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2013届中考-虚拟语气-非常多

发布时间:2013-09-24 16:29:19  

虚拟语气

虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)是动词的一种特殊形式,用来表达说话人的愿望、请求、意图、建议、惊奇、设想等。虚拟语气这一语法项目几乎是四、六级必考的内容,也是各类英语考试中心测试的重点之一,考生应该熟练掌握。下面从五个方面介绍虚拟语气的用法。 第一部分:语气的定义和种类

第二部分:简单句中的虚拟语气

第三部分:名词性从句中的虚拟语气

第四部分:条件句中的虚拟语气

第五部分:其他几种情况下的虚拟语气

第一部分:语气的定义和种类

1 语气(mood)

语气是动词的一种形式,表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。

2 语气的种类

⑴、陈述语气:表示动作或状态是现实的、确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句、疑问句和某些感叹句。如:

①There are two sides to every question.每个问题都有两个方面。

②Were you busy all day yesterday? 昨天一整天你都很忙吗?

③How good a teacher she is! 她是多好的一位老师啊!

⑵、祈使语气:表示说话人对对方的请求或命令。如:

①Never be late again!再也不要迟到了。

②Don’t forget to turn off the light.别忘了关灯。

⑶、虚拟语气:表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望、假设或推测等。如:

①If I were a bird, I could fly in the air.如果我是一只小鸟,我就能在空中飞行。 星沙英语 ②I wish I could pass the examination.我希望我能通过考试。

③May you succeed!祝您成功!

虚拟语气在语法里算得上是个难点。让我们就从最简单的开始吧。

第二部分:简单句中的虚拟语气

一、情态动词的过去式用于现在时态时,表示说话人的谦虚、客气、有礼貌、或委婉的语气,常用于日常会话中。如:

⑴.Would you be kind enough to show me the way to the post office?请你告诉我去邮局的路好吗?

⑵.It would be better for you not to stay up too late.你最好别熬夜到很晚。

二、表祝愿。

1、常用“may+动词原形”表示祝愿,但愿,此时may须置于句首(多用于正式文体中)。 ⑴、May good luck be yours!祝你好运!

⑵、May you be happy!祝你快乐!

⑶、May you do even better!祝你取得更大成就!

⑷、May you have a good time. 祝愿你玩的痛快。

⑸、May the friendship between us last long. 祝愿我们的友情天长地久。

⑹、May you be happy. (注意那个be ) 祝你幸福。

(7)May the world be filled with love! 让世界充满爱!

2、用动词原形。例如:

(1).Long live the people! 人民万岁!

(2).“God bless you,”said the priest.牧师说:“愿上帝保佑你!”

(3).Have a good journey! 祝愿你旅途愉快!

三、表示强烈愿望。(该类型虚拟语气谓语仅用动词原形,第三人称单数也不加“s”)

(1).God save me.

(2).Heaven help us.

四、表命令

1.命令虚拟语气只能用在第二人称(you),而且通常省略主语(也就是you)。

2.句子尾通常加上感叹号:!

3.虚拟语气动词用一般现在时态(Simple Present),如:work, be , go

4.否定形式的命令语气,可用助动词do,加上not。

(1). Work !

(2). Work harder !

(3). Be more alert ! (虚拟语气动词Be)

(4). You go out !

(5). Do not work so hard. (do not 表示否定的虚拟语气)

(6). Don’t be afraid. (口语中常用don’t 代替do not)

五、在一些习惯表达中。如:

(1).You’d better set off now.你最好现在就出发。

(2).I’d rather not tell you the secret.我情愿不告诉你这个秘密。

第三部分:名词性从句中的虚拟语气

第一节:宾语从句(Subordinate Clauses)中的虚拟语气

一、在动词wish后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气

在动词wish后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气,常省去宾语从句的引导词that。

一)、对现在情况的虚拟(与现在的事实相反):

从句用过去式或过去进行式(时间上是同时的)。其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语be和were(was),实义动词用过去式。例:

1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I knew the answer to the question.(wish, 动词过去式knew)我希望知道这个答案。(事实上是不知道)

2. I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year around.(wish, were)但愿我的家乡四季如春。(事实上不可能)

3. I wish I were a bird.(wish, were)但愿我是只小鸟。(事实上不可能)

4. When she was at the party, she wished she were at home.(wished,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不在家)

5. Now that he is in China, he wishes he understood Chinese.(wishes,过去虚拟动词understood) 现在他在中国,他希望能懂得中文。(事实上并不懂)

6. When we begin the trip, they will wish they were with us.(will wish,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不和我们在一起)

二)、对过去情况的虚拟(和过去的事实相反):

用wish表示对过去事情的遗憾。其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语用过去完成时,或would, could, might+现在完成时。例:

1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I hadn’t wasted so much time.

我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。(事实上已浪费了)

2. He wishes he hadn’t lost the chance.

他真希望没有失去机会。(其实已失去)

3. We wished he had spoken to us.

(wished,had + spoken)(事实上他并没同我们讲)

4. I wish you had called earlier.

(wish, had + called)(事实上已迟了)

5. They will wish they had listened to us sooner.

(will wish ,had + listened)(事实上并不如此)

例题分析:I wish I ______ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class.

A. could have slept

B. slept

C. might have slept

D. have slept

动词wish后面接从句,表达不可能实现或与事实相反的情况时,谓语动词要用虚拟语气,即用过去式(表示现在发生的动作)或过去完成式(表示过去发生的动作)。本题后半句谓语动词have用的是过去时had to get up and come, 所以前面要用过去完成时表示过去发生的动作。所以, 选项A)could have slept是答案

三)、对将来情况的虚拟(表示将来的主观愿望):

从句动词"would/should/could/might + 动词原形"(时间上较后)(请注意:主句和从句的主语不相同)。用wish表示对将来事情的愿望。例:

1. I wish it would stop raining.(虚拟动词would+动词原形stop)

我希望雨能停止。(事实上雨还在下着呢)

2. I wish you would be quiet.(would + be)

我希望你安静一些。(事实上那家伙还在吵着呢)

3. You wished she would arrive the next day.(would + arrive)

你希望她第二天会到。(事实上她还没到)

4. I wish she would change her mind.(would + change)

我希望她会改变主意。(呵呵,女孩子可没那么容易就改变主意喔)

5. He will wish we would join him the following week.(would + join)

(只是希望我们和他在一起,实际上还没在一起)

四)、注意:

1.如果将wish改为过去式wished, 其后that 从句中的动词形式不变。例如:

I wished I hadn’t spent so much money. 我要是那时没有花掉那么多钱就好了。

2. 如果that 从句中用would , 一般表示对现状不满或希望未来有所改变或请求

I wish he would answer my letter.

