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发布时间:2014-02-22 19:23:58  

星战风暴 http://www.yikuang.net

The Hydropower Workers’ Song Heave, ah Heave! Ho! Heave! Heave, ah Cut the mount, split the ridge, 1000 mountains, 10,000 rivers Our footprints, the iron dragon rolls, transmitting light; Let burning ambition illuminate Heaven and Earth, cherish the majestic hydropower! Man, winds, and rains, how many springtimes of lofty sentiment Written on the great Earth; ‘tis the springtime of hydropower The heavens ablaze with color, la! la! We’re a new generation, a new generation of hydropower workers, a new generation Our achievements endure a thousand years, good for the country, good for the people Morning is coming Bringing the people an undying star! The four seas are our home, we work night and day, seeking brilliance Our spirits, iron and steel our army, tenaciously advancing; Let the Jade Emperor above be struck with awe, pleased with the tribute of hydropower Man, hot blood forged into rivers, bold science and technology Creating a glorious industry, from the high ridges come plains The waters reflecting white clouds, la! A new generation of hydro workers, bringing fortune to the fatherland, to the people The march of modernized construction brings the people an undying star Morning! 1 Heave! Ho! Heave!

Substations and Subregions

Large-scale hydropower and local development in Yunnan and southwest China

Darrin Magee, Ph.D. dmagee@u.washington.edu

2

Presentation Outline
?

Regional Development: Yunnan peripheral, Yunnan central
? ?

Economic, political, and cultural marginality Centrality to regional development policies

? ?

Details of Yunnan hydropower projects Decision-making & institutional challenges
? ? ?

Protection vs. Development Civil Society vs. Control Water Law vs. Bureaucratic Inertia

?

Suggestions for further research
3

Centrality and Marginality

Development Frameworks and Major Energy Infrastructure Projects

4

Regional Development: Domestic
?

Western Development Strategy (西部大开发)
?
?

Attempt to address coastal bias of reform era Emphases on transportation, power, & industry
2004 Discussion Forum and Trade Negotiations on Greater Pearl River Delta Cooperation & Development Nine provinces from Fujian to Yunnan, plus Macao and Hong Kong (“9+2 Region”) China Southern Power Grid (南方电网)
5

?

Pan-Pearl River Delta (凡珠三角)
?

?

?

RD 1: China’s “West”

Yunnan

6

Go West, Young Han?
?

Viewpoints on Western Development range from critical to optimistic
? ?

?

“Internal colonisation” Further entrenchment and legitimacy for longstanding patterns of resource extraction or… Real concern on behalf of Beijing leadership to seek more balanced development and address ~10:1 east/west gaps in per capita GDP

7

Western Development Strategy
? ? ?

?

?
?

Official launch in 2000 Centerpiece of 10th FYP (2001-2005) Increased direct fiscal transfers to west, along with favorable loan terms for in

frastructure projects Some critics argue that further subsidies are not the answer, call for new methods for financing capitalintensive projects (e.g., securities markets) Basic infrastructure, “ecological construction” Uncertainty about policies, but certainty that western resources play a key role
8

Key Projects (announced in 2000)
Project
Ningxia-Tibet Railway Chongqing-Huaihua Railway Western regions road construction

Location
Ningxia Province to Tibet Chongqing Municipality to Huaihua City Various areas

Western regions airport construction
Chongqing light rail Sebei-Xining-Lanzhou gas pipeline Qinghai 300,000-ton potash fertilizer factory Grain-for-Green project Higher education basic infrastructure Zipingpu Water Conservancy 中国西部开发大事记 (2003)

Various areas
Chongqing Municipality Qinghai Province, Gansu Province Qinghai Province Various areas Various areas Sichuan

9

Electricity & Western Development
?

Send Western Electricity East (西电东送)
?

Among second set of major Western Development projects prioritized in 2001
Ultra-high-voltage DC transmission lines (800 kV) expected by 2010, aimed at reducing voltage losses resulting from long-distance transmission Contract negotiations since late 1990s for power sales to Thailand and later Vietnam
10

?

Send Yunnan Power to Guangdong (滇电粤送)
?

?

Send Yunnan Electricity Outward (云电外送)
?

China’s Hydro Bases: Baker’s Dozen?

