V – ing form
V-ing form 属于非谓语动词，分为 现在分词和动名词两种情况。形式上 一样，但用法功能不同。
“非谓语非谓语”, 就是不是谓语的动词 呗!
英语一句话只能有一个主谓结构 如果出现更多动词： ? 加连词（and / but / so…） She watched TV and ate snacks . ? 放入从句 She watched TV as he ate snacks. ? 变为非谓语动词
work-working study -studying do- doing 2.动词以不发音的e 结尾，去掉e,加 ing。如： like→liking make—making write—writing 3.以重读闭音节结尾末尾只有一个辅音，双写辅音字母再 加ing 。 set→setting run→running swim→swimming
begin→beginning forget→forgetting prefer→preferring 4.以ie结尾的变成y再加ing。如：
die-dying lie-lying tie-tying
二、V-ing形式的各种时态和语态: 时态 一般式 完成式 主动 doing having done
being done having been done
否定式：not doing sth. 复合式：one’s doing sth.
a. 一般式:V-ing 1.动词V-ing形式的一般式可用来泛指一 个动作，没有特别的时间意义。例如： Swimming is her favorite sport.
Learning is important to modern life.
Arguing about it is a waste of time .
Reading aloud is very helpful.
2. 动词V-ing形式的一般式可用来表示与谓语 动词同时发生的动作。
They went out of the classroom, talking and laughing. His father died, leaving him a large sum of money.
Knowing his address, I don’t still know how to go there .
He lay on the grass, staring at the sky for a long time.
3. 动词V-ing形式的一般式有时也可表示在 谓语动词的动作之前或之后发生的动作。
I remembered sending him an e-mail last week.
He suggested taking my daughter to the zoo the next Sunday. They forget planting trees here five years ago.
b.完成式: having done
1.动词V-ing形式的完成式表示一个已完成的动作，这个 动作发生或完成在谓语动词表示的动作之前。 Having lived in this city for three years, she knows it very well. 注意：在现代英语中，作宾语的动词V-ing形式的完成式 可用一般式来代替。 I really regretted missing such an exciting lecture. (=I rally regretted having missed such an exciting lecture.) We remembered seeing the film. (=We remembered having seen the film.)
c. V--ing的被动形式being done,表示它的逻辑 主语是动词-ing形式表示的动作的承受者。这 个动作通常是正在进行或是与谓语表示的动作 同时发生。
The question being discussed is very important.
I can’t stand being kept waiting.
d. having done的被动形式having been done表 示被动的动作在谓语表示的动作之前发生。 Having
been shown the lab, we were taken to see the school library.
e. ing form否定形式: not+ V-ing
His not coming made everyone present very disappointed. Not knowing his phone number, we don’t get in touch with him. Not finding the lost boy , they had to return to the home .
f.The function of V-ing
1.Learning a foreign language is very useful. ( 主语) 2.I enjoy learning English. (宾语)
3.We can learn a lot about what a person is thinking by watching his or her body language. (宾语)
4. The music sounds exciting.
5. My job is teaching.
6. There is a swimming pool in our school.
7.The boy standing there is a classmate of mine. (定语) 8.W watch the children diving into the water from the top board. (宾补) 9.Hearing a sound ,the baby stopped crying . (状语)
①直接置于句首 1) 捉弄别人是我们万万不能干的. Playing tricks on others is something we should never do． 2)学习新单词对我来说非常重要。 Learning new words is very important for me． 3)说比做容易。 Talking is easier than doing.
②用形式主语it，把真正的主语ing形式移置句尾。 但这种句子形式有一定的限制，作表语的只能 是某些形容词或少数名词。 和夏洛克争辩是没有什么用的。 It is useless trying to argue with Shylock． 这事值得去做。 It’s worth making the effort． 想再解释一次有好处吗? Is it any good trying to explainit again? 跟你在一起工作是令人愉快的。 It is pleasant working with you．
③在there be no+doing结构中作主语 这种结构的意思相当于“It is impossible to do…... 若要人不知，除非己莫为。 There is no hiding of evil but not to do it． 这种事开不得玩笑。 Here is no joking about such matter. 无法知道他什么时候离开 There was no knowing when he would leave.