I wish prices would come down.

I wish you would help me.

I wish you would stop asking silly questions.

二、在表示建议、命令、要求、忠告等动词的后面的宾语从句中的虚拟语气

由于这些动词本身隐含说话者的主观意见,认为某事应该或不应该怎样,这些词语后面的“that”从句应用虚拟语气,且均以“should+动词原形”表示这种语气,但事实上“should”常被省略,故此从句中谓语动词用原形,常用的此类动词有:

表示“要求”的:ask, desire, request, demand, require, beg

表示“提议、劝告、建议”的:move, prpose, suggest, recommend, advise, vote

表示“决定、命令”的:decide, order

表示“主张”的:maintain, urge

表示“同意、坚持”的:consent, insist

例如:

1.The doctor suggested that he (should) try to lose his weight.

2.He insisted that we (should ) tell him the news.

3.When I suggested that he try shaving cream, he said, “The razor and water do the job. ”(当我建议他用刮胡膏时,他说“剃刀和水就行了”。)

4.He pursued various theories for several days until I suggested we take the toy apart to see how it did work. (他费了几天功夫寻找理论根据,直到我建议拆开看看它是如何转动的。)

5.One can suggest that students should spend two or three years in an Englishspeaking country. (我们建议学生应在说英语的国家呆上两三年。)

在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中虚拟语气很普遍,其结构如: order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist +... (should) do

6.I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

7.He insisted that he (should ) be sent there.

但注意:在insist 后的从句中, 如果是坚持自己, 用陈述语气, 坚持别人做什么事情, 用虚拟语气.

8.she insists that she is right.

9.she insisted that I should finish the work at once.

或者说,suggest, insist不表示建议或坚持要某人做某事时,即它们用于其本意暗示、表明、坚持认为时,宾语从句用陈述语气。

10.The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules.

判断改错:

(错)11. You pale face suggests that you (should) be ill.

(对)12. Your pale face suggests that you are ill.

(错)13. I insisted that you ( should) be wrong.

(对)14. I insisted that you were wrong.

例题分析:15.It is politely requested by the hotel management that radios ______ after 11 o’clock at night.

A. were not played

B. not be played

C. not to play

D. did not play

全句意思是:“旅馆管理部门恳请客人晚上11点后不要打开收音机”。句中的谓语动词request(请求)所引出的从句应当用虚拟语气,即动词原形或“should+动词原形”。本句的主语从句中,主语radio是谓语动词play 的客体,谓语应当用被动语态。所以,答案是C) not be played。在上述这类句子中不能用动词过去时形式表示虚拟语气,所以A)不正确。选项B) not to play是动词带to的不定式,不能在句中作谓语。选项D)did not play也是动词play的过去时形式,同样不能在本句中作为虚拟语气来使用。而且,它是主动语态形式,而本题要用被动语态。

活学活用:

16). The chairman requested that .

[A]the members studied more carefully the problem

[B]the problem was more carefulnessly studied

[C]with more carefulness the problem could be studied

[D]the members study the problem more carefully

17). The committee recommends that the matter at the next meeting .

[A]would be discussed

[B]will be discussed

[C]be discussed

[D]may be discussed

18). The doctor insisted that his patient .

[A]that he not work too hard for three months

[B]take it easy for three months

[C]taking it easy inside of three months

[D]to take some vacations for three months

三、在expect, believe, think, suspect等动词的否定或疑问形式后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气 在expect, believe, think, suspect等动词的否定或疑问形式后的宾语从句中,我们经常用“should+动词原形(或完成形式)”,表示惊奇,怀疑,不满等。

I never thought that he should be such a brave young soldier.

我们从来没想到他是个如此勇敢的小战士。

活学活用:

1) that the time will soon be ripe for intervention in Iran,they would be faced by a large army? [A]It is believed

[B]Should they believe

[C]They would believe

[D]If they would believe

2) I think it advisable that he for Tokyo soon.

[A]will leave

[B]may leave

[C]leave

[D]leaves

四、would rather , would sooner,had rather, would (just) as soon ,would prefer之后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气

would rather , would sooner, had rather, would (just) as soon,would prefer(希望)也用来表达主观愿望,它们之后的宾语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用过去式表示现在或将来,用过去完成式表示与过去事实相反。表示”宁愿做什么”或"对过去做的事的懊悔"。

(1).I would rather he came tomorrow than today.

(2).John would rather that she had not gone to the party yesterday evening.

(3).Don’ t live in the world, I would rather( I would just as soon) you die.

(4).I would rather you go tomorrow.

(5).I would rather everything hadn’ t happened in the past.

(6).The manager would rather his daughter did not work in the same office.经理宁愿她女儿不与他在同一间办公室工作。

(7).To be frank,I’d rather you were not involved in the case.坦率地说,我希望你不要卷入这件事。

(8).You don’t have to be in such a hurry.I would rather you went on business first.你没有必要

这么着急,我宁愿你先去上班。

(9).I’d rather you didn’t make any comment on the issue for the time being.我倒希望你暂时先不要就此事发表意见。

(10).Frankly speaking ,I’d rather you didn’t do anything about it for the time being.坦白地说,我宁愿你现在对此事什么也不要做。

(11).Wouldn’t you rather your child went to bed early?为什么你不愿让你的孩子早点上床呢?

(12).I would just as soon you had returned the book yesterday.我真希望你昨天把这本书还了。 注:①若某人愿自己做某事,would rather后用动词原形

I would rather stay at home today.

②would rather...than...中用动词原形

I would rather stay at home than go out today.