Northeast 11,983 N. Yellow 6,408

Yarlung 20,100 Dadu 17,720

U. Yellow 16,364.3

Jinsha 59,080 Nu 30,000 Lancang 21,470

Wu R. 10,615

U. Yangtze 28,897

Min-Zhe 14,871 Huxi 7,735

Nanpan/Red 12,012

11

Money for Megawatts
?

?

Guangdong investment in infrastructure to support power transfers Early 1990s…
?

?

2.39 B Yuan for Yunnan and Guangxi power stations 35 M Yuan in design and planning work for Xiaowan Dam on the Lancang

?

Guangdong currently receives 30-40% of power from external sources
12

(Mis)perceived synergy?
?

?

?

Guangdong peak power demand occurs during summer Yunnan’s peak hydropower generation output occurs during monsoon season (summer!) yet… Need for flood control is also highest during times of peak runoff into rivers (summer!)

13

Three west-east corridors (通道)
Northern Corridor From: Yalong Tsangpo

& Yellow
To: Capital area
Beijing / Tianjin area

Middle Corridor
From: Jinsha/Upper Yangtze To: Shanghai area
Shanghai / Zhejiang / Jiangsu area

Southern Corridor From: Lancang/Nu To: Guangdong area

Guangdong / PRD

14

RD 2: Pan-Pearl River Delta (PPRD)

PPRD Region Pearl River Delta

15

PPRD & China Southern Power Grid
?

?

Severe power outages in Guangdong in 2003; PPRD created in 2004, with power transfers as a key component Creation of new regions such as PPRD legitimize and naturalize certain policies and investment patterns

16

PPRD Initiatives
Topic
Industry investment and basic infrastructure

Key Initiatives
Science and technology,

west-east electricity transmission, interprovincial highway construction Quality control, commodity prices, intellectual property, enterprise collaboration, market oversight, trademark protection Agricultural technology, trade, key agro-industry promotion, specialized products, standardization of production bases, quality supervision and control Air quality monitoring in delta area, environmental monitoring network and reporting over PPRD area

Market construction

Agriculture

Regional environmental protection

Tourism, labor, science, education, culture, sanitation, and health

Tourism cooperation, educational exchange and resource sharing; food and medication security; infectious disease prevention and reporting
Information network interlinking and maintenance for government offices; website management groups
17

Create a convenient platform for information exchange and a PPRD information network Source: PPRD Office (2005)

Yunnan Electricity to Guangdong
? ?

Pan-Pearl River Delta Core: Guangdong’s Pearl River Delta

PPRD Region Pearl River Delta

18

Generation in the Southern Grid
Yunnan Guizhou Guangxi Guangdong Total

No. of Dams Installed Capacity (MW) Annual Output (Billion kWh) Output as % of 4Province Total

145 88,200 437.3 75.6

81 14,663 65.64 11.4

56 14,515 64.4 11.2

41 2,680 9.68 1.7

323 20,058 577.07

Population (millions) Per capita output (MWh/person)
Source: (Ji & Duan, 2001)

41.457 10.55

36.646 1.79

46.74 1.38

71.30 0.136

196.14 2.94

19

Thematic Map of Power Consumption

Data source: China Electric Power Yearbook Editorial Committee (Ed.) (2005)

20

Yunnan: Guangdong’s Powershed?
?

?

?

?

2001-2005, some 24 B kWh sent from Yunnan to Guangdong, even while rolling blackouts affected Yunnan 1993-2004, increase in dedicated generation capacity from 300 to 1800 MW Much of Lancang (Mekong) cascade capacity will be for Guangdong Yunnan likely to become sole supplier in near future based on growing demand in Guangxi
21

Why “Powershed”?
?

?

? ?

Obvious analogy to watershed; space over which a resource is collected/concentrated Underscores the fact that Yunnan hydro is not simply a Yunnan issue, and that familiar scalar analytics like provinces fail to capture the dynamics of interprovincial power transfers Challenges comfortable rural-urban dichotomy Opens door for simultaneous examination of political economic power relations
22

Making the connection: grid linking
?

?

?

?

Southern Grid: Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong 110-kV, 220-kV, 500-kV, and 800-kV (2010) transmission lines coexisting in porous grid Southern Grid and China Power Grid (中国南 方电网和中国电网) both formerly housed under the Ministry of Electric Power; split off in 2002 Goal to create national grid by ~2015
23

Challenges to grid interlinking
?

?