+be +a waste of time doing ? 做……是浪费时间的 ? It is/was no good/use doing ? 做……是没益/用处的 ? It is/was hardly/scarcely worth doing ? 做……不值得 ? It is/was worth/worthwhile doing ? 做……是值得的 ? There is no doing ? 无法…… ， 不允许……
is no sense in doing ? 做……没有道理 ? There is/was no use doing ? 做……无意义 ? There is/was nothing worse than doing ? 没有比……更糟的 ? There is/was no point doing ? 做……无意义
is no point doing such a silly thing.
is no need to do sth 做……没必 要，在此句式中to do 不可换为doing..
is no need to tell her.
名词所有格构成。 ? 我姐姐病了，使我很担心。 ? My sister's being ill ma
de me worried.
being right doesn't necessarily mean my being wrong.
①只能后接动名词作宾语的动词，常见的有 avoid，consider，enjoy，keep，finish， suggest, appreciate, dislike，delay，escape， imagine，postpone, mind，miss，practise， excuse，fancy ,risk , cannot stand, give up， put off，cannot help，feel like等。如： ? 我不能不去。 ? I can’t avoid going． ? 你是否考虑过找一位挚友? ? Have you considered looking for one special friend?
只能用动词-ing形式(作宾语)的动词(短语)： 承认(admit)冒险(risk)别继续(keep)， 理解(understand)原谅(excuse)和感激(appreciate)； 推迟(delay)享受(enjoy)真可惜， 完成(finish) 想象 (imagine,fancy) 忙建议( suggest, advise )； 避免(avoid, escape)介意(mind)别延期(put off) ， 错过(miss)宽恕(forgive)不考虑(consider)； 允许(allow, permit)抵制(resist, stand)又放弃(give up) 坚持(insist on)练习(practise)要牢记。 The teacher suggested doing the experiment in another way. 老师建议我们换种方法来做实验。 Have you considered looking for a pen pal? 你是否考虑过找一位笔友？
1.作介词宾语 下列短语中的to都是介词， 所以后面跟名词或v-ing形式：
另外，几乎所有介词，都能用动词-ing形 式作宾语，其中很多都是固定搭配。例如： dream of doing 梦想 have difficulty /trouble(in) doing 在……有困难 succeed in doing 在……成功
difficulty trouble There is problem (in) / are/ fun doing I/we have pleasure a good time a hard time
look forward to 盼望, object to反对, pay attention to 注意, oppose to反对 get/be used to习惯于, devote to致力于 get down to着手, listen to be accustomed to习惯于，stick to坚持 apply oneself to致力于 contribute to 有助于 be related to与…有关
2. 在allow, advise, forbid, permit后直接 跟动名词作宾语，如果有名词或代词作 宾语，则构成“ allow／advise／forbid ／permit ＋名词／代词＋不定式（宾语 补足语）”之形式。如： We don't allow smoking here． We don't allow anybody to smoke here．
doing = 3. need, require, want “需要被” + ｛to be done eg: The TV set needs to be mended. = The TV set needs mending. doing = 4. begin, continue, hate, like, love + ｛to do would like/ love +_____ to do
5. 加to do 和 doing 意义不同的词： doing (1) forget/ regret/ remember+ ｛to do (2) go on to do / doing
(3) mean to do / doing
(4) stop to do / doing (5) try to do / doing (6) be used to do / doing used to do
3.动词need, require, want作“需要”解时， 后面接-ing分词或不定式的被动式。 如： The room wants cleaning/to be cleaned. 这个房间需要打扫。
1. Mark often attempts to escape ____ whenever he breaks traffic regulations. A. having been fined B. to h
ave been fined C. to be fined D. being fined 2. My wife said in her letter that she would appreciate ____ from you sometime. A. to have heard B. to hear C. for hearing D. hearing
3. The thief took away the woman’s wallet without____ A. being seen B. seeing C. him seeing D. seeing him
4. I’ve enjoyed ____ to talk with you. A. to be able B. being able C. to been able D. of being able 5. No one can avoid ____ by advertisements. A. to be influenced B. being influenced C. influencing D. having influence
6. Your shirt needs ____. You'd better have it done today. A. iron B. to iron C. ironing D. being ironed 7. You can’t help ____ commercials; every few minutes the program is interrupted to give you one advertisement or another. A. to hear B. to be heard C. hearing D. with hearing
8. He is very busy ____ his papers. He is far too busy ____ callers. A. to write; to receive B. writing; to receive C. writing; receiving D. to write; for receiving 9. Please stop ____, boys, I have something important to ____ you. A. saying; talk B. telling; say C. talking; speak D. talking; tell
10. “Why were you so late for work
today?”“____ to the office was
very slow this morning because of the traffic.” A. Driving C. To drive B. I drove D. That I drove
三. -ing形式作宾语补足语 1) 动词-ing形式作宾语补足语常放在宾语后 面，表示一个正在进行的主动性的动作。 When we returned to the school, we found a stranger standing at the entrance. 当我们回到学校时, 发现一个陌生人站 在大门口。
We found the snake eating the eggs. The boss kept them working 14 hours a day.
