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中考英语作文讲义

发布时间:2014-01-26 09:44:52  

中考英语作文-记叙文

记叙文就是以记叙人物的经历或事物发展变化过程为主的一种文章。在初中写作训练中,记叙文是最基本,最常见,最重要的书面表达形式。记叙文有"六要素"即指"时间,地点,人物和事件的起因,经过和结果"。一篇记叙文只要把这些要素写清楚,文章就会内容具体, 眉目清晰,中心意思明确。一般情况下,这六要素中的人物,时间,地点作为开端,要写在文章的开头。事件,原因常作为记叙文的段落发展,又称为文章的主体部分,应该放在文章的中间。结果作为记叙文的结局常放在文章的末尾处。

记叙文从写作的线索上来看,有三种表现形式:

1、以人物为主,围绕人物组织材料。关于写人物,一般要把某人的年龄,外貌和性格特征,人物行为,心理活动等方面简要概括出来。同时要略加点评或感想。

2、以事物为中心,围绕事件组织材料或围绕事件写人。关于写事件,事件是记叙的核心,往往有它的起因,经过和结局。写事件要比较详细地交代事情的来龙去脉,同时要重点突出,表达精练,防止渲染。

3、以写景状物,描写为主。

一、记叙文的特点

1. 叙述的人称

英语的记叙文一般是以第一或第三人称的角度来叙述的。用第一称表示的是由叙述者亲眼所见、亲耳所闻的经历。它的优点在于能把故事的情节通过“我”来传达给读者,使人读后感到真实可信,如身临其境。如:

The other day, I was driving along the street. Suddenly, a car lost its control and ran directly towards me fast. I was so frightened that I quickly turned to the left side. But it was too late. The car hit my bike and I fell off it.

用第三人称叙述,优点在于叙述者不受“我”活动范围以内的人和事物的限制,而是通过作者与读者之外的第三者,直接把故事中的情节展现在读者面前,文章的客观性很强。如: Little Tom was going to school with an umbrella, for it was raining hard. On the way, he saw an old woman walking in the rain with nothing to cover. Tom went up to the old woman and wanted to share the umbrella with her, but he was too short. What could he do? Then he had a good idea.

2. 动词的时态

在记叙文中,记和叙都离不开动词。所以动词出现率最高,且富于变化。记叙文中用得最多的是动词的过去的,这是英语记叙文区别于汉语记叙文的关键之处。英语写作的优美之处就在于这些动词时态的变化,正是这一点才使得所记、所叙有鲜活的动态感、鲜明的层次感和立体感。

3. 叙述的顺序

记叙一件事要有一定的顺序。无论是顺叙、倒叙、插叙还是补叙,都要让读者能弄清事情的来龙去脉。顺叙最容易操作,较容易给读者提供有关事情的空间和时间线索。但这种方法也容易使文章显得平铺直叙,读起来平淡乏味。倒叙、插叙、补叙等叙述方法能有效地提高文章的结构效果,让所叙之事跌宕起伏,使读者在阅读时思维产生较大的跳跃,从而为文章所吸引,深入其中。但这些方法如果使用不当,则容易弄巧成拙,使文章结构散乱,头绪不清,让读者不知所云。

4. 叙述的过渡

过渡在上下文中起着承上启下、融会贯通的作用。过渡往往用在地点转移或时间、事件转换以及由概括说明到具体叙述时。如:

In my summer holidays, I did a lot of things. Apart form doing my homework, reading an English novel, watching TV and doing some housework, I went on a trip to Qingdao. It is really a beautiful city. There are many places of interest to see. But what impressed me most was the sunrise.

The next morning I got up early. I was very happy because it was a fine day. By the time I got to the beach, the clouds on the horizon were turning red. In a little while, a small part of the sun was gradually appearing. The sun was very red, not shining. It rose slowly. At last it broke through the red clouds and jumped above the sea, just like a deep-red ball. At the same time the clouds and the sea water became red and bright.

What a moving and unforgettable scene!

5. 叙述与对话

引用故事情节中主要人物的对话是记叙文提高表现力的一种好方法。适当地用直接引语代替间接的主观叙述,可以客观生动地反映人物的性格、品质和心理状态,使记叙生动、有趣,使文章内容更加充实、具体。试比较下面两段的叙述效果:

I was in the kitchen, and I was cooking something. Suddenly I heard a loud noise from the front. I thought maybe someone was knocking the door. I asked who it was but I heard no reply. After a while I saw my cat running across the parlor. I realized it was the cat. I felt released.

这本来应是一段故事性很强的文字,但经作者这么一写,就不那么吸引人了。原因是文中用的都是叙述模式,没有人物语言,把“悬念”给冲淡了。可作如下调整:

I was in the kitchen cooking something. "Crash!" a loud noise came from the front. Thinking someone was knocking at the door, I asked, "Who?" No reply. After a while, I saw my cat running across the parlor. "It's you." I said, quite released.

二、写好记叙文的基本要领

1. 头绪分明,脉络清楚

写好记叙文,首先要头绪分明,脉络清楚,明确文章要求写什么。要对所写的事件或人物进行分析,弄清事件发生、发展一直到结束的整个过程,然后再收集选取素材。这些素材都应该跟上述五个“ W ”和一个“ H ”有关。尽管不是每篇记叙文里都必须包括这些“ W ”和“ H ”,但动笔之前,围绕五个“ W ”和“ H ”进行构思是必不可少的。

2. 突出中心,详略得当

在文章的框架确定后,对支持故事的素材的选取是很关键的。选材要注意取舍,应该从表现文章主题的需要出发,分清主次,定好详略。要突出重点,详写细述那些能表现文章主题的重要情节,略写粗述那么非关键的次要情节。面面俱到反而使情节罗列化,使人不得要领。这一点是写好记叙文要解决的一个基本问题,也需要一定的技巧。如:

One night a man came to our house and told me, "There is a family with eight children. They have not eaten for days." I took some food with me and went.