Differing voltages necessitate step-down or step-up stations (调度站) Numerous local, low-voltage grids across Yunnan (and

other provinces)
? ?

Some in poor areas with little or no infrastructure Some in rich areas with sufficient infrastructure and little incentive (at present) to interconnect 网对网 (grid to grid) vs 点对网 (point to grid)
24

?

Debate about national grid architecture
?

Regional Development: International
?

Mekong River Commission (湄公河委员会)
? ? ?

Half-century history; re-established in 1995 Entrenched perception of “MRC vs China” Little incentive for China to join, yet some recent progress in technical cooperation

?

Greater Mekong Subregion (大湄公河次区域)
? ?

Launched by Asian Development Bank in 1992 Seen as less of a political challenge than MRC

?

ASEAN (东盟)
25

GMS: Naturalizing the Subregion

Yunnan

Myanmar Laos

5 nation-states, one province-state; call for inclusion of second Chinese province (Guizhou), but not Tibet

Thailand Vietnam

Cambodia

GMS

26

GMS: Power, transport, tourism, trade
?

?

First transborder power sales from Yunnan to Vietnam via Hekou/Lao Cai in fall 2004 Second GMS leaders summit held in Kunming in July 2005
?

Agreements on electrical grid development and interconnection, trans-border movement of people and goods, disease prevention, etc.

?

Within Yunnan, GMS construct frequently deployed as justification for infrastructure investments (cf. Tibet)
27

GMS Projects
? ? ? ?

?
? ?

?
? ?

Agriculture Energy Environment Human Resources Investment Telecom Tourism Trade Transport Multisector

Second GMS Leaders Summit in Kunming, July 2005
28

GMS Transportation Loans to PRC
12/2004 Loan 2116: Dali-Lijiang Railway
9/2004 Loan 2094: Guangxi Roads Development Project II 10/2003 Loan 2014: Western Yunnan Roads Development Project 10/2001 Loan 1851: Guangxi Roads Development Project 9/1994 Loan 1325: Yunnan Expressway

29

GMS Transportation (partial)
3/2006 RETA 6310: Development Study on GMS North-South Economic Corridor 12/2005 TA 4742: GMS Northern Transport Network Improvement 9/2005 TA 4657: Preparing the Railway Development Project (Yunnan-Yuxi Mengzi Railway) 8/2005 RETA 6251: GMS Rehabilitation of the Railway in Cambodia 3/2005 RETA 6235: GMS Southern Coastal Corridor 12/2004 RETA 6227: Coordinating for GMS: North-South Economic Corridor Bridge Project (formerly Third Mekong Bridge) 12/2004 RETA 6228: Facilitating Cross-Border Trade and Investment in the GMS

10/2004 RETA 6193: GMS Infrastructure Connections in Northern Laos (SSTA); RETA 6195: GMS Transport Sector Strategy Study
12/2002 TA 4050: Prep Kunming-Haiphong Transport Corridor Project-Viet Nam

30

GMS Regional Power Trade (RPT)
1/2006 RETA 6304: GMS RPT Coordination & Development; Also RETA 6301: Developing the GMS Energy Sector Strategy 3/2004 RETA 4323: TA to the Lao PDR for Preparing the GMS: Nam Theun 2 (NT2) Hydropower Development Project- Phase II 12/2003 RETA 6147: Preparing the GMS Power Interconnection Phase I 1/2003 TA 4078: GMS: Cambodia Pre

paring the Power Distribution and GMS Transmission Project 11/2002 RETA 6100: TA to Study a GMS RPT Operating Agreement 7/2000 RETA 5920: Regional Indicative Master Plan on Power Interconnection

7/1999 RETA 3222: Se San 3 Hydropower – Viet Nam
7/1997 RETA 2926: Nam Ngum 500 kV Transmission – Lao PDR 8/1996 RETA 5697: Se Kong-Se San & Nam Theun Basins Hydro Dev Study

9/1995 RETA 5643: Subregional Electric Power Forum
31

Transboundary power sales
?

?

?

Power sold to Vietnam at higher tariff than to Guangdong or elsewhere in China Transboundary transmissions to Vietnam currently occur over low-voltage (110-kV) lines, but plans underway to complete 220-kV circuit to Vietnam by late 2006 and 500-kV circuit to Thailand via Laos Late 1990s negotiations between Thailand and Yunnan for joint investment in dams along with power purchase agreements; yet loud criticisms within Thailand of “Chinese” dams

32

Water to Watts

Details of Lancang (Mekong) and Nu (Salween) hydropower development

33

River as Power Source
? ?

