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修辞反语

发布时间:2014-02-03 13:38:16  

英汉修辞对比研究 第十六讲

Irony 反语

Warm-up Exercises
? Oh yes, he was a very decisive man, almost as decisive as Hamlet, the Prince of Denmark. ? Did he speak at the discussion? Sure he did. He was as eloquent as a Buddhist statue. ? His room was surprisingly clean and tidy. It was almost as clean as a pigsty. ? Many people are just as original as parrots. ? The slice of meat was so thick that it was quite transparent.

Definition
A figure of speech in which the intended meaning is the
opposite of that expressed by the words used; usually taking the form of sarcasm or ridicule in which laudatory expressions are used to imply condemnation or contempt. ----Oxford English Dictionary

A method of humorous or subtly sarcastic expression in which the intended meaning of the words used is the direct opposite of their usual sense. ----Webster’s New World Dictionary

定义
? 故意使用与本意恰恰相反的词语或句子来 表达本意的一种修辞手法。

? 是一种富有幽默感或精妙地挖苦人的表达 方式,其所用是词语要表达的意义与这些 词语的通常意义刚好相反。

反语的修辞作用
? 反语是对语言常态的一种改变,所以它引人注 目,发人深思
? 在特定的语言环境中,它比正面表达更鲜明、 更深刻、更有情趣、更有力量,在表露强烈的 爱憎情感上有其独到之处 ? 运用反语可使语言形式富于变化,避免呆板, 使语言生动活泼,饶有情趣

反语辞格佳例赏析
【例 1】The virtuous, dignified bishop has four illegitimate children. 【译文】那个品德高尚、威严的主教有四个私生子。 【例 2】We are lucky. It’s the other side on the thirteenth of December. That makes us feel real good. 【译文】我们很幸运。到达彼岸的那一天是12月13号,那时我们 真的感到很愉快。 【例3】What a noble illustration of the tender laws of his favored country!----they let the paupers go to sleep! 【译文】他们竟然让穷人去睡觉-----这是一个多么高尚的例证,说 明他那行善的国家的法律是多么的仁慈。

【例 4】It would be a fine thing indeed not knowing what time it was in the morning. 【译文】要是早晨不知道是什么时间那才妙了呢! 【例 5】Slowly the old lady stooped to pick it (check) up, her lovely present. With trembling fingers she tore it into little bits. 【译文】老太太慢慢地弯下腰,把支票从地上捡起来。她的礼物, 好一个礼物!她用颤抖的手指把它撕得粉碎。 【例 6】“Could you wait a few days for the money? I haven’t any small change about me.” “Oh, you haven’t? Well, of course I know that gentlemen like you carry only large notes.” 【译文】“我过几天再付钱行吗?我身边没有零钱。” “啊,是吗?哦,当然啦,我知道像您这样的绅士身上 是 只带大票子的。”

【例 6】

He was such a marvelous teacher that whenever he recognized a spark of genius you could be sure he’d water it. 【译文】他是个了不起的老师,如果他发现了一点天才的火花, 你可以相信他一定会把它浇灭。 【例 7】 The Chinese should thank Acheson also because he has fabricated wild tales about modern Chinese history. 【译文】中国人民之所以应该感谢艾奇逊,是因为他胡诌了一大 篇中国近代史。 【例 8】He tried to soldiering for two weeks with a motley band of Confederate guerrillas who diligently avoided contact with the enemy. Twain quit after deciding, “…I knew more about retreating than the man that invented retreating.” 【译文】他当了为期两周的邦联杂牌军,这些杂牌军拼命地避免 与敌人交战。吐温在决定开小差时说道:“我学到的退却的知 识要比发明退却的人知道的还要多。

【例 8】“It’s no use going to see little Hans in winter,” the miller used to say to his wife. “When people are in trouble we must leave them alone and not bother them, that is my idea of friendship and I am sure I am right. So I shall wait till spring comes, and then I shall visit him and he will give me a large bouquet of primrose, and that will make him very happy.” “You think so much about others,” said his wife. “It’s pleasure to hear what you say about friendship. I am sure the priest himself cannot say such beautiful things as you do, though he lives in a three-storeyed house, and wear a gold ring on his little finger!” ----Oscar Wilde: The Devoted Friend

【译文】“冬天到小汉斯那儿去没用,”磨坊主常常对他的妻子说。 “人们有困难的时候,我们不要去搭理他们,不要去打扰他们。 这是我对友谊的看法,而且我相信我的看法是正确的。所以我要 等到春天来了,再去看他。那时他会给我一大束樱草花,这会使 他感到很愉快。 “你为别人想得真多,”他妻子说。“听你谈论友谊真是件 愉快的事。我相信牧师也不能像你一样讲出这么美丽动人的道理, 虽然他们住三层的楼房,小拇指上还带着金戒指。” 【例 9】“The moon,” writes Lawrence, “certainly isn’t a snowy cold world, like a world of our own gone cold. Nonsense, it is a globe of dynamic substance, like radium or phosphorus, coagulated upon a vivid pole of energy.” The defect of this statement is that it happens to be demonstrably untrue. 【译文】“月亮,” 劳伦斯写道,“肯定不是一个像变冷了的地球似的 覆盖着积雪的冰冷的天体。那是胡说。月亮是具有动力的物质, 如镭或磷,在充满活力的天极上凝结而成的球体。” 这种说法 的缺点就在于凑巧可以证明它是错误的。