五、“had hoped”后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气

用“had hoped”表示原来希望做到而实际上未能实现的事情,其宾语从句的谓语用“would+动词原形”。

I had hoped that she would go to the U.S. and study there, but she said she liked to stay in China.我原本希望她到美国去念书,但她说她喜欢留在中国。

第二节:主语从句中的虚拟语气

一、“It is (was)+形容词(或过去分词)+that??”结构中的虚拟语气在形如“It is (was)+形容词(或过去分词)+that??”结构中,使用某些表示愿望、建议、请求、命令、可能、适当、较好、迫切、紧近、重要等形容词后的主语从句的谓语也用虚拟语气。其表达形式为should +动词原形或省略should直接用动词原形(美国英语中省去should)

常用的形容词:* natural (自然的), appropriate (适当的),advisable (合适的), preferable (更可取的), better (更好的)* necessary (必须的), important (重要的), imperative (急需的), urgent (急迫的), essential (本质的), vital (必不可少的)* probable (很可能的), possible (可能的)* desirable (极好的)advisable(合理的),compulsory(必须的),crucial(紧急的),desirable(理想的),essential(必要的),imperative(迫切的),incredible(惊人的),necessary(必要的),possible(可能的),strange(奇怪的),urgent(紧迫的)。

常用的过去分词(Past Participle):* required (需要的), demanded (要求), requested (被请求的), desired (要求)* suggested (建议), recommended (推荐)* orderd (命令)

1. It is necessary that we (should 可省略,下同)have a walk now.(necessary, should + have) (表示有需要去散步)

2.It was necessary that we (should) make everything ready ahead of time.(necessary, should + make) (表示有必要事先做好准备)

3. It is required that nobody (should) smoke here.(required, should + smoke) (表示要求不要在此抽烟)

4. It is important that every pupil (should) be able to understand the rule of school.(important, should + be) (表示重要的是学生都能了解校规)

5. It’s important that we (should) take good care of the patient.(important, should + take) (表示重要的是照顾好病人)

6. It is natural that she should do so. (形容词natural, should+动词原形do)

7.It is essential that these application forms be sent back as early as possible.这些申请表应尽早地寄回,这是很重要的。

8.It is vital that enough money be collected to fund the project.重要的是募集足够的钱,为这个项目提供资金。

9.It is desired that we(should)get everything ready this evening.希望我们今晚一切都准备就绪。

注:在上述所列形容词后面用that引出的宾语从句中,谓语动词也要用虚拟语气。

10.I don’t think it advisable that Tom be assigned to the job since he has no experience.汤姆缺乏经验,指派他做这项工作我认为是不恰当的。

二、在It is +名词+that?的主语从句中的虚拟语气

在It is +名词+that的主语从句中,常用虚拟语气,表示建议、命令、请求、道歉、怀疑、惊奇等。这类名词

有:advice ,decision ,desire ,demand ,idea,motion ,order,pity ,preference ,proposal,recommendation , requirement,resolution,shame,suggestion,surprise,wish,wonder等。 ⑴、It is my proposal that he be sent to study further abroad.我建议派他去国外进一步学习。

第三节:虚拟语气用在表语从句或同位语从句中

当某些表示建议、请求、命令等主观意向的名词作主语时,其后的表语从句或同位语从句需用虚拟语气,其表达形式为should +动词原形或直接用动词原形。这类名词常见的有: demand (要求), desire (请求),requirement (要求)

advice (劝告), recommendation (建议),suggestion (建议)

order (命令)

necessity (必要地), preference (优先)

proposal (计划), plan (计划), idea (办法),

recommendation以及plan,idea,resolution等。

We are all for your proposal that the discussion be put off.我们都赞成你提出的将讨论延期的建议。

The suggestion that the mayor present the prizes was accepted by

everyone.由市长颁发奖金的建议被每个人接受。

⑴、 The advice is that we (should 可省略,下同) leave at once.

(名词advice,should + leave) (表示加以劝告)

⑵、 My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.

(idea, should + get) (表示做出主意)

⑶、 I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

(proposal, should + hold) (表示做出计划)

⑷、 The judge assented to the suggestion that .

[A]both of the criminals will soon be set freedom

[B]some of the criminals there are of guilt only

[C]the girl was to be paroled in the custody of a welfare society

[D]the prisoner be sentenced to death

虚拟语气

1) 概念

[Subjunctive Mood]

中文译作"虚拟语气"。它是一种动词形式,表示说话人的某种假设、愿望、怀疑、猜测、建议等含义。

2) 在条件句中的应用

条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件句表示的是假设的或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用虚拟语气。

●虚拟语气的使用范围及判断

一、虚拟语气表示一种不能实现的假设。该语法主要用于if条件状语从句。也可用于主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句等。

二、if条件状语从句中虚拟语气的判断

判断是真实条件句还是非真实条件句。只有在非真实条件句中才使用虚拟语气。通过句子意思,看假设的条件是否能够实现,能够实现是真实条件句,不能使用虚拟语气;假设的条件不能实现则是非真实条件句,要用虚拟语气。

判断这个假设是与哪个事实相反。通常有三种情况:①与过去事实相反。②与现在事实相反。③与将来事实可能相反。

三、“后退一步法”

后退一步法是指在准确地判断了该句与哪一事实相反后,按虚拟语气的后退一步法处理从句谓语动词的时态。即:在非真实条件状语从句中,谓语动词按正常情况“后退一步”。也就是:

①与过去事实相反,在从句中用过去完成时形式表示。

②与现在事实相反,在从句中用过去一般时形式表示。

③与将来事实可能相反,在从句中用过去将来时形式表示。

主句中则用情态动词would, should, could 等加一个与从句一致的动词形式。

例:If I had come her yesterday, I would have seen him.

If I were a teacher, I would be strict with my students.

If it should snow tomorrow, they couldn’t go out.

四、注意事项

①if条件句中如有were, should, had,可以省去if,并使用倒装语序。

②在现代英语中if条件状与从句中的谓语动词如果是be其过去形式一般用were。

●宾语从句中的虚拟语气

一、wish 后面宾语从句中的虚拟语气

wish 后面宾语从句中的虚拟语气,按“后退一步法”处理从句的谓语动词。注意:与哪个事实相反,不能以主句的时态为判断依据,而是根据从句的意义判断。

二、表示“要求、建议、命令”等动词后面的宾语从句中的虚拟语气

从句中用“should + 动词原形”构成。而且should可以省去。用于此结构的动词有:advise, direct, agree, ask, demand, decide, desire, insist, order, prefer, propose, request, suggest等。

注意:当insist表示“坚持认为”、suggest表示“表明,显示”时,不用虚拟语气。

The look on his face suggested that he was quite satisfied with what I had done for him.

He insisted that he was honest.

三、would rather +从句

在这种结构中,从句的位于动词用过去形式表示虚拟。

I would rather you did this instead of me.

●主语从句中的虚拟语气

一、It be + 形容词 + that ...(should)...

用于该句型的形容词是:necessary, good, important, right, wrong, better, natural, proper, funny, strange, surprising .

