从句 定语从句 The UK was a country whose industrial products were sold all over the world. But it’s also important to remember that English has borrowed many words.
Even though there are differences, we all belong to the international English speaking world.
3) 表语从句 4) 同位语从句
1. 名词性从句： 1) 主语从句 2) 宾语从句
2. 形容词性从句： 定语从句 3. 副词性从句：状语从句
① 时间状语从句 ② 地点状语从句 ③ 条件状语从句 ④ 比较状语从句 ⑤ 目的状语从句 ⑥ 原因状语从句 ⑦ 结果状语从句 ⑧ 让步状语从句
主语从句: 在整个句子中充当主语。 引导连词：that, whether；what, which, who how, when, where, why, as … 主语从句通常不放在句首，一般把它移 到句子后面，前面用“it”作形式主语。 That she will go is certain. What we need is more time. How he became a scientist is known to all. Why he did it wasn’t quite clear. It is strange that he didn’t come yesterday.
由从属连词that引导的宾语从句 由从属连词 whether, if 引导的宾语从句
由连接代词 who, whom, whose, which， what 和 连接副词 where, how, why, when 引导的宾语从句
1) 从属连词that引导 That在从句中不作任何成分，只起连接主 句和从句的作用。在句子中常可省略。 I hope (that) you can come tomorrow. I think that he’ll be back in an hour.
2) 由连词 whether 或 if 引导 whether和if在从句中不作任何成分，只起 连接作用，但不能省略，译成“是否”。 I don’t know whether / if he’ll come back soon or not. He asked me whether / if I knew Mr Zhang.
3) 由连接代词what, which, who 或连接副词 how, when, where 等引导 连接代词或副词位于从句的前面，起连接 作用，从句用陈述句语序。它们在从句中充 当一个成分，并保留原有的疑问含义。 I don’t know who is there. He didn’t know whose pen it is. Tell me what he said. Do you know when he came back? I’m interested in how he did it.
当主句的谓语是系动词，而从句位于其后， 即在整个句子中充当表语，则该从句 叫做
表语从句。引导表语从句的词有连词 that, whether, as if；连接代词 what, which, who；连接副词 how, when, where, why；以 及由because 等引导。 结构：主语 + 连系动词 + 表语从句。常 用的这类连系动词有：be, seem, look等。 That is where he was born. It looked as if it was going to rain.
从句的作用是做主语、表语或宾语的同位 语，则叫做同位语从句。 一般跟在名词 idea, fact, news, hope, problem, suggestion, promise 等的后面。 引导同位语从句有连词 that；连接副词 how, when, where, why 等。 I have no idea when he will come back. We heard the news that our team had won. You have no idea how worried I was.
如果从句用于修饰主句的名词（主语、 宾语或表语），则其句子成分为定语，叫 做定语从句。 定语从句所修饰的词，叫做先行词，定 语从句放在先行词的后面。 引导定语从句的词，叫关系词。关系词 放在先行词和定语从句之间，起连接作用， 同时又是定语从句的一个成分。
? 指代人时，定语从句可以由关系代词who, whom, whose引导； ? 指代物时，可以由关系代词which, that 引导 ? 指代人和物时，由 that 引导； ? 指代时间，地点，原因时，可由关系副词 when, where, why 等引导。
a. who, whom, whose 指人，在定语从句中分别 作主语、宾语和定语。 This is the man who wants to see you. Who’s the man (whom) you just talked to? Is this the girl whose mother is a singer? b. which 指物，在定语从句中作主语或宾语。 A plane is a machine which can fly. The film (which) we saw last night was funny. c. that 指物，也指人，在从句中作主语或宾语。 Do you see the children that are playing baseball? The letter (that) I received yesterday was from my mother.
关系副词的用法 引导定语从句的关系副词，在从句中分别 起时间、地点和原因状语的作用。在意义上 常常相当于一个“介词+ which”结构。 I’ll never forget the day when / on which I joined the Party. Summer is the season when / in which many people often go swimming. This is the house where / in which we lived for ten years. Tell me the reason why / for which you went there.