We listen to the birds singing in the tree .
I didn’t notice him waiting for at the school gate .
2. 能用-ing形式作宾语补足语的几类动词: 1) 表示感觉和心理状态的动词，常见的有look at, see, listen to，hear, feel, find, notice, observe等。如：
We saw a light burning in the window. I felt somebody patting me on the shoulder. Can you smell anything burning? As he spoke, he observed everybody looking at him curiously.
2) 表示让，使意义的动词，常见的有 have, set, keep, get, catch, leave等。 如： I won’t have you doing it like that. This set me thinking of my childhood. I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.
I can’t get the clock stopping again.
You won’t catch me doing that again.
3. see, hear, feel, watch等动词之后用-ing形 式和动词不定式作宾语补足语的区别： ① 前者表示动作正在进行，而后者表示 （或强调）动作从开始到结束的全过程。如: I saw the teacher go to the office . I saw the teacher going to the office. We hear her sing an English song . We hear her singing an English song .
能跟现在分词作宾语补足语的常见动 词有这些，看看有什么好方法可以将 它们记住：hear，listen to， make，let，
have，look at，see，watch， observe， notice，find ,feel。
1. When I put my hand on his chest, I could feel his heart still____. A. having beat B. beating C. beaten D. to beat 2. The sun ____ in the west looks even more beautiful. A. setting B. being set C. that setting D. to be set
3. The house ____ now is our library. A. repaired B. being repaired C. to be repaired D. which is repaired 4. —Who is the man talking to our headmaster? —A professor ___ a visit to our school. A. pays B. is paying C. paid D. paying
5.There was a terrible noise_______the sudden burst of light. A. followed B. following C. to be followed D.being followed
6.The ___ boys were last seen____ near the river. A. missing; playing B. missing; play C. missed; played D. missed; to play
7. Mr. Smith, ___of the ___speech, started to read a novel. (NMET2003)
A. tired; boring C. tired; bored
B. tiring; bored D. tiring; boring
8. The picture ___on the wall is painted by my nephew. A. having hung B. hanging C. hangs D. being hung
四. -ing形式作表语 （1） -ing形式作表语时放在系动词之后， 用来泛指某种动作或行为，以说明主语 的身份、性质或情况。如： Her hobby is painting. My job is looking after the children.
This story is very interesting. 这故事很有趣。
The problem is quite puzzling. 这个问题很令人
动词-ing形式可用在系动词后面作表语，说明主语的 性质或情况，多表示一般性的或抽象的行为而进行时态 表示主语正在做什么（动作在进行） 。 试比较： Mike is listening to music. 迈克正在听音乐。 (当前正在进行的动作) Mike’s favorite hobby is listening to music. 迈克最大的爱好是听音乐。 (说明主语的情况) Teachers’ job is teaching . The teacher is teaching the boy history .
①–ing分词作定语可用来说明被修饰的名词的用途和 性能。如： reading material 阅读材料 walking stick 手杖 fishing pole 鱼杆 flying suit 飞行服 writing table写字台 listening practice 听力训练 a walking stick ＝a stick for walking=a stick which is used for walking a washing machine=a machine for washing=a machine which is used for washing a reading room=a room for reading=a room which is used for readinga walking stick
②-ing分词作定语还可以表示所修饰的人或物的动作或状 态，在意思上接近一个定语从句，可以表示正在进行 的动作，也可表示经常性动作或当时的状态。如： developing countries = countries that are developing 发展中国家 an ordinary-looking house = a house that looks ordinary 看起来很普通
的房子 working people= people who are working 劳动人民
2. -ing形式短语作定语时, 放在所修饰的名 词之后, 并且在意思上相当于一个定语从 句。如：
They lived in a room facing the street. = They lived in a room that faces the street. The man standing there is Peter’s father. = The man who is standing there is Peter’s father.