Major push underway since mid-1980s to develop large-scale hydropower on Yunnan’s rivers Lancang-Mekong
? ?

4800 km long (1200 in YN) 6 countries 2800 km long (600 in YN) 3 countries

?

Nu-Salween
? ?

?
? ?

Jinsha-Chang-Yangtze Concern over impacts Great uncertainty

Manwan Dam

34

Project Details

Yunnan
Guangdong

35

Background: Hydropower Potential
?

?

China has half the world’s large1 dams (20K) TGP: 18,200 MW installed capacity
? ? ?

Hoover Dam: 2,067 MW Grand Coulee: 6,809 MW Columbia River: 24,149 MW

? ? ?

Lancang (Mekong) cascade: 16,150 MW Nu (Salween) cascade: 21,320 MW Concerns about downstream impacts and resettlement of thousands of villagers
36

1. WCD: >15 m high; China: >250 MW

Regional Power Consumption Trends
14000000 12000000

10000000

Yunnan

10,000 kWh

8000000

Guangdong Fujian Shanghai

6000000

Tianjin Beijing

4000000

2000000

0 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year 2000 2001 2002

37

Urban Power Consumption Trends
Urban Electricity Consumption
30

Terawatt-hours (TWh)

25 20 15 10 5 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 Year 2000 2001 2002 Guangzhou Shenzhen Dongguan Kunming

38

Power Consumption by Region
6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 N NE E SC SW
2002 2001 2000 1999 1995

100 M kWh

NW

39

Middle & Lower Lancang Cascade
Dam Name Installed Capacity (MW) Annual Output (Twh) Start Date End Date Dam Height (m) (Est.) Cost (Billion Yuan) Reservoir Volume (billion m3)

Gongguoqiao 功果桥a Xiaowan 小湾b Manwan 漫湾c Dachaoshan 大朝山e Nuozhadu 糯扎渡b Jinghong 景洪b Ganlanba 橄榄坝a Mengsong 勐宋a

750

4.060

2006-2007

2010-2015

130

3.8

0.51

4,200

18.89

January 2002

2012

292

22.3 to 27.7

15.13

1,500

7.805

May 1986

1995

132

3.4d

1.06

1,350

6.70

August 1997

October 2003

120.5

8.9

0.88

5,850

23.684*

End of 2005

2017

260

35.3

22.74

1,750

7.931

2004

2009-2013

107

17

1.23

150

0.899

?

?

?

0.6

?

600

2.

888

?

?

65

2.2

?

40

Lancang (Mekong) River

澜沧江

41

Xiaowan Dam Site
? ?

292 m tall ~25 B Yuan (~ $3B US)

42

Middle & Lower Nu Cascade
Dam Name Songta 松塔 Bingzhongluo 丙中洛 Maji 马吉 Lumadeng 鹿马登 Fugong 福贡 Bijiang 碧江 Yabiluo 亚碧罗 Lushui 泸水 Installed Capacity (MW) 4,200 1,600 4,200 2,000 400 1,500 1,800 2,400 Annual Output (Twh) 17.87 8.34 18.97 10.09 1.98 1.18 9.06 12.74 Start Date (Est) 2006-2007 ? 2006-2007 ? ? ? 2006-2007 ? End Date (Est) 2020-2030 2020-2030 2015-2020 2020-2030 2020-2030 2015-2020 2015-2020 2015-2020 Dam Height (m) 307 54.5 300 165 60 71.4 133 175 (Est.) Cost (Billion Yuan) 19.7 5.2 18.5 9.1 2.3 5.9 6.0 8.8

Liuku 六库 Shitouzai 石头寨
Saige 赛格 Yansangshu 岩桑树 Guangpo 光坡

180 440
1,000 1,000 600

0.76 2.29
5.37 5.2 3.15

2006-2007 ?
2006-2007 ? ?

2015-2020 2020-2030
2015-2020 2015-2020 2020-2030

35.5 59
79 84 58

0.9 2.3
3.6 4.4 2.9

43

Nu (Salween) River

怒江

44

Institutional Challenges

I: Environmental Impact Assessment Law vs. “Development First” Paradigm

45

Development vs. Protection
?