一些名词也可以用于 在该结构中。如:a pity, no wonder....

二、It be + 过去分词 + that ...(should)....

用于该结构中的过去分词是表示“建议、请求、命令”等词的过去分词。如:desired, suggested, requested, ordered, proposed等。

三、It is time(about time, high time)that ...(过去式动词形式或should+动词原形)....

It is high time I went home now. = It is high time I should go home now.

●表语从句、同位语从句中的虚拟语气

在suggestion, proposal, order, plan, idea, advice, decision等需要有内涵的名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中,要使用虚拟语气。其谓语动词应用:should+原形动词。另外连接从句的that不能省略。

例:My suggestion is that weshould go there at once.

What do you think of his proposal that we should put on a play at the English evening

虚拟语气

虚拟语气

1) 概念

虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相反。

2) 在条件句中的应用

条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件句表示的是假设的或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用虚拟语气。

16.1 真实条件句

真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是如果的意思。

时态关系

句型: 条件从句 主句

一般现在时 shall/will + 动词原形

If he comes, he will bring his violin.

典型例题

The volleyball match will be put off if it ___.

A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is rained

答案B。真实条件句主句为将来时,从句用一般现在时。

注意:

1) 在真实条件句中,主句不能用be going to表示将来,该用shall, will.

(错) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it.

(对) If you leave now, you will never regret it.

2) 表示真理时,主句谓语动词便不用shall (will) +动词原形,而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。

16.2 非真实条件句

1) 时态:可以表示过去,现在和将来的情况。它的基本特点是时态退后。

a. 同现在事实相反的假设。

句型 : 条件从句 主句

一般过去时 should( would) +动词原形

If they were here, they would help you.

b. 表示于过去事实相反的假设。

句型: 条件从句 主句

过去完成时 should(would) have+ 过去分词

If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.

The rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful.

If my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going. If he had come yesterday, I should / would have told him about it.

含义:He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it.

If he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress. 含义: He was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress. c. 表示对将来的假想

句型: 条件从句 主句

一般过去时 should+ 动词原形

were+ 不定式 would + 动词原形

should+ 动词原形

If you succeeded, everything would be all right.

If you should succeed, everything would be all right.

If you were to succeed, everything would be all right.

16.3 混合条件句

主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间,这时主,从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形式因时间不同而不同,这叫做混合条件句。

If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now.

(从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反。)

If it had rained last night (过去), it would be very cold today (现在).

16.4 虚拟条件句的倒装

虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有were, should, 或had, 可将if省略,再把were, should或had 移到从句句首,实行倒装。

Were they here now, they could help us.

=If they were here now, they could help us.

Had you come earlier, you would have met him

=If you had come earlier, you would have met him.

Should it rain, the crops would be saved.

=Were it to rain, the crops would be saved.

注意:

在虚拟语气的从句中,动词'be’的过去时态一律用"were",不用was,即在从句中be用were代替。

If I were you, I would go to look for him. 如果我是你,就会去找他。

If he were here, everything would be all right. 如果他在这儿,一切都会好的。 典型例题

_____ to do the work, I should do it some other day.

A. If were I B. I were C. Were I D. Was I

答案C. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词,通常将if省略,主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意,在虚拟条件状语从句中,省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说Were I not to do., 而不能说Weren’t I to do.

16.5 特殊的虚拟语气词:should

1) It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that?结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用should 加动词原形, should 可省略。

句型:

(1) suggested

It is (2)important that?+ (should) do (3) a pity

(1) suggested, ordered, proposed, required, demanded, requested, insisted;+ (should) do

(2) important, necessary, natural, strange

a pity, a shame, no wonder

(3) It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.

2) 在宾语从句中的应用

在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中。

order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

He insisted that he (should ) be sent there.

注意: 如suggest, insist不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时",即它们用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时,宾语从句用陈述语气。

The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules.

判断改错:

(错) You pale face suggests that you (should) be ill.

(对) Your pale face suggests that you are ill.

(错) I insisted that you ( should) be wrong.

(对) I insisted that you were wrong.

3) 在表语从句,同位语从句中的应用

在suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气,即(should)+动词原形。

My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.

I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

16.6 wish的用法

1) 用于wish后面的从句,表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望。其宾语从句的动词形式为:

真实状况 wish后

从句动作先于主句动词动作 现在时 过去时

(be的过去式为 were)

从句动作与主句动作同时发生 过去时 过去完成时

(had + 过去分词)

将来不大可能实现的愿望 将来时 would/could + 动词原形

I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。

He wished he hadn’t said that. 他希望他没讲那样的话。

I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。

2) Wish to do表达法。

Wish sb / sth to do

I wish to see the manager. = I want to see the manager.

I wish the manager to be informed at once. (= I want the manager to be informed at once.)

16.7 比较if only与only if

only if表示"只有";if only则表示"如果??就好了"。If only也可用于陈述语气。 I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。

If only the alarm clock had rung. 当时闹钟响了,就好了。

If only he comes early. 但愿他早点回来。

16.8 It is (high) time that

It is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形,但should不可省略。

It is time that the children went to bed.

It is high time that the children should go to bed.

16.9 need "不必做"和"本不该做"

didn’t need to do表示:过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做。.

needn’t have done表示:过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了。

John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she didn’t need to walk back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她不必步行回家了。

John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she needn’t have walked back home.

约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她本不必步行回家了。(Mary步行回家,没有遇上John的车。) 典型例题

There was plenty of time. She ___.

A. mustn’t have hurried B. couldn’t have hurried

C. must not hurry D. needn’t have hurried

答案D。needn’t have done. 意为"本不必",即已经做了某事,而时实际上不必要。 Mustn’t have done 用法不正确,对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为couldn’t have done, "不可能已经"。 must not do 不可以 (用于一般现在时)。

虚拟语气

虚拟语气

1) 概念

虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相反。

2) 在条件句中的应用

条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件句表示的是假设的或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用虚拟语气。

16.1 真实条件句

真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是如果的意思。 时态关系

句型: 条件从句 主句

一般现在时 shall/will + 动词原形

If he comes, he will bring his violin.

典型例题

The volleyball match will be put off if it ___.

A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is rained

答案B。真实条件句主句为将来时,从句用一般现在时。

注意:

1) 在真实条件句中,主句不能用be going to表示将来,该用shall, will.

(错) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it.

(对) If you leave now, you will never regret it.