1. 时间状语从句 常用引导词：when, as, while, before, after, until, whenever, since, as soon as 等 特殊引导词：the day, the minute, the moment, the second, every time, directly, immediately; no sooner … than, hardly …when, scarcely … when E.g. : We can leave when you are ready.
I didn’t realize how special my mother was until I became an adult. While John was watching TV, his wife was cooking. The children ran away from the orchard the moment they saw the guard. I’ll tell you directly he comes. Tell me immediately you have any news. No sooner had I arrived home than it began to rain. I had
hardly left when the quarrel started.
2. 地点状语从句 常用引导词：where 特殊引导词：wherever, anywhere, everywhere Generally, air will be heavily polluted where there are factories. Wherever you go, you should work hard. 注意： 不要同where引导的定语从句混淆： We shall go where working conditions are difficult. We shall go to the place where working conditions are difficult.
3. 方式状语从句 (位于主句之后) 常用引导词：as, as if / though (可用虚拟语气也可用陈述语气) 特殊引导词：the way, how When in Rome, do as the Roman do. She behaved as if she were the boss. Sometimes we teach our children the way our parents have taught us. I shall wear my coat how I like.
4. 原因状语从句 常用引导词：because, since, as (语气由强到弱) 特殊引导词：considering that, seeing (that), now (that) He didn’t come because he was ill. Now (that) everybody has come, let’s begin our conference. Considering that he is no more than 12 years old, his height of 1.80 m is quite remarkable. Since you are very busy, I’ll do it by myself.
5. 结果状语从句 常用引导词：so that, so…that, such …that, He drove so carelessly that his car crashes into a tree. She was such a nice girl that everyone liked her. 6. 目的状语从句 常用引导词：so that, in order that，that 特殊引导词：lest, in case, for fear that /of， in the hope that, on purpose that I got up very early so that I could catch the early train. Take your raincoat in case it rains/ (should) rain.
常用引导词：if, unless, 特殊引导词：in case, as / so long as, only if, on condition that, providing / provided that, suppose / supposing that
We’ll start our project if the president agrees. You will certainly succeed so long as you keep on trying. Provided that there is no opposition, we shall hold the meeting here.
常用引导词：though, although, even if / though 特殊引导词：as, while, no matter what / who whatever, wherever, whenever, however The old man always enjoys swimming even though the weather is rough. No matter how hard he tried, he could not change her mind. He won’t listen whatever you may say.
由as引导的让步状语从句，须将作表语的形容 词或者名词(前面无冠词)，表示程度的副词(如 much)，动词原形放在句首，构成部分倒装。 Much as I respect him, I can’t agree to his proposal. Child as he is, he knows much about his family. Try as he might, he failed a second time.
9. 比较状语从句 常用引导词：as (同级比较) as…, not so …as…; than (不同程度的比较) 特殊引导词：the more … the more …, A is to B what / as X is to Y; no …more than The house is three times as big as ours. The more you exercise, the healthier you will be. Food is to men what oil is to machine. 食物之于人，犹如油之于机器。 He is taller than I / me.
当 as 或 than 引导的从句的主语为人称代词 时，可以用主格也可以用宾格。
1 Join the sentences with the words in the box.
although when because which that who
Piano is a word. It was originally borrowed from Italian. → Piano is a word which was originally borrowed from Italian.
1. English borrowed many French words. The French became the rulers of Britain in 1066. → English borrowed many French words when / because the French became the rulers of Britain in 1066.
2. French was the language of Britain after 1066. People still spoke English in their homes.
→ Although French was the language of Britain after1066, people still spoke English in their homes.
3. Many words connected with mathematics and chemistry came from Arabic. There was a great knowledge of maths and chemistry in Arabic countries.
→ Many words connected with mathematics and chemistry came from Arabic because there was a great knowledge of maths and chemistry in Arabic countries.
4. The Europeans borrowed many words from the local people. The people were already living in America. → The Europeans borrowed many words from the local people who were already living in America. 5. People don’t realise. Languages borrow words from each other all the time. → People don’t realise that languages borrow words from each other all the time. For more exercises, click here.
