6 A nation should require all of its students to study the same national curriculum until they enter college.
13 Universities should require every student to take a variety of courses outside the student's field of study.
24 The best way to teach is to praise positive actions and ignore negative ones. 教育的最佳方式是赞扬积极的行为，忽视消极的行为。
37 Society should identify those children who have special talents and provide training for them at an early age to develop their talents.
社会应该甄别那些天资聪颖的孩子，并且年幼的时候就开始提供训练培养它们的才能。 54 In order to become well-rounded individuals, all college students should be required to take courses in which they read poetry, novels, mythology, and other types of imaginative literature. 为了成为全面发展的个体，应该要求所有的大学生选择可以阅读诗歌、小说、神话等想象力文学的课程。
82 Colleges and universities should require their students to spend at least one semester studying in a foreign country.
142 Claim: Colleges and universities should specify all required courses and eliminate elective courses in order to provide clear guidance for students.
Reason: College students—like people in general—prefer to follow directions rather than make their own decisions.
15 Educational institutions should actively encourage their students to choose fields of study that will prepare them for lucrative careers.
20 Some people believe that college students should consider only their own talents and interests when choosing a field of study. Others believe that college students should base their choice of a field of study on the availability of jobs in that field.
35 Educational institutions should dissuade students from pursuing fields of study in which they are unlikely to succeed.
39 College students should be encouraged to pursue subjects that interest them rather than the courses that seem most likely to lead to jobs.
40 Claim: When planning courses, educators should take into account the interests and suggestions of their students.
Reason: Students are more motivated to learn when they are interested in what they are studying. 结论：在编制教学课程时，教育工作者应该考虑学生的兴趣和建议。
47 Educators should find out what students want included in the curriculum and then offer it to them.
51 Young people should be encouraged to pursue long-term, realistic goals rather than seek immediate fame and recognition.
90 Educators should take students' interests into account when planning the content of the courses they teach.
92 Educators should base their assessment of students' learning not on students' grasp of facts but on the ability to explain the ideas, trends, and concepts that those facts illustrate.
98 Educational institutions should actively encourage their students to choose fields of study in which jobs are plentiful.
3 Educational institutions have a responsibility to dissuade students from pursuing fields of study in which they are unlikely to succeed.
17 Formal education tends to restrain our minds and spirits rather than set them free.
30 Teachers' salaries should be based on their students' academic performance.
73 Colleges and universities should require all faculty to spend time working outside the academic world in professions relevant to the courses they teach.
81 All parents should be required to volunteer time to their children's schools.
95 All parents should be required to volunteer time to their children's schools.
57 The main benefit of the study of history is to dispel the illusion that people living now are significantly different from people who lived in earlier times.
74 Knowing about the past cannot help people to make important decisions today.
119 When old buildings stand on ground that modern planners feel could be better used for modern purposes, modern development should be given precedence over the preservation of
33 As we acquire more knowledge, things do not become more comprehensible, but more complex and mysterious.
48 Educators should teach facts only after their students have studied the ideas, trends, and concepts that help explain those facts.
87 Claim: Any piece of information referred to as a fact should be mistrusted, since it may well be proven false in the future.
Reason: Much of the information that people assume is factual actually turns out to be inaccurate. 结论：任何被称作事实的信息都应该被怀疑，因为它们很可能在将来被证明是错误的。 原因：很多被人们称作是事实的信息结果是错误的。
8 Claim: In any field—business, politics, education, government—those in power should step down after five years.
Reason: The surest path to success for any enterprise is revitalization through new leadership. 结论：如商业、政治、教育、政府，在任何领域中的掌权者应该在五年后就让位。 原因：对于任何机构，最可靠的成功途径是通过新领导阶层带来革新。
9 In any field of endeavor, it is impossible to make a significant contribution without first being strongly influenced by past achievements within that field.
任何研究领域，如果不首先接受该领域中过去成就的影响，就不可能会有意义重大的成功。 27 In any field of inquiry, the beginner is more likely than the expert to make important contributions.
61 People should undertake risky action only after they have carefully considered its consequences.
103 The best ideas arise from a passionate interest in commonplace things.
105 Claim: Imagination is a more valuable asset than experience.
Reason: People who lack experience are free to imagine what is possible without the constraints of established habits and attitudes.
143 No field of study can advance significantly unless it incorporates knowledge and experience from outside that field.
16 Some people believe that in order to be effective, political leaders must yield to public opinion and abandon principle for the sake of compromise. Others believe that the most essential quality of an effective leader is the ability to remain consistently committed to particular principles and objectives.
50 Government officials should rely on their own judgment rather than unquestioningly carry out the will of the people they serve.
60 Politicians should pursue common ground and reasonable consensus rather than elusive ideals. 政治家应该寻求共同点和理性的一致，而不是深奥的理想。
114 Any leader who is quickly and easily influenced by shifts in popular opinion will accomplish little.
141 It is more harmful to compromise one's own beliefs than to adhere to them.
19 Governments should focus on solving the immediate problems of today rather than on trying to solve the anticipated problems of the future.
政府应该把更多的精力放在解决当务之急上，而不是试图解决未来预期问题上。 62 Leaders are created by the demands that are placed on them.
94 The effectiveness of a country's leaders is best measured by examining the well-being of that country's citizens.
139 Claim: Major policy decisions should always be left to politicians and other government experts.
Reason: Politicians and other government experts are more informed and thus have better judgment and perspective than do members of the general public.
7 Some people believe that government funding of the arts is necessary to ensure that the arts can flourish and be available to all people. Others believe that government funding of the arts threatens the integrity of the arts.