2) 表示真理时,主句谓语动词便不用shall (will) +动词原形,而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。

16.2 非真实条件句

1) 时态:可以表示过去,现在和将来的情况。它的基本特点是时态退后。

a. 同现在事实相反的假设。

句型 : 条件从句 主句

一般过去时 should( would) +动词原形

If they were here, they would help you.

b. 表示于过去事实相反的假设。

句型: 条件从句 主句

过去完成时 should(would) have+ 过去分词

If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.

The rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful.

If my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going. If he had come yesterday, I should / would have told him about it.

含义:He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it.

If he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress. 含义: He was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress. c. 表示对将来的假想

句型: 条件从句 主句

一般过去时 should+ 动词原形

were+ 不定式 would + 动词原形

should+ 动词原形

If you succeeded, everything would be all right.

If you should succeed, everything would be all right.

If you were to succeed, everything would be all right.

16.3 混合条件句

主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间,这时主,从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形式因时间不同而不同,这叫做混合条件句。

If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now.

(从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反。)

If it had rained last night (过去), it would be very cold today (现在).

16.4 虚拟条件句的倒装

虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有were, should, 或had, 可将if省略,再把were, should或had 移到从句句首,实行倒装。

Were they here now, they could help us.

=If they were here now, they could help us.

Had you come earlier, you would have met him

=If you had come earlier, you would have met him.

Should it rain, the crops would be saved.

=Were it to rain, the crops would be saved.

注意:

在虚拟语气的从句中,动词'be’的过去时态一律用"were",不用was,即在从句中be用were代替。

If I were you, I would go to look for him. 如果我是你,就会去找他。

If he were here, everything would be all right. 如果他在这儿,一切都会好的。 典型例题

_____ to do the work, I should do it some other day.

A. If were I B. I were C. Were I D. Was I

答案C. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词,通常将if省略,主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意,在虚拟条件状语从句中,省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说Were I not to do., 而不能说Weren’t I to do.

16.5 特殊的虚拟语气词:should

1) It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that?结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用should 加动词原形, should 可省略。

句型:

(1) suggested

It is (2)important that?+ (should) do (3) a pity

(1) suggested, ordered, proposed, required, demanded, requested, insisted;+ (should) do

(2) important, necessary, natural, strange

a pity, a shame, no wonder

(3) It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.

2) 在宾语从句中的应用

在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中。

order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do

I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

He insisted that he (should ) be sent there.

注意: 如suggest, insist不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时",即它们用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时,宾语从句用陈述语气。

The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules.

判断改错:

(错) You pale face suggests that you (should) be ill.

(对) Your pale face suggests that you are ill.

(错) I insisted that you ( should) be wrong.

(对) I insisted that you were wrong.

3) 在表语从句,同位语从句中的应用

在suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气,即(should)+动词原形。

My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.

I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

16.6 wish的用法

1) 用于wish后面的从句,表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望。其宾语从句的动词形式为:

真实状况 wish后

从句动作先于主句动词动作 现在时 过去时

(be的过去式为 were)

从句动作与主句动作同时发生 过去时 过去完成时

(had + 过去分词)

将来不大可能实现的愿望 将来时 would/could + 动词原形

I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。

He wished he hadn’t said that. 他希望他没讲那样的话。

I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。

2) Wish to do表达法。

Wish sb / sth to do

I wish to see the manager. = I want to see the manager.

I wish the manager to be informed at once. (= I want the manager to be informed at once.)

16.7 比较if only与only if

only if表示"只有";if only则表示"如果??就好了"。If only也可用于陈述语气。 I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。

If only the alarm clock had rung. 当时闹钟响了,就好了。

If only he comes early. 但愿他早点回来。

16.8 It is (high) time that

It is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形,但should不可省略。

It is time that the children went to bed.

It is high time that the children should go to bed.

16.9 need "不必做"和"本不该做"

didn’t need to do表示:过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做。.

needn’t have done表示:过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了。

John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she didn’t need to walk back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她不必步行回家了。

John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she needn’t have walked back home.

约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她本不必步行回家了。(Mary步行回家,没有遇上John的车。) 典型例题

There was plenty of time. She ___.

A. mustn’t have hurried B. couldn’t have hurried

C. must not hurry D. needn’t have hurried

答案D。needn’t have done. 意为"本不必",即已经做了某事,而时实际上不必要。 Mustn’t have done 用法不正确,对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为couldn’t have done, "不可能已经"。 must not do 不可以 (用于一般现在时)。

虚拟语气

虚拟语气表示用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相反。

虚拟语气的重点是:虚拟语气的特殊形式,即用来表示要求、建议、命令、提议、意愿等的主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟形式,含蓄条件句中的虚拟语气和表示愿望的虚拟形式等。

(一)虚拟语气的常见句型

(1)由wish引起的表示愿望的虚拟语气:

A用wish表示对现在的愿望时,它所引起的宾语从句中谓语动词形式为:过去式(be动词用were)。

B用wish表示对将来的愿望时,它所引起的宾语从句中谓语动词形式为:would ,could, might+动词原形。

Cwish用于对过去的事实表示一种不可能实现的愿望时,宾语从句中的谓语动词形式为: had+动词过去分词或could ,would +have+动词过去分词。

(2)had hoped引起的宾语从句中谓语动词形式为:would+动词原形,表示一种过去未实现的愿望或令人失望的事。

(3)would(had)rather, would as soon, would sooner和would

prefer所引起的从句中要求用过去式表示当时或将来的情况,用过去完成时表示过去的情况,表示希望或婉转的责备。例如:

I'd rather you posted the letter right away.我倒希望你把这封信立刻寄出去。

I would prefer he didnt stay there too long.我倒希望他不要在那儿呆得太久。

I would just as soon you had returned the book yesterday.我真希望你昨天把这本书还了。

(4)It's (high ,about) time that句型中that从句中要求用虚拟语气形式,即动词要用过去式。

例如:It's very late.It's time we had to go.天太晚了,我们得走了。

(二)特殊形式的虚拟语气

(1)should(可省略)+动词原形用于如下结构中的that从句中。

A用于表示意愿、建议、命令、提议、请求等动词后的that宾语从句中,例如:

He ordered that parking be prohibited on Main street during the rush hour.

他下令在(交通)高峰期间禁止在大街上停车。

Tom insisted that his Leadership be recognized by all the boys.