【例10】For instance the nuns who never take a bath without wearing a bathrobe all the time, when asked why, since no man can see them, the

y reply, “Oh, but you forget the good God.” Apparently they conceive the Deity as a peeping Tom, whose omnipotence enables Him to see through bathroom walls, but who is foiled by bathrobes. This view strikes me as curious. 【译文】譬如说那些修女,她们洗澡时总是穿着浴衣。当有人提 出既然没有男人能看见她们时,为什么要穿呢?她们的回答是: “喔,但你们忘记了善良的上帝。” 显然,她们把上帝想像成 爱偷窥的汤姆了。上帝是万能的,他可以透过澡堂的墙壁看见 里面的活动,却在一层薄薄的浴衣前面毫无办法。这种看法令 我惊讶。

【例11】If people keep telling you to quit smoking cigarette, don’t listen…They are probably trying to trick you into living. (American Cancer Society) 【译文】如果有人苦口婆心地劝你戒烟,别理他……他们大概是 想骗你多活几年。 【例12】You have got us into a nice mess. 【译文】 你已经时使我们处境很妙了。 【例13】He was sage indeed. 【译文】他的确很明智。(他一点都不明智。) 【例14】This hard-working boy seldom reads more than an hour per week. 【译文】这个“勤奋”读书的学生每周只读一小时的书。 【例15】This student plays football all day long during the time of examination. What a diligent student he is! 【译文】这个学生在考试期间整天踢足球。他真是够勤奋的了!

【例16】His designs were strictly honourable, as the saying is; that is, to rob a lady of her fortune by way of marriage. 【译文】正如成语所说:他打的算盘的确令认可敬可佩----竟然借 结婚之名抢走一个女人的财产。 【例17】I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year lod a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that will equally serve in a fricassee or a ragout…. I grant this food will be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for landlords, who, as they have already devoured most of the parents, seem to have the best title to the children…. Those who are more thrifty…may flay the carecass; the skin of which artificicially dressed will make admirable gloves for ladies, and summer boots for fine gentlemen.

【译文】我在伦敦认识了一位知识广博的美国人,他使我相信, 一个哺养得好的、健康的小孩子,在一岁的时候,是一种非常 美味可口、营养价值极高、极有益于健康的卫生食品。或炖、 或烤、或烘、或煮,无不相宜。我毫不怀疑,切碎煨食或作杂 烩,也是佳肴。…… 我承认这种食品也许贵些,因此对于地主是很适合的,因 为他们已经吞食了大多数孩子的父母,他们似乎最有资格吃这 些孩子。…… 那些节省一些的人们……还可以把婴孩尸体的皮剥下来

, 经过加工处理,可以制成贵妇们用的高级手套和上等绅士穿的 皮鞋。 ----J. Swift: A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country

Irony与Innuendo, Sarcasm的区别
? Innuendo 是“a mild from of irony, hinting in a rather roundabout way at something disparaging or uncomplimentary to the person or subject mentioned”. 汉语称之为 “暗讽”,就 是用婉转的语气说反话。例如: ----It’s rather cold today, isn’t it? ----But the weatherman said it would be warm. He must take his readings in a bathroom. ----今天够冷的,是吧? ----是的,但是天气预报员说今天很暖和。他一定是在浴室里采 集气候数据的。 After three days in Japan, the spinal column becomes extraordinarily flexible. 在日本呆上三天后,脊梁骨就会变得特别柔软灵活。 He is a man who is most dependable when are not in need. 你是一个在不需要的时候最可靠的人。

? While Innuendo is a mild form of Irony, Sarcasm is just the opposite. It attacks in a taunting and bitter manner, and its aim is to ridicule and wound the feelings of the subject attacked. ? Sarcasm可译为“讽刺”,但在汉语中没有与之相对应的辞格。 例如: Magnus: Frankly, I have been accustomed to regard your President as a statesman whose mouth was the most efficient part of his head. 马格纳斯:老实说,我经常以为你们的总统是这么一位政 治家:他的嘴是他头上最能干的部分。 Laws are like cobwebs, which may catch small flies, but let wasps and hornets break through. 法律就像蜘蛛网,它也许能捕捉到小苍蝇,却会让大黄蜂 逃之夭夭。

? Innuendo 和 Sarcasm的作用就是进行讽刺, 而Irony并非全是讽刺,有时是为了造成活泼的 调子和幽默诙谐的情趣。

? 三者在进行讽刺嘲弄时,程度会有所不同: Innuendo用委婉曲折、含蓄暗示的方法说反话, 以减少话语的刺激性,避免引起讽刺对象的感 伤和不快;而Sarcasm则直截了当,单刀直入, 是辛辣的讽刺、尖刻的挖苦,蓄意伤害讽刺对 象的感情。Irony基于两者之间。

The end


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