80 Nations should suspend government funding for the arts when significant numbers of their citizens are hungry or unemployed.
23 Governments should place few, if any, restrictions on scientific research and development. 政府应该尽量不去限制科学研究和发展。
36 Governments should not fund any scientific research whose consequences are unclear. 政府不应该资助任何后果不明的科学研究。
12 Governments should offer a free university education to any student who has been admitted to a university but who cannot afford the tuition.
21 Laws should be flexible enough to take account of various circumstances, times, and places. 法律应该根据不同的环境、时期和地点而足够灵活。
65 Every individual in a society has a responsibility to obey just laws and to disobey and resist unjust laws.
89 Claim: Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system. Reason: Laws cannot change what is in people's hearts or minds.
69 Some people believe it is often necessary, even desirable, for political leaders to withhold information from the public. Others believe that the public has a right to be fully informed. 有些人认为政治领导向大众隐瞒信息是有必要的，甚至是有益的。也有人认为公众有知情权利。
104 To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards.
10 Nations should pass laws to preserve any remaining wilderness areas in their natural state, even if these areas could be developed for economic gain.
国家应该通过法令保护任何存留的原生态地区保持原状，即便这些地区可以用作商业开发。 31 Society should make efforts to save endangered species only if the potential extinction of those species is the result of human activities.
63 There is little justification for society to make extraordinary efforts—especially at a great cost in money and jobs—to save endangered animal or plant species.
125 Some people claim that a nation's government should preserve its wilderness areas in their natural state. Others argue that these areas should be developed for potential economic gain. 有些人认为，国家应该通过法令保护任何存留的原生态地区保持原状。也有人认为，这些地区应该用作商业开发。
1 As people rely more and more on technology to solve problems, the ability of humans to think for themselves will surely deteriorate.
26 The luxuries and conveniences of contemporary life prevent people from developing into truly strong and independent individuals.
43 The increasingly rapid pace of life today causes more problems than it solves. 如今节奏日益加快的生活解决的问题，远不及带来的麻烦。
101 Although innovations such as video, computers, and the Internet seem to offer schools improved methods for instructing students, these technologies all too often distract from real learning.
109 Some people believe that scientific discoveries have given us a much better understanding of the world around us. Others believe that science has revealed to us that the world is infinitely more complex than we ever realized.
132 Some people believe that our ever-increasing use of technology significantly reduces our opportunities for human interaction. Other people believe that technology provides us with new and better ways to communicate and connect with one another.
59 Scientists and other researchers should focus their research on areas that are likely to benefit the greatest number of people.
91 The primary goal of technological advancement should be to increase people's efficiency so that they have more leisure time.
131 Claim: Researchers should not limit their investigations to only those areas in which they expect to discover something that has an immediate, practical application.
Reason: It is impossible to predict the outcome of a line of research with any certainty. 结论：科研人员不应该仅仅将研究工作限制在容易在短期内有实际应用的领域。 原因：不可能肯定地预测一系列研究带来的结果。
64 The human mind will always be superior to machines because machines are only tools of human minds.
2 To understand the most important characteristics of a society, one must study its major cities. 要想了解一个社会最重要的特征，人们必须研究这个社会主要的城市。
5 Claim: Governments must ensure that their major cities receive the financial support they need in order to thrive.
Reason: It is primarily in cities that a nation's cultural traditions are preserved and generated. 结论：政府需要给社会主要城市提供财政支持，来保证其繁荣发展。
22 Claim: The best way to understand the character of a society is to examine the character of the men and women that the society chooses as its heroes or its role models. Reason: Heroes and role models reveal a society's highest ideals.
77 The most effective way to understand contemporary culture is to analyze the trends of its youth.
28 The surest indicator of a great nation is represented not by the achievements of its rulers, artists, or scientists, but by the general welfare of its people.
11 People's behavior is largely determined by forces not of their own making.
38 It is primarily through our identification with social groups that we define ourselves. 我们主要通过认同社会群体来定位自己。
58 Learning is primarily a matter of personal discipline; students cannot be motivated by school or college alone.
78 People's attitudes are determined more by their immediate situation or surroundings than by society as a whole.
4 Scandals are useful because they focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could.
丑闻是有裨益的，因为它们让人们注意到一些问题，任何演说家和改革家都无法做到的。 44 Claim: It is no longer possible for a society to regard any living man or woman as a hero. Reason: The reputation of anyone who is subjected to media scrutiny will eventually be diminished.
75 In this age of intensive media coverage, it is no longer possible for a society to regard any living man or woman as a hero.
123 The best way for a society to prepare its young people for leadership in government, industry, or other fields is by instilling in them a sense of cooperation, not competition.
128 Some people argue that successful leaders in government, industry, or other fields must be highly competitive.
Other people claim that in order to be successful, a leader must be willing and able to cooperate with others.
53 If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it are justifiable.
55 In order for any work of art—for example, a film, a novel, a poem, or a song—to have merit, it must be understandable to most people.
41 The greatness of individuals can be decided only by those who live after them, not by their contemporaries.
56 Many important discoveries or creations are accidental: it is usually while seeking the answer to one question that we come across the answer to another.
93 Unfortunately, in contemporary society, creating an appealing image has become more important than the reality or truth behind that image.
130 Some people believe that corporations have a responsibility to promote the well-being of the societies and environments in which they operate. Others believe that the only responsibility of corporations, provided they operate within the law, is to make as much money as possible.
144 True success can be measured primarily in terms of the goals one sets for oneself. 真正的成功只能通过自己设定的目标来衡量。