汤姆坚持让所有男孩接受他的领导。

这类动词还有:

ask要求advise建议arrange安排beg请求command命令decide决定demand要求desire渴望 determine决定insist坚持intend打算

maintain坚持,主张move建议,动员propose提议object反对order命令prefer建议require需要request要求resolve下决心

recommend推荐suggest建议stipulate约定,规定urge强调,促进vote公认,提议decree颁布(法令) pray请求

B用于It is+形容词或过去分词+主语从句中,例如:

It is appropriate that some time be devoted to thorough study of the results of the Apollo mission.

拿出时间对阿波罗登月计划的结果做详细研究是恰当的。

This is their resolution that extracurriculum activities be made part of their school life.

这是他们的决议:要使得课外活动成为他们学校生活的一部分。

这类形容词或分词有:

advisable合理的decided决定的crucial关键的appropriate恰当的determined决定的commanded命令的arranged安排的essential紧要的,基本的complied遵照anxious焦急的imperative迫切的important重要的desirable合意的better较好的,更好insistent坚持的desired想要asked请求keen渴望的incredible难以置信的adamant坚定不移的natural自然的insisted坚持necessary必要的suggested建议urgent紧迫的ordered命令shocked震惊的vital极其重要的possible可能的strange奇怪的preferable好一点proposed提议requested要求的required要求的recommended推荐resolved决定的probable可能的pity可惜,憾事shame遗憾

C表示建议、要求、命令、请求等含义的名词引导表语从句和同位语从句,例如:

The motion is that the remark of the last speaker be expunged from the record.

该提议要求把最后一个发言的人的讲话从记录上除掉。

这类名词常见的有:

advice忠告decision决定demand要求desire要求、愿望insistence坚持motion提议necessity必要性order命令preference偏爱,选择proposal提议pray恳求recommendation推荐request要求requirement要求resolution决心suggestion劝告,忠告

(2)虚拟语气用于as if(though)引起的方式状语从句和表语

从句中,其动词形式与wish宾语从句的形式相同。

例如:She often laughs spontaneously, and her good humor breaks out as brightly as if it were a part of the sunshine above.她常常发出发自内心的微笑,而且她那美好

的情绪像天上一道明亮的阳光一样,常常流露出来。

They talked as if they had been friends for years.他们交谈着,就好像他们是多年的老朋友一样。

She looks as if she would cry.她看起来好像要哭了。

(3)由连接词in case ,so that, unless, lost, for fear that引起的状语从句中,谓语动词要用虚拟形式,即should(might ,would)+动词原形,

例如:

She put a blanket over the baby for fear that he should catch cold.她在那个婴儿的身上盖上了毯子以免他着凉。

(三)含蓄虚拟条件句

含蓄虚拟条件句是指句中没有明显的虚拟条件句,而是利用其他手段来暗示存在虚拟条件。

常用来表示含蓄虚拟条件的手段有:

(1)介词或介词短语,如but for but that ,without ,in case of, under ,under more favourable condition等。

(2)连词,如:so that ,unless, in case supposing, lest, provided(倘若??),for fear that(惟恐),in groups that ,on condition that, if only(要是??就好了)等。

(注:lest, for fear that和in case引起的从句中谓语动词多用should+动词原形,但可以不用虚拟语气,而用动词的陈述语气形式。)例如:

The foreign teacher spoke slowly in case we misunderstood him.这位外籍教师说得很慢以免我们听不懂。

Care must be taken in using this method lest overflow should occur.

在使用此法时要小心谨慎,以免会发生溢流现象。

练习题,自测一下:

1. It's time that you _____ home and I'd rather you _______ again tomorrow.

A. would go ; would come B. went ; came

C. go ; are coming D. are going ; will come

2. He insisted that he ________ no help.

A. would need B. needed C. need D. needs

3. I really wish such a noise ________ soon.

A. had stopped B. would stop C. stopped D. will stop

4. I ____ you a more valuable present for your birthday, but I was short of money at that time.

A. much have bought B. had bought C. would have bought D. would buy

5. If she could sew, she _______ herself a shirt.

A. had made B. will make C. would have made D. made

6. _______ he come, the problem would be settled.

A. Would B. Should C. Shall D. If

7. I _______ to stay there for one more week, but I changed my mind.

A. would have hoped B. was hoping C. had hoped D. hoped

8. It's necessary that each child _________ the rules.

A. must obey B. still obey C. obeys D. obey

9. The officer gave the order that soldiers ______ to go out at night

A. mustn't be allowed B. not be allowed C. be not allowed D. shouldn't allow

10. His silence at the meeting suggested that he ______ to your plan.

A. shouldn't agree B. wouldn't agree C. hadn't agreed D. didn't agree

11. You ______ to the meeting yesterday . What was the reason for your absence?

A. had come B. came C. would have come D. should have come

12. He ______ the job well, but he _________ so careless.

A. hadn't done ; had been B. could have done ; was

C. could do ; was D. had done ; had been

13. There was plenty of time, she _______ have hurried.

A. wouldn't B. needn't C. couldn't D. mustn't

14. He didn't come yesterday, or you ________ him.

A. had seen B. might have seen C. were to see D. would see

15. Li Ning acted that way as though he _________ a foreigner.

A. were B. had been C. should be D. is

16. "Have you visited the Science Museum?" "No, but I really wish I _______ ."

A. had B. did C. have D. will

17. ______ he would have succeeded in the examinations.

A. If he has worked hard B. If he works hard

C. If he worked hard D. Had he worked hard

18. What would you do if the war ____________.

A. would break out B. were to break out C. will break out D. is broken out

19. Our former maths teacher died of cancer last term, otherwise he _________ now.

A. would still be working B. would still have worked

C. should still work D. will still work

20. If it _______ so hard, we'd go to town.

A. isn't going to rain B. doesn't C. weren't raining D. isn't raining

21. Without your help, I _______ the exam last term.

A. failed in B. would have failed C. wouldn't pass D. would fail

22. But for the Party, he ______ of hunger 30 years ago.

A. died B. would die C. must have died D. would have died

23. The doctor did everything he could so that he _________ save the soldier's life.

A. might B. must C. had to D. was able to

参考答案

1-5 B B B C C

6-10 B A D B D

11-15 D B B B A

16-20 A D B A C

21-23 B D A

虚拟语气

虚拟语气是通过特殊的谓语动词形式来表达的愿望、假设、怀疑、猜测或建议等语气,它不表示客观存在。

1、虚拟语气用于条件状语从句中

(1)表示与现在事实相反的假设,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用“过去式(be动词的过去式用were)”,而主句中的谓语动词用“would / should/ could / might + 动词原形”。如: If I were a boy, I would join the army.