?

? ?

?

Middle & Lower Nu River Hydropower Planning Report submitted to the NDRC in July 2003 Environmental Assessment Law promulgated in September 2003. Nu River (Upper Salween) widely seen as a test case for “teeth” of law and enforcement capabilities of State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) March 2004: Call for suspension of Nu projects November 2004: Lancang EIA meeting held, but closed to public October 2006: Minister of Water Resources Wang Shucheng calls Nu projects “predatory development”
46

Projects halted due to EIA Law
Responsible Company Three Gorges Project Corp. Three Gorges Project Corp. Three Gorges Project Corp. Taicang Harbor Env. Prot. Power Gen. Co. Xuzhou Huaxin Power Gen. Co. Jiangsu Xutang Power Gen. Co. Jiangyin Sulong Power Gen. Co. Jiangsu Huadian Yangzhou Power Gen. Co. Xiamen Huaxia Int’l Electric Power Dev Co. Baotou East China Thermal Power Co. Qingyuan No. 1 Power Gen. Co. Ningxia Power Generation Group Co. Jiangsu Xinhai Power Gen. Co. Datang Int’l Stock Co. Inner Mongolia Huolin River Power Gen. Co. Project Jinsha R. Xiluodu Hydro Station (12600 MW) TGP Underground Power Gen. (4200 MW) TGP Power Supply station (100MW)* Jiangsu Taicang Harbor 4th stage 2×600MW exp. Jiangsu Xuzhou 2×300 MW exp. Jiangsu Xutang 2×300 MW exp. Jiangyinxia Harbor 2×330 MW exp. Thermal power & heat supply 2×300MW Xiamen Songyu Stn. 2nd Stage 2×300MW exp. Thermal power & heat supply 2×300 MW Gansu Qingyuan Stn. 3rd Stage 2×300 MW exp. Ningxia Maliantai Stn. 2×330 MW Jiangsu Xinhai 2×300 MW Power & Heat Supply Exp. Zhejiang Datang Wushashan Stn. 4×600 MW Inner Mongolia Huolin 2×300 MW

47

Projects halted due to EIA Law (cont’d)
Responsible Company Qufu Shengcheng Thermal Power Co. Sichuan Electric Power Co. Sichuan Electric Power Co. Fujian Province Electric Power Co. China Guodian Grou

p China Huadian Group Guodian Xuanwei Power Generation Co. Henan Zhongfu Industry Stock Co. Inner Mongolia Xinfeng Thermal Power Co. Inner Mong. Zhungeer Dafanpu Power Stn. Nanjing Suyuan Thermal Power Co. China Nat’l Petroleum & Natural Gas Co. Foshan Huafeng Paper Industries Co. Inner Mongolia Transportation Bureau Fuzhou City Development & Reform Comm. Project Qufu Shengcheng 2×200MW Nanchong-Wanxian 500-kV transmission project Guang’an-Nanchong 500-kV transmission project Fujian Power Grid Xiamen Hepu R. Transformer Stn. 500-kV power conversion & transmission project Ningxia Shizuishan 2×330 MW tech upgrade Guizhou Dafang 4×300 MW Yunnan Xuanwei Stn. 7th Stage 2×300 MW exp. Henan Zhongfu 2×300 MW exp. Xinfeng 2×300 MW power and heat supply Dafanpu Power Stn. 2×300 MW Suyuan Thermal Power Co. 2nd stage 2×300 MW power & heat supply Lanzhou Petrochem Stock Co. 1.2 Megaton/year delayed coking project Upgrade to 300 kiloton/year high-grade paper project Portion of Dandong-Lhasa highway project Fujian Min R. North Harbor Southside Flood Prev. Project and South R. road construction project

48

Institutional Challenges

II: Civil society vs. Legal Regulations on Organizations

49

Civil Society Organizations
?

?

? ?

?

Since late 1990s, increasing concern among NGOs in downstream countries about impacts of Chinese development of upstream waters Strong anti-dam NGO community in Thailand; no real analog in China Complicated by transboundary power sales More recent development of organizations mobilized around environmental and cultural preservation within China “Safe” topics, but idea of non-state organizations generally troubling to China’s leadership
50

Fine print: dual oversight
?

? ?

?

?

