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【英语】初中英语语法专项名词(讲义)

发布时间:2014-01-16 17:03:33  

初中英语语法专项名词(讲义)

一、名词(n.) 表示人、事物或抽象概念的名称的词

(一)名词的分类

名词分为普通名词和专有名词,其中普通名词包括可数名词和不可数名词,可数名词可用作单数,也可用作复数。可数名词包括个体名词(表示一类人或物的个体。如:boy,desk,cat,window)和集体名词(由若干个体组成的集合体。如:family,class,police)。不可数名词包括物质名词(表示无法分为个体的实物。如:water,paper,silk,money)和抽象名词(表示性质、行为、状态、感情或其它抽象概念。如:work,happiness,music,difficulty,housework)专有名词表示个人、地方、机构、组织等。如:Tom,the Great Wall,the Spring Festival,France,the United States)

(二)名词的数

1.可数名词有单数和复数两种形式,其复数形式的构成主要有以下几种:

(1)一般情况下,在词尾加s. eg.book——books,dog——dogs,pen——pens,boy——boys

(2)以s,x,ch,sh结尾的词名词变复数时,要在词尾加es.

eg.beach—beaches,brush—brushes,bus—buses,box—boxes(es读音为〔iz〕

(3)以“辅音字母+y”结尾的名词,先变y为i,再加es.

eg.city——cities, family——families,

(注:以“元音字母+y”结尾的词,直接在词尾加-s.eg.boys,holidays,days)

(4)以元音字母o结尾的名词,变复数时情况如下:

①加eg.tomato—tomatoes,potato—potatoes ②结尾是两个元音字母的加s,eg.zoo—zoos,radio——radios ③某些外来词变复数时词尾加s,eg. piano—pianos

④一些名词的缩写形式变复数时,词尾加s, eg.photo(photograph)——photos,kilo(kilogram)kilos ⑤zero变复数时,既可加s,也可加 eg.zeros/zeroes

(5)以f或fe结尾的名词变复数时,先把f或fe变为v,再加es.

eg.wife——wives,leaf-leaves,half——halves, knife—knives,thief——thieves(res读音为[vz]

妻子骑牛拿起刀, wife--wives; calf---calves; knife----knives;

追得贼狼满街跑, thief---thieves; wolf----wolves

碰倒架子丧己命, shelf---shelves; self---selves; life----lives

手帕树叶半空飘. leaf----leaves half----halves

(6)有些名词由单数变复数时,不是在词尾加s或es,而是变换其中的字母。eg.man——men,woman——women,policeman——policemen, Englishman——Englishmen,Frenchman——Frenchmen, foot——feet, tooth——teeth, child——children,mouse—mice,Ox—Oxen(公牛)

(7)还有一些名词的单数和复数形式相同。 eg.Chinese,Japanese,sheep,deer,fish works

(8)另一些名词本身即是复数形式,不可用作单数。 eg,people,police,trousers,pants,clothes

另外,①当一个名词作定语修饰另一个名词时,这个名词一般用单数。

eg.an apple tree,five apple trees, a girl friend,two girl friends,a twin sister

但是,当man和woman作定语修饰复数名词时,就要用其复数形式。 eg.two men teachers,three women doctors ②可用“量词+of+名词复数”这一结构表示可数名词的数量。eg.a room Of students,two boxes Of pencils

2.不可数名词一般没有复数形式,它的“量”的表示方式如下。

(1)表不定数量时,一般用much,(a)little,a lot of/lots of,some,any等词修饰。

(2)表确定数量时,一般用“数词+量词+of+不可数名词。如:two/three/…+量词复数十of+不可数名词。 eg.a bag Of rice,two glasses Of milk,four bottles Of water

3.有些名词既可作可数名词也可作不可数名词,但词义有所不同。

eg: fruit水果——fruits表示不同种类的水果;food食物——foods各种食品;fish鱼——fishes鱼的种类;drink饮料、酒——a drink一杯/一份饮料、一杯酒; cloth布——,a cloth桌布、抹布; sand沙——sands沙滩; tea茶——a tea一杯茶;chicken鸡肉——a chicken小鸡;orange橘汁——an orange橘子; glass玻璃——a glass玻璃杯,glasses眼镜; paper纸——a paper试卷、论文;wood木头——a wood小森林;room空间、余地——a room房间