3. -ing形式短语也可以用作非限制定语，相 当于一个非限制性定语从句，这时，它与 句子其他部分用逗号分开。如： His brother, working as a teacher, lives in Beijing. = His brother, who is working as a teacher, lives in Beijing. 他那个当教师的哥哥住在北京。
When they heard the news, they went wild with joy . = Hearing the news, they went wild with joy. When you see from the top of the hill, you will find the city really beautiful. = Seeing from the top of the hill, you will find the city really beautiful. Because you are a student, you should know how to behave. = Being a student, you should know how to behave.
Because the boy doesn’t finish his work ,he can’t go out as he planed. =Not finishing his work, the boy can’t go out as he planed. Because the computer has been used for a long time, it needs repairing. =Having been used for a long time, the computer needs repairing. As Tom listened to his walkman, he came in the room. =Listening to his walkman, Tom came in the room.
While many poets were visiting the tower, they wrote poems about it.
Visiting the tower _______________________, they wrote poems about it.
Since I have visited Mo Mountain many times, I am familiar with it. Having visited ______________ Mo Mountain many times, I am familiar with it.
Because it was built in 223AD, the Yellow Crane Tower has a long history.
Built in 223AD _______________________________, the Yellow Crane Tower has a long history.
Since Mo Mountain has been visited many times, it is familiar to me. Having been visited __________________ many times, Mo Mountain is familiar to me.
European football is played in more than 80 countries, ___ it
the most popular sport in the
world. (NMET 1998)
A. making C. made
B. makes D. to make
v-ing作状语可以表示时间, 原因, 结果,条 件, 行为方式或伴随动作等.
条件 Being poor, he couldn’t afford a TV set. 原因 Using your head, you’ll find a good way.
The child slipped and fell, hitting his head against the door. 结果 (When) Hearing the news, he got frightened. 时间
Knowing the answer, the boy raised his hand. 原因
对比：v-ing形式作状语，与主语之间是 主动 ____关系；v-ed作状语，与主语之间是被动 ____关系；不定式to do作状语， 目的、原因、结果 表示__________________.
eg: 他们走了进来，妻子们跟随在后。 followed They came in, ________ (follow) by their wives. eg: 他们跟着他们的妻子走了进来。 following T
hey came in, ________ (follow) their wives.
eg: 我们睡在一起以保持暖和。 to keep We slept together ______ (keep) warm.
eg: 从山上看这座城市非常壮观。 Seen _____ from the hill, the city looks magnificent.
-ing形式作状语时, 它的逻辑主语必须与主 句的主语是一致的。如果不一致要用独立 主格结构。例如：
Time permitting, I will pay a visit to the whole city. =if time permits, I will pay a visit to the whole city. (分词的逻辑主语是time , 而句子的主语是I , 两 者不构成主谓关系, 所以只能用独立主格结构, 也 就是给现在分词补充一个主语。)
Weather permitting, they’ll go for a walk along the river.
注意：V-ing 及其短语作定语相当于一个定 语从句；作状语则相当于一个状语从句。
动词ing形式的复合结构指动名词前有其逻辑主语。 复合结构通常由“物主代词、人称代词宾格、名词所 有格或者名词的普通格+动词ing”构成，在句子开头 时必须用物主代词和名词所有格，通常在句中作主语 和宾语。 His coming made us very happy. He was awakened by someone’s knocking at the door. I don’t mind your opening the window.
I enjoyed listening to John’s singing.歌。
现在分词的被动式 ? 现在分词的被动式表示一个被动动 作， 这个动作通常是正在进行的， 或是与谓语表示的动作同时发生。 ? That building being repaired is our dormitory. ? 正在维修的那幢楼是我们的宿舍。
often watch the trucks being loaded with coal. ? 我常常看卡车装煤。 ? Being asked to put on a performance , she refused. ? 有人请她表演一个节目，她拒绝了。
? 有时还有完成被动式 ? Having been asked to stay ,I couldn’t very well leave. ? 人家请我留下，我就不好离开了。 ? Having been given such a good chance , how could you let it slip away? ? 人家给了你这样一个好机会，你怎么轻易放过。
现在分词的否定式 not + V-ing ? 完成式的否定式 not + having done ? Not knowing how to dye the silk red , he went to her for help.
由于不知道怎样把丝绸染成红色，他去向她求 教。 ? Not having heard from her son for a long time , the mother worried a great deal.
