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发布时间:2014-02-22 19:24:17  

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Reproductive System
? Section 1 Reproductive and Hormonal Functions of the Male ? Section 2. Reproductive and Hormonal Functions of the Female ? Section 3. Hormonal control of the menstrual cycle ? Section 4 Pregnancy ? Section 5 Oxytocin

Section 1 Reproductive and Hormonal Functions of the Male

Functions of testes
? spermatogenesis
– seminiferous tubules

? secrete hormones
– testosterone - by the instestitial cels of Leydig, – inhibin - by Sertoil cells

I. Endocrine Function of Testes
? Androgens: testosterone, dihydrotesterone (双氢睾酮) and androstenodione (雄烯二酮) ? Function of testosterone
– Maintenance of spermatogenesis – Stimulation of development of genitalia. – Development and maintenance of the male secondary sexual characteristics. – Maintenance of libido. – Effect on metabolism.
? ? ? ? increases anabolism of protein, causes growth of the bones deposition of calcium salts enhancement of production of red cells.

Endocrine Function of Testes (cont.)
? Inhibin
– a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 31,000-32,000 – Secreted by by Sertoil cells in testis – potent inhibitory effect on FSH secretion by pituitary gland. – slightly inhibitory in GnRH secretion.

II. Regulation of Testis Function
? HypothalamicPituitary-Testis Axis
– GnRH – FSH, LH – Testerone

?

Negative Feedback Mechanism
– Testosterone – Inhibin

? Local regulation in testes

Section 2 Reproductive and Hormonal Functions of the Female

I. Menstruation, Ovulation and Hormonal Regulation
? Menstruation cycle or female sexual cycle
– Uterine cycle
? ? ? ? ? ? Proliferative phase (estrogen phase) Secretary phase (progesterone phase) Menstruation Follicular phase Ovulation Luteal phase

– Ovarian Cycle

Uterine Cycle
? Proliferative phase (estrogen phase) ? Secretary phase (progesterone phase) ? Menstruation

Ovarian Cycle
?
? ?

Follicular phase
Ovulation Luteal phase

Endocrine Functions of Ovaries
? Physiological function of estrogen
– On sexual organs – On secondary female sexual characteristics – On metabolism – others

? Physiological function of progesterone
– on uterus – on breasts – thermogenic effect – others

Section 3. Hormonal control of the menstrual cycle

Section 4 Pregnancy

I. Fertilization and Implantation

II. Hormones of Placenta
? Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) ? Progesterone and Estrogen ? Human Chorionic Somatommotropin (HCS)

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
?
? ?

?
? ?

glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 39,000 secreted by the syncytial trophoblast cells can be measured in the blood 8 to 9 days after ovulation Function:
identical to LH in its effect maintain the corpus letum

Progesterone and Estrogen
? Secreted by corpus luteum before 5-6 weeks of pregancy and by placenta later ? maintain the endometrium and prevent menst

ruation ? Estrogen: cause enlargement of uterus, breasts and mother’s female external genitalia ? Progesterone: decrease the contractility of pregnant uterus

Human Chorionic Somatommotropin (HCS)
? protein with molecular weight of 38,000 ? begins to be secreted by the placenta at the 5th week of pregnancy ? Secretion in direct proportion to the weight of placenta. ? Function
– stimulates growth of fetus – regulates metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein in both the fetus and the mother


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