(三)名词的所有格(表示人或物的所属关系)

(1)有生命的名词所有格以及表示时间、距离、城镇、国家等的名词所有格。

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①不是以s结尾的名词变成所有格时,在词尾加’s. eg.Mike’s watch;Women’s Day

②以s结尾的名词变成所有格时,只加’。 eg.teachers’office,students’rooms

③两个或两个以上名词并列,表示共同所有,只需在最后一个名词后加’s.

eg.Tom and Mike’s room汤姆和迈克的房间(表示汤姆和迈克共有一间房)

④两个或两个以上名词并列,表示分别所有,需在几个名词后都加’s.

eg.Mary’s and Jenny’s bikes玛丽和詹妮的自行车(表示玛丽和詹妮各自的自行车)

⑤在表示“店铺,某某家,诊所”的名词所有格后面,一般省去被修饰的名词。

at his brother’s at the doctor’s at the barker’s at Mr read’s

⑥ 用所有格表示时间或距离的方法:ten minutes’ drive十分钟车程,a month’s holiday一个月的假期

⑦用所有格表示节日的方法:Teachers’ Day, Children’s Day.需要注意的是除了父亲节和母亲节其他节日我们都用名词复数的所有格表示,因为爸爸妈妈每个人就只有一个所以不用复数,Mother’s Day, Father’s Day

(2)无生命的事物的名词所有格常用of结构 eg.a map of China,the beginning of this game,the door of the room

(3)特殊形式

①可用’s和of短语表示的名词所有格

eg.the boy’s name=the name Of the boy(男孩的名字) the dog’s legs=the legs of the dog(狗的腿)

China’s population=the population Of China(中国的人口) China’s capital=the capital of China(中国的首都) ②双重所有格

eg.a fiend of my mother’s我妈妈的一个朋友 a picture of Tom’s汤姆的一张图片

(四)名词作主语时的主谓一致

(1).如主语是单数,后跟with,together with, as well as,like,but,except等引导的短语时,谓语动词仍用单数形式. Li Hua with me often goes to the cinema. The woman with two children is coming here.

(2).复数形式单数内容的名词作主语, 谓语动词用单数形式.

The news is surprising. Maths is an important subject.

(3). 单数形式复数内容的名词作主语, 谓语动词用复数形式.

The police have caught the thief. The people there are very kind.

(4).一些集体名词如family,class,team等作主语时,若强调整体, 谓语动词用单数形式, 若强调个体, 谓语动词用复数形式.

His family is not a large one.他家不是个大家庭。Her family are watching TV.他全家人在看电视。

The team is playing very well.这个队打得很出色。

The team are all famous players in our country.全体队员都是我国有名的运动员。

(5).表示时间,金钱,距离的名词加s后,应视为一个整体,故谓语动词用单数形式.

Two hours is enough for us to get there One hundred dollars is enough.

Five kilometers is a long way for the childern.

(6).复数名词shoes,trousers,glasses等由pair修饰时, 谓语动词的单复数形式要由pair决定.

The pair of shoes looks nice. That two pairs of trousers are both too long.

(7)由and连接两个或两个以上的名词作主语时,如表示整体概念, 谓语动词用单数形式. 若表示个体概念, 谓语动词用复数形式. My old friend and classmate has just come back from abroad.我的老校友刚从国外回来.

The singer and dancer is to attend our English evening.那位歌唱家兼舞蹈家将参加我们的英语晚会.

(8)“The number of +复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。

“A number of +复数名词” 作主语时,谓语动词要用复数形式。

(9)neither…nor ;either…or… ; not only…but also等连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词要遵循就近原则。

(10)of + 抽象名词 =形容词be of importance= be important

2.不可数名词“量”的表示方法

在英语中,不可数名词如果要表示“量”的概念,可以用以下两种方法:

(1)用much, a little, a lot of/lots of, some, any等表示多少,例如:

The rich man has a lot of money. There is some milk in the bottle. Is there any water in the glass?