现在分词和过去分词的区别主要表现在语态和 时间关系上。 ? 1 .语态上的不同： ? 现在分词表主动的意思，而由及物动词变来的 过去分词表示被动和完成的意思。 ? 试比较：
the exploiting classes 剥削阶级 （主动）
the exploited classses 被剥削阶级 （被动） ? a moving film 一部感人的影片（主动） ? a moved audience 受感
的，它们只表示一个完成的动作，没有 被动的意思。 ? the fallen leaves 落叶 ? the exploded bomb 爆炸了的炸弹 ? retired workers 退休工人 ? returned students 归国学生
is a developing country .(进行) ? America is a developed country .（完成） ? I heard someone opening the door. ? 我听见有人开门。 (进行) ? I heard the door opened. ? 我听见门给打开了。 （被动和完成）
时间关系上的不同： ? 一般说来，现在分词所表示的动作 往往正在进行，而过去分词所表示 的动作往往已经完成。试比较： ? the changing world ? 正在变化着的世界 ? the changed world ? 已经起了变化的世界
water 正在沸腾的水 ? boiled water 已经煮开过的水 （可 能是凉开水） ? developing countries 发展中国家 ? developed countries 发达国家 ? a falling leaf 正在落下的叶子 ? a fallen leaf 一片落叶
1.The students went out of the classroom, talking and laughing ________________（说说笑笑）(talk) followed by his girlfriend 2.He entered the room, _________________ (后面跟着女朋友）．(follow) doing the experiment 3.We saw the teacher___________________. （做实验）(do) blown down 4.The trees __________ (被吹倒的) in the storm have been moved off the road. (blow down)
1. The _______ girl sat in the corner, _______. A.frighten, crying B. frightened, crying C. frightened, cried D. frightening, crying Having been told 2.________________ many times , he still couldn’ t understand it. (tell) being built 3.The building ____________ (正在修建的) now will be a restaurant .(build) built 4. The building ______last year is a restaurant. (build)
waiting 1.He stood there______ (等待) for his mother . (wait) Having waited 2.____________ (等待) for two hours , he went away. (wait) being discussed 3. The question ____________（正在被讨论的） （discuss) now is important. spoken 4. What's the language ______ in Germany? (speak)
1.The Chinese are proud of the 29th Olympic held Games ________(举办) in Beijing in 2008. (hold)
2.The lecture was so ____ that we were all ____. A. inspiring, exciting B. inspired, exciting C. inspiring, excited D. inspired, excited Walking 3._______（走） in the fields, he could feel the warmth of spring. (walk) 4. I’ve never heard the song sung in English ______________ (用英语唱）(sing)
I．不改变原句意思，用-ing形式改写原句： 1. Why are you late? What’s your reason for _____ ________? 2. I suggest that the meeting should be put off till some other time. I suggest _______ _______ _______ _________ _______ till some other time. 3. He left the room. He didn’t say a word. He left the room without ______ ______ ________. 1.being late 2.the meeting being put off
3. saying a word
mother insisted that I should go on to college. My mother insisted on ____ ____ ____ _____ _____ . 5. As soon as I arrived home, I found they had left. On ______ ______, I found that they had left. 6. Would you mind if I lend this book to Tom first? Would you mind ____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ ______?
4.my going on to college 5. arriving home 6.my lending this book to Tom first
7. He broke the lock and the door was opened. He opened the door by ______ ______ _______. 8. I have troubled you. Excuse me for that. Excuse me for ______ _______ ________. 9. The large building which is being built down the street will be a hospital. The large building ______ ______ down the street will be a hospital.
7.breaking the lock 8.having troubled you 9.being built
10. He felt worn out. He went to bed at once. ______ _____ _____, he went to bed at once. 11. She hadn’t seen her mother for three years. She was shocked to see how old she had grown. _____ _____ _____ ____ ____for three years, she was shocked to see how old she had grown. 10. Feeling worn out 11. Not having seen her mother
1.他转过身时看到一只老虎朝他跑了过来。 He saw a tiger running towards him when he turned around . V-ing 作宾补 2.因为太激动，她无法入睡 。 Being excited, she couldn‘t sleep . V-ing 作状语 3.他们跟着汤姆爬到了山顶。 Following Tom,they climbed the top of the mountain . V-ing 作状语 4.我认识一个在那家公司上班的人。 I know a person working in that company .