CSOs could formerly register with industrial or commercial bureaucracy as “non-enterprise units” Registration with the Ministry of Civil Affairs Adoption by a professional bureaucracy (forestry, agricultural, transportation, science and technology, etc.) that agrees to oversee the organization Theoretically, only one organization at any one administrative level focused on same issue Many (80%?) exist peacefully below regulatory radar as long as focus of work is not considered sensitive (eg. poverty alleviation)
51

Fine Print 2 (2005)
?

?

?

?

No longer allowed to register with industrial and commerce bureaucracy as non-enterprise (or nonprofit) units; instead, MUST register with civil affairs Law targeted unregistered organizations and those with “social science”, “research center”, or “research institute” in their names Two-week deadline given for re-registration with civil affairs administration Case of Green Watershed and Yu Xiaogang

52

Institutional Challenges

III: Bureaucratic Jockeying vs. Water Law

53

Analysis of decision making
?

Decision making about hydropower.
? ? ?

Who is at the table? What leverage do they have? How is this changing?

?

?

Reforms in wa

ter and electricity sector since mid-1990s have left many conflicts, overlaps, and ambiguities Process depends on perspective
54

Perspective 1: Hydro Companies
? ?

?

Formerly part of central ministry Restructuring from 1996 to 2002 changed the shape of hydropower development authorities, but perhaps not the way they do business Maintenance of direct connections to Energy Bureau of NDRC, and State Council

55

Ministry to SOE to Stock Company
State Power Grid Southern Power Grid China Huaneng

Grid Companies
China Huadian Ministry of Electric Power (<1998) State Power Corp. of China (1998-2002)

Generation Companies

China Datang

Design Companies

China Power Investment

China Guodian

China Power Engineering

China Hydro Consulting

Sinohydro Corporation

China Gezhouba Co.

56

Perspective 2: Basin Commission
?

?

?

?

CWRC: One of seven watershed commissions that are neither local nor national in administrative scope 50 years as technical agency; less than five as an enforcement authority Chicken and egg: comprehensive plan vs. hydropower plan Hydro leading planning; authority of CWRC being skirted.
57

Watershed (Basin) Commission prepares comprehensive plan

Decision-Making Process from CWRC Perspective
Input from local gov’t & central ministries (forestry, transportation, navigation, agriculture water, SEPA)

Survey & Design Institute(s)

Developer solicits project pre-feasibility study

Pre-feasibility study approved by Basin Commission

Banks and other financiers

Survey & Design Institute(s)

Developer solicits technical plan & feasibility study

Feasibility study & plan approved by Basin Commission

Developer begins work on project (bidding, contracting)

Construction Companies

Developer submits project application report Survey & Design Institute(s)

Potential State Council Intervention

Basin Commission approves project application report

58

Developer makes initial project proposal

Input from local governments

Survey & Design Institute(s)

NDRC approves project concept

Developer prepares detailed proposal

Input from local gov’t & central ministries (forestry, transportation, navigation, agriculture water, SEPA)

Decision-Making Process from Company Perspective

YDRC approves detailed proposal

Survey & Design Institute(s)

NDRC approves detailed proposal

Developer submits project application Potential State Council Intervention

NDRC approves project application

Developer begins work on project (bidding, contracting)

Banks and other financiers

Survey & Design Institute(s)

Construction Companies

59

Further Research

Water, Power, Economic Development, Decision Making, Environmental and Human Health

60

Science and Sustainability
?

?

大型水电 = 可再生能源 (large hydro = renewable resource) Frequent conflation of scientific development sustainable development
?

Implication: If it’s “scientific,” it’s sustainable

?

Whose scientists produce the science?

61

Nu/Sal

ween Hydropower Cascade
?

?

?

Key arguments that have brought large-scale hydro into question If Nu 13-dam cascade is cancelled, implications for local development Implications for pluralization of decisionmaking processes regarding natural resources and local development

62

South-North Water Diversion
?

Three routes
?

Eastern, Central, Western
Pollution & human health impacts Environmental impacts High-altitude transfers Basin commissions Provincial D & R commissions
63

?

Technical issues
? ? ?

?

Jurisdictional issues
? ?

Small-scale hydropower
?

Often touted as benign alternative
?
? ?

Run-of-river vs. impoundment Local and inexpensive technology Minimal investment
Approval at prefecture/city level or lower Start first, approve later Few controls on construction Little incentive to integrate with grid
64

?

Less oversight, more shortcuts
? ? ? ?


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