中考链接 B 1. (2010 .河北中考) There are lots of things ____ I need to prepare before the trip. A.Who B. that C. whom D. whose A 2. (2010.自贡中考) Jim dislikes people ______talk much but never do anything. A. who B. whom C. whose 3.（2010南京中考）—I hear Sam has gone to Qingdao for his holiday. A --Oh, how nice! Do you know when he_______? A. Left B. was leaving C. has left D. had left
4. (2010.衢州中考)We are trying to help those C lost their parents in Yushu, children _____ Qinghai Province. A.which B. when C. who D. whose A 5. (2010.长沙中考) Do you know the girl _______ is singing in the classroom? A. who B. which C. when For more exercises, click here.
2 Complete the sentences so that they are true for you.
1. Lao She is the author who … 2. I enjoy/ don’t enjoy learning English, although… 3. I often/ never speak English outside school because… 4. If you want to improve your spoken English, you should really… 5. I started learning English when…
3 Read your answers to Activity 2 and answer these questions.
a. Which sentence tells you about a time? 5 b. Which sentence gives a reason? 3 c. Which sentence gives advice for a possible situation? 4 d. Which sentence gives an opposite idea? 2 e. Which sentence describes someone in more detail? 1
4 Work in pairs. Read the reports and discuss the questions.
1. Which student has to try very hard to do something? What does the student need to work on? Ned needs to work on his handwriting. 2. What does Toby enjoy? Does he like schoolwork as much as this, or less that this?
oys sport and he likes schoolwork less than it.
3. Who has done very well in English? How well? Meg. Extremely well. 4. Is Meg naturally clever? Yes. But she is also very interested in English. 5. What does Ned need to do in order to get better at something? He needs to practise every day.
5 Complete the sentences and give advice.
1. If you want to improve your listening skills … Listen to some real English on TV or radio every day 2. learning English requires … a lot of hard work 3. You’ll achieve good results if … you work hard 4. Simple way to remember vocabulary is … To learn words that go together at the same time.
5. Do you forget words as soon as you learn them? You should ... keep writing them down and saying them 6. Even though you don’t understand much, you should... keep trying 7. to make progress in speaking skill, practise…
talking in English with your friends 8. you might make mistakes, but if you make an effort, people… won’t mind
Read the passage and choose the correct answer. Keys:
1. 2. 3. 4.
d a b c
1. communicate with sb 与某人进行交流 It is difficult to communicate with him. communicate (v.) communication (n.) 2. either… or… 或者??或者?? 要么??要么?? 遵循就近原则，谓语动词决定于最靠近谓 语的词。 Either you or he plays the role as a king. There is either a chair or two desks in the room.
3. there are … being done 有??正在被做 4. look into the future 展望未来 look into… 仔细察看，调查，研究 The police has begun to look into the reason for the accident.
look at look for look up look out 看??,观察?? 找??,寻找?? 查找??,查询?? 小心
5. express an interest in sth / doing sth 对…… 产生兴趣, 对……表现出兴趣 They expressed an interest in reading the book in detail. 6. not …at all 一点也不
7 Listen to the advertisement and say what it is for.
a) An English learning website
b) An English magazine
c) An English language school course
8 Listen again and answer the questions.
1.What can most students of English find
quite easily, to help them practise their
English? Books, CDs and computer courses. 2. Which important kind of practice is more
difficult to find? Speaking practice.
3. What has been developed to help these students get the practice they need? An online course in conversation. 4. How can a student be sure he / she will get a lot of speaking practice this way? Because there are only four students and one teacher per class. 5. Does a student need to buy Skype, an International program, before being able to join the course? Yes.
Around the w rld
Read and answer the questions.
1. Why have people been inventing language? To bring world peace. 2. What is Esperanto based on? Latin, German and Greek vocabulary.
Making a list of tips for learning English
9 Work in group and talk a
bout what problems you have in learning English.
? Reading ? Writing ? Listening ? Speaking ? Vocabulary ? Grammar ? Cultural knowledge
10 Give tips for solving the problems. 11 Make a list of the tips and present them on a poster for others to read.
Finish the exercises in the workbook Ex. 1, 2, 3 & 5.