If the had time, she should go with you.

(2)表示与过去的事实相反,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用过去完成时,主句中的谓语动词则用“would / should / might / could + have +过去分词”。如:

If he had taken my advice, he would have succeeded in the competition.

(3)表示与将来事实相反,条件状语从句中的谓语动词一般过去时或should(were to) + 动词原形,而主句中的谓语动词则用would / should/could might + 动词原形。如:

If it were to rain tomorrow, the football match would be put off.

(4)当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间作相应调整。如:

If they had worked hard, they would be very tired.(从句说的是过去,主句指的是现在) 以下表格是虚拟语气用于条件状语从句中时,主句和从句谓语动词的形式:

条件状语从句 主句 与过去事实相反 had + 过去分词 should /would/could/might + have + 过去分词 与现在事实相反 一般过去时(be用were) would/should/could/might + 动词原形 与将来事实相反

一般过去时或should(were to) + 动词原形

Would/should/cold/might + 动词原形

有时侯在使用时可省略if,句子则可换成下列形式,即“were / had / should +主语”。如: Were I a boy, I would join the army.

Had he taken my advice, he would have succeeded.

Were it not for the expense, I would go to Britain.

2、虚拟语气用于名词性从句

(1)虚拟语气在宾语从句中的运用。

①“wish + 宾语从句”表示不能实现的愿望,译为“要是??就好了”等。表示现在不能实现的愿望,从句中的谓语动词用一般过去时;表示将来不能实现的愿望,从句中的谓语动词用“would/could + 动词原形”;表示过去不能实现的愿望,从句中的谓语动词用“had + 过去分词”或“could(should) + have + 过去分词”。如:

I wish it were spring all the year round.

I wish I had known the answer.

I wish I could fly like a bird.

②在表示建议、要求、命令等的动词suggest、advise、propose、demand、require、insist request、command、order等后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用should + 动词原形或是动词原形。如: She suggested we (should)leave here at once.

The doctor ordered she should be operated.

(2)虚拟语气在同位语从句和表语从句中的运用。

作表示建议、要求、命令等的名词advise、idea、order、demand、plan、proposal、suggestion、request等的表语从句和同位语从句,从句中的谓语动词用“(should) + 动词原形”。如: His suggestion that we (should)go to Shanghai is wonderful.

My idea is that they (should)pay 100 dollars.

(3)虚拟语气在主语从句中的运用。

在主语从句中,谓语动词的虚拟语气用“should + 动词原形”的结构,表示惊奇、不相信、理应如此等。如:

It is necessary(important, natural, strange, etc.)that we should clean the room every day. It was a pity (a shame, no wonder, etc.)that you should be so careless.

It will be desired(suggested, decided, ordered, requested, proposed, etc.)that she should finish her homework this afternoon.

注意:这种从句表示的是事实。如果说人对这种事实表现出惊奇的情感,就可用虚拟语气。反之,如果不表示惊奇等情感,that从句也可用陈述句语气。如:

It is pity that you can’t swim.

3、虚拟语气在其他场合的运用

(1)虚拟语气在as if/as though、even if/even though等引导的表语从句或状语从句中,如果从句表示的动作发生在过去,用过去完成时;指现在状况,则用一般过去时;指将来状况则用过去将来时。如:

He did it as if he were an expert.

Even if she were here, she could not solve the problem.

(2)虚拟语气用于定语从句中。

这种从句常用于句型“It is (high)time (that) ? ”中,定语从句的谓语动词用一般过去时(be用were)或should + 动词原形,意思是“(现在)该??”。如:

It’s time that I picked up my daughter.

It’s high time we were going.

(3)虚拟语气用在if only引导的感叹句中。如:

If only I were a bird.

If only I had taken his advice.

(4)虚拟语气在一些简单句中的运用。

①情态动词的过去式用于现在时态时,表示说话人谦虚、客气、有礼貌或语气委婉,常出现在日常会话中。如:

It would be better for you not to stay up too late.

Would you be kind enough to close the door?

②用于一些习惯表达法中。如:

Would you like a cup of tea?

I would rather not tell you.

4、精典名题导解

1. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it _______. (NMET 95)

A. breaks B.has broken C.were broken D.had been broken

解析:答案为C。本题考查的是as if 引导的让步状语从句中的语气问题,as if引导的状语从句如果与事实一致,不用虚拟语气,如果与事实相反,应用虚拟语气。题中“当铅笔的一部分浸在水中,铅笔看上去好像断了”。而实际上铅笔并未断,与事实相反,前半部分陈述是一般现在时,因而本句是对一般现在时的虚拟,用were broken。

2. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she ___________, she would have met my brother.(NMET 94)

A. has come B.did come C.came D.had come

解析:答案为D。本题考查的是if条件句中的虚拟语气。题意是:我在会议上没看到你姐姐,故你姐姐没来。因此如果“她来了”与事实相反,前面一句交代了虚拟语气的时态是一般过去时的虚拟,所以if从句中用had+过去分词。

3. —If he ___________, he ________that food.

—Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately.(NMET 93)

A. was warned; would not take

B.had been warned; would not have taken

C.would be warned; had not taken

D.would have been warned; had not taken

解析:答案为B。本题考查的是条件状语从句与主句表示与事实相反时虚拟语气的用法。根据下一句语境可知,他事先并没有得到警告,表示过去时间的虚拟语气,故选B。

4. If there were no subjunctive, English ______ much easier. (NMET)

A. will be B.would have been C.could have been D.would be

5. The guard at the gate insisted that everybody ______ the rules. (NMET)

A. obeys B.obey C.will obey D.would obey

解析:根据insist后的宾语从句谓语要用(should) do形式规律,可定正确答案是B。

6. I wish I _____ you yesterday.

A. seen B.did see C.had seen D.were to see

解析:此题表与过去事实相反的原望,答案应为C。

7. —— If he _____ , he _____ that food.

—— Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. (NMET)

A. was warned;would not take B.had been warned;would not have taken

C.wuld be warned;had not taken D.would have been warned;had not taken

解析:从对话看,是表达与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,故答案为B。

8. Without electricity human life _____ quite different today. (NMET)

A. is B.will be C.would have been D.would be

解析:without引出一个含蓄条件句,主句表述的是与现在事实相反的虚拟语气,故答案为D。

9. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it look as if it _____. (NMET)

A .breaks B. has broken C. were broken D .had been broken

解析:放入水中的铅笔看上去是断的,但实际上并非如此,因此是与现在的事实相反,这时as if从句谓语要用一般过去时,故答案为C。

10. I didn he _____ , he would have said hello to me.

A .would come B. had come C. came D.did come

解析:观察题目上下文,特别是第二句的主句谓语为 would have said,可知if从句表述的是与过去事实相反的愿望,因此答案为B。

11. _____ it _____ for your help, I couldn have made any progress.

A .Had;not been B . Should ;not be C .Did ;not be D .Not ;be

解析:根据主句谓语形式,可知从句要用had done形式,故应选A,Had it not been for your help=If it had not been for your help.(要不是你帮忙的话)

12. Mr Smith was badly ill, or he _____ our dinner party.

A. should come to B. would have attended

C. would come to D. should have attended

解析:or可引导含蓄条件句,表达虚拟语气。根据此题内容,可知是与过去事实相反的假设,故答案为B。

虚拟语气

虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)这一语法项目是各类英语考试中心测试的重点之一。虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,用来表示说话人所说的话并不是事实,而是一种假设、愿望、怀疑或推测。

Ⅰ用以表示虚拟条件的虚拟语气

⒈ 用if条件从句表示的虚拟条件,是虚拟条件最普通的方式。

① 虚拟现在时表示与现在事实相反的假设,其if 从句的谓语形式用动词的过去式(be 一般用were),主句用would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形,例如:If I were in your position I would marry her.

② 虚拟过去时是表示与过去事实相反的假设,if 从句的谓语形式用过去完成时即had+过去分词,主句用would / should / could / might + have +过去分词,例如:If it had not rained so hard yesterday we could have played tennis.

③ 大多数的虚拟条件句属于上面三种情况的一种,但并不排除存在条件和后果中,一个和现在情况相反,另一个和过去情况相反,例如:If you had followed what the doctor said, you would not have been so painful now.这个句子在高中出现频率颇高。

④ 但是,如果后果用了虚拟语气,而条件却用陈述语气,这种用法是错的。

⒉ 除了表示虚假条件外,if从句还可以表示对将来的推测,由于是将来还没有发生的,所

以谈不上是真实的还是虚假的,只能说这个事情发生的可能性有多大。一般情况下,可以用陈述语气的if从句来表示对一个未来事实的推测,这个事实是完全可能发生的。If从句的谓语形式用一般过去式或用were to / should +动词原形,主句用would / should /could/ might +动词原形,例如:Jean doesn't want to work right away because she thinks that if she were to get a job she probably wouldn't be able to see her friends very often.(1996年1月四级第44题)

⒊ 有时可以把含有助动词、情态动词、be或have的虚拟条件句中的连词if 省去,而将had , should, were 等词提到主语之前,即用倒装结构,这时候,如果出现not等否定词,否定词需放在主语后面。这种结构在口语中很少使用,但频频出现在各类考试中出现,例如:If it had not rained so hard yesterday we could have played tennis.→Had it not rained so hard yesterday, we could have played tennis.

⒋ 大多数的虚拟条件通过上面所讲的两种方法表达,但在个别句子中也可以通过介词without和介词短语but for表达,副词otherwise等表达出来。例如:We didn't know his telephone number; otherwise we would have telephoned him.(1995年6月四级第46题)值得注意的是,包含but for的句子,谓语动词必定要用虚拟形式,但包含without等短语的句子,谓语动词未必一定要用虚拟语气。

⒌ 有时虚拟条件不是明确地表达出来,而在蕴含在用but引导的从句里,于是便出现了有谓语动词是虚拟语气的主句加上谓语动词是陈述语气的but从句构成的并列复合句,例如I would have hung you but the telephone was out of order.在这样的句子里,如果主句没有用虚拟语气,或者从句用了虚拟语气,都是错的。

Ⅱ用在宾语从句中的虚拟语气

⒈ 在表示愿望的动词wish后的宾语从句中,需用虚拟语气。(wish后的that 常省略),根据主句时态,从句谓语时态相应退后一位,例如:How she wished his family could go with him.

⒉ 在具有愿望、请求、建议、命令等主观意愿的动词(desire, demand, advice, insist, require, suggest, propose, order, recommend, decide ?) 后的宾语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用(should) +动词原形。值得注意的是,如果宾语从句的动词是否定的,否定词not的位置应在动词之前,而不是动词之后。例如:The head nurse insisted that the patient not be move.另外,如suggest表达“暗示”,insist表示“坚持某种说法”时,后面的从句不用虚拟语气,例如:Her pale face suggests that she is ill.或He insisted that he did not kill the boy.

除此之外,上述动词也要求用虚拟式

① 在It is+上述动词的过去分词,其后所跟的主语从句中,如It is suggested that pupils wear school uniforms.

② 在上述动词相应的名词形式作主语+连系动词,其后的表语从句中,例如His suggestion was that classed be re-scheduled.

③ 在对上述动词相应的名词进行解释的同位语从句中,如:The workers raised the demand that their pay be increased to cope with the inflation.

⒊ would (had)rather , would sooner也用来表达主观愿望,它们之后的宾语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用过去式表示现在或将来,用过去完成式表示与过去事实相反,例如:I would rather he went right now.

Ⅲ其他形式的虚拟语气

⒈ it is +necessary等形容词后,that主语从句中虚拟形式使用,这类形容词包括necessary, important, essential, imperative, urgent, preferable, vital, advisable等,例如It is necessary that you listen to the teacher carefully.或者It is essential that you be able to pronounce every single word correctly.

⒉ 在It's (high/about) time 之后的定语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用过去式,例如It is high time that you went to school

⒊ 虚拟语气在as if / as though 引导的方式状语从句中的应用(谓语动词形式与wish后的宾语从句基本相同)表示与现在事实相反或对现在情况有怀疑,谓语动词用过去式。例如:He felt as if he alone were responsible for what had happened. 表示过去想象中的动作或情况,谓语动词用过去完成式。

⒋ 在lest 引导的状语从句中,谓语动词多用虚拟语气,(should )+ 动词原形。例如: The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he injure himself.(1998年1月四级第38题)

⒌ 在if only 引起的感叹句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用过去式或过去完成式。例如: Look at the terrible situation I am in! if only I had followed your advice.

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