When I finally came to that family, I saw the faces of those little children disfigured (破坏外貌) by hunger. There was no sorrow or sadness in their faces, just the deep pain of hunger.

I gave the rice to the mother. She divided the rice in two, and went out, carrying half the rice. When she came back, I asked her, "Where did you go?" she gave me this simple answer, "To my neighbors — they are hungry also!"

3. 用活语言,准确生动

记叙文要用具体的事件和生动的语言对人、事、物加以叙述。一篇好的记叙文的语言既要准确、生动,又要表现力强,这样才能把人、事描写得具体生动,其可读性才强。试比较下面一篇例文修改的前后效果。

原文:

One day Xiaoqiang was wandering away. He was soon lost among people and traffic. He could not find the way back home and started crying. Just then, two young students who were passing by found him standing alone in front of a shop and crying. They went up to Xiaoqiang and asked him what had happened. Xiaoqiang told them how he got lost and where he lived. The two students decided to take him home. Mother was pleased to see Xiaoqiang come back safe and sound. She invited the two students into the house and gave them some money, but they didn't take it. She served them with tea but they left.

修改后:

The other day, five-year-old Xiaoqiang left home alone and wandered happily in the street. After some time, he felt hungry so he wanted to go back home. But he found he was lost among the crowded people and heavy traffic. When he could not find the way home, he started and crying. Just then, two young students who were passing by from school found him sanding crying in front of a shop. They immediately went up to him.

"Little boy, why are you standing here crying?" they asked.

"I want Mom, I go home." said the boy, still crying.

"Don't worry, we'll send you home."

And they spent the next two hours looking for the boy's house. With the help of a policeman, they finally found it.

When the worried mother saw her son come back safe and sound, she was so thankful and she invited the students into her house. Gratefully, she offered them some money, saying it was a way to express her thanks, but the young students firmly refused it and left without even a cup of tea.

中考英语作文面面观--命题作文

命题作文就是我们依据所给题目,确定中心,选择材料,写出符合题意,内容表达具体、充分的

文章。写命题作文通常要注意以下几点:

一、审准题目:文章的中心要对题目的分析来确定,一定要弄清主题的内涵,确立与文章联系的主题思想,表达不能游离于主题,否则即使内容再精彩,也是"跑题"作文,得分将会大打折扣,因此,写命题作文最重要的是先审清题目,确立要表现的中心。

二、构思结构:就是开放思路,启动联想,构想表现形式,勾勒出文章的结构层次,依次写出引言段,主题句,发展段和结尾句,努力使之新颖,别致。

三、选择材料:这一点很重要,一定要围绕想表现的中心去选择组织材料,所选的材料必须典型精要。

四、表达:就是用最确切明了的语言贯穿材料,表达自己的思想,力争用符合英语语法规则。英语表达习惯,最顺畅自然的词,句,段去表达中心思想,与表现中心无关的话即使再生动形象也不要去写。就写作的目的表现形式来看,命题作文分为三种形式:1、记叙文类;2、说明文类; 3、议论文类。

中考经典展示: (1) 以My Mother为题写一篇短文。

内容要点:1.我的妈妈是护士,工作努力。2.上个月去北京,抗击SARS (fight against)。

3.一个月没有回来。4.保护我们免受侵害。5.我爱妈妈,为妈妈自豪。

标题已给出,要求1.写清时间 2.要点要完整 3.可适当增加内容 4.字数在60个词左右

(2)班会上,老师要求每位同学用英语介绍自己的一位朋友,请你根据所提供的要点为题写一篇短文。

要点:1. Who is he / she。2. When and where did you get to know him / her。

3. Why do you like him / her。

注意:1.文章的开头和结尾已给出(不计入词数) 2.词数60-80,须包括以上要点,可适当增加细节使短文意思通畅。3.条理清楚,语意连贯,句式规范,字迹工整。4.文中不得出现真实的人名。校名等相关信息。

写作实践范例以"My Chinese Teacher"为标题写一篇字数为80-100之间的英语短文。提示内容如下:1、孙老师今年36岁,中等身材。2、她关心。热爱学生,工作认真负责。3、她语文课讲得生动。有趣。

My Chinese Teacher

Of all the subjects, I like Chinese best because I have a good Chinese teacher. Though she has been teaching us for only three years, I respect and love her very much.

My Chinese teacher is thirty-six years old and she is neither tall nor short. Ms Sun works very hard. She is always the first to come and the last to leave her office. She tries to make her classes lively and interesting. And we enjoy her lessons very much.Ms Sun is very kind and friendly to us. And we're getting on well with each other. But she is very strict with us in our studies.

Ms Sun teaches us so well that we all enjoy learning Chinese. All the students think she is one of the most popular teachers in our school.

新题导练

请以"My Classmate"为标题写一篇记叙文

要求:1、主题明确。语言流畅。思路清晰。 2、字数在100字以内。

思路点拨

写记叙文要按照事物发展的客观规律叙述,所叙述的内容要交代清楚,条理清晰,重点突出,主次分明,详略得当。

这篇文章也是记叙文,主人公应该用第三人称,时态以一般过去时为主。

参考范文

My Classmate

Liu Kai is my classmate. He is a good student and always ready to help others. One day on his way to school, he saw a little girl crossing the road. A car was coming towards her quickly and the girl was too frightened to move. The car nearly hit her. Just then LiuKai rushed up to her and caught her by the arm. The little girl was saved. She told him where she lived, and he took her home. When LiuKai hurried into the classroom, the teacher had already begun his lesson. He told the teacher why he was late. He was then praised for what he had done.

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