I don't like winter because there's too much snow and ice.

(2)用a piece of 这类定语,例如:a piece of paper a piece of wood a piece of bread

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a bottle of orange a glass of water(milk) a cup of tea a cup of tea a bag of rice three bags of rice 如果要表示“两杯茶”、“四张纸”这类概念时,在容器后加复数,例如:

two cups of tea four pieces of paper three glasses of water

不可数名词也可用a lot of, lots of, some, any, much等来修饰。

初中英语语法专项习题1-名词

1.A. makes a few mistake B. made a few mistakes C. made few mistakes D. makes few mistake

( ) 2 We need some more____. Can you go and get some, please?A. potato B. potatos C. potatoes D. potatoe

( ) 3 _____are____for cutting things.A. Knife/used B. Knives/used C. Knife/using D. Knives/using

( ) 4 What big____ the tiger has!A. tooth B. teeth C. tooths D. toothes

( ) 5 Please remember to give the horse some tree___.A. leafs B. leaves C. leaf D. leave

( ) 6 -Can we have some ___?-Yes, please.A. banana B. oranges C.apple D. pear

2( ) 1 They got much ___ from those new books.A. ideas B. photos C. information D. stories

( ) 2 He gave us____ on how to keep fit.A. some advices B. some advice C. an advice D. a advice

( ) 3 When we saw his face, we knew___ was bad.A. some news B. a news C. the news P. news

( ) 4 What___ lovely weather it is!A. / B. the C. an D. a

3( ) 1 -Would you like___tea?-No, thanks. I have drunk two____.

A. any, bottles of orange B. some, bottles of orange C. many, bottles of oranges D. few, bottle of oranges

( ) 2 He is hungry. Give him ___ to eat.

A. two breads B. two piece of bread C. two pieces of bread D. two pieces of breads

( ) 3 It really took him:___ to draw the nice horse.A. sometimes B. hour C. long time D. some time

( ) 4 I would like to have___.

A. two glasses of milk B. two glass of milk I C. two glasses of milks D. two glass of milks

( ) 5 Can you give me ____?A. a tea B. some cup of tea C. a cup tea D. a cup of tea

( ) 6 Please give me ___ paper. A. one B. a piece C. a D. a piece of

( ) 7 John bought___for himself yesterday.

A. two pairs of shoes B. two pair of shoe C. two pair of shoes D. two pairs shoes

4( ) 1 -How many ____ have you got on your farm?-I've got five.A. sheeps B. sheep C. pig D. chicken

( ) 2 Some ___ came to our school for a visit that day.A. Germans B. Germen C. Germany D. Germanies

( ) 3. A group of______ will visit the museum tomorrow. A. Hungarian B. Australian C. JapaneseD. American 5( ) 1 This table is made of___.A. many glass B. glasses C. some glasses D. glass

( ) 2 -What would you like to have for lunch, sir?-I'd like____. !

A. chicken B. a chicken C. chickens D. the chicken

( ) 3 Children should make____ for old people in a bus.A. room B. a room C. rooms D. the room

6( ) 1 Tables are made of___.A. wood B. some woods C. wooden D. woods

( ) 2 I wonder why ______ are so interested in action (武打片) films.

A. people B. peoples C. the people D. the peoples

( ) 3I have read____ of the young writer.A. works B. work C. this works D. the works

7( ) 1 Let's meet at 7: 30 outside the gate of___?

A. the People's Park B. the Peoples' Park C. the People Park D. People's Park

( ) 2 ___ Chinese people are ___ hard working people.A. /; a B. We; the C. The; the D. The; a

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A. policeman B. polices C. police D. peoples

8( ) 1 If these trousers are too big, buy a smaller____.A. set B. one C. piece D. pair

( ) 2 Last week I bought a TV____.A. pair . B. set C. piece D. block

( ) 3 There is a of wood left on the ground.A. cup B. piece , C. box D. pair

9( ) 1 There are sixty-seven___ in our school.

A. women's teacher B. women teachers C. woman teachers D. women teacher

( ) 2 There are five___in our factory.

A. woman driver B, women driver C. woman drivers D. women drivers

10( ) 1 They write most of their___ in English.

A. business letter B. business letters C. businesses D. businesses letters

( ) 2 We came to a ___ at last .and went in.

A. watch shop B. watches shop ,'C. watching shop D. watchs shop

( ) 3 This shop sells apples, bananas and things like these. It's a___.

A. food shop B. book shop C. fruit shop D. vegetable shop

( ) 4 She broke a___while she was washing up.

A. glass of wine B. glass for wine C. glass wine D. wine glass

( ) 5 I've forgotten both of the____.A. room numbers . B. rooms number C. rooms numbers D. room number 11.1. September 10th is____in China.A. Teacher's Day B. Teachers'Day C. Teacher Day D. Teachers Day

( ) 2 -Is the broom under ____ desk? -No, it's under____.

A. the teacher's; my B. teacher's; mine C. teacher's; me D. the teacher's; mine

( ) 3 Excuse me, where is the___?A. men's room B. mens' room C. men's rooms D. men rooms

12( ) 1 The football under the bed is____.

A. Lily and Lucy B. Lily's and Lucy's C. Lily's and Lucy D. Lily and Lucy's

( ) 2 This is my____dictionary.A. sister Mary B. sister's C. sister, Mary's D. sister's Mary's

( ) 3 He went to ___ shop to buy a shirt.A. a tailor B. the tailor C. a tailors D. the tailors'

( ) 4 Joan is____.

A. Mary's and Jack sister B. Mary and Jack's sister C. Mary and Jack sister D. Mary's and Jack's sister 13( ) 1 In a few____ time, those mountains will be covered with trees. A. year B. years' C. year's D. years

( ) 2 It's about ___ walk from my house.A. ten minute B. ten minutes' C. ten minute's D. ten minutes

( ) 3 The post office is a bit far from here. It's about_____.

A. thirty minutes's walk B. thirty minute's walk C. thirty minutes' walk D. thirty minutes walk

( ) 4 Half___ telephone calls are made in English. A. the world B. world C. the world's D. world's

14( ) 1 ____ face to the south.

A. Windows of the room B. The windows of the room C. The room's windows D. The windows in room

( ) 2 Please take two___.A. picture of the park B. pictures of the park C. the pictures of a park D. picture of a park

( ) 3 The workers are repairing___.

A. the roof of the house B. a roof of the house C. roof of the house D. this roof of house

15( ) 1 Miss Smith is a friend of____.A. Mary's mother's B. Mary's mother C. mother's of Mary D. Mary mothers 4

( ) 2 This is a book of ___.A. Tom B. Tom's C. her D. him

( ) 3 The post card is sent by ____.

A. a friend of my father B. a friend of my father's C. my father friend D. my father friend's

16( ) 1 Sydney is a city of___.A. America B. Germany C. Australia D. Japan

( ) 2 My father likes buying us ___.A. cars B. flowers C. peasants D. presents

( ) 3 In England, the last name is the ___.A. full name B. family name C. middle name D. given name

( ) 4 Mr Gao is a teacher. He works in a new____.A. shop B. school C. factory D. hospital

17( ) 1 My father is a____. He works in a hospital.A. teacher B. doctor C. farmer D. soldier

( ) 2 -Which animal lives only in China?-The____.A. tiger B. monkey C. panda D. elephant

( ) 3 April come before___and after___.A. March; May B. May; MarchC. June; May D. March; February

( ) 4 Which of the following is right?

A. China has a large population. B. China has much population.

C. China has many populations. D. China has a great deal of population.

( ) 5 Please do like this. Fold the paper____ and cut along the fold.A. into pieces B. in half C. on halves D. to half

参考答案:

1. 1-7 C C B B B B C 2. 1-4 C B C A 3. 1-7 B C D A D D A 4. 1-4 B A A C

5. 1-3 D A A 6. 1-3 A A D 7. 1-3 A D C 8. 1-3 D B B 9. 1-3 B D B

10. 1-5 B A C D A 11. 1-3 B D A 12. 1-4 D C C B13. 1-4 B B C C

14. 1-3 B B A 15. 1-3 A B B 16. 1-4 C D B B 17. 1-6 B C B A B D

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