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初中语法一本通一年时间自己整理的

发布时间:2013-11-02 08:07:53  

名词

(一)概述

名词是表示人、地方、事物或抽象概念名称的词,可以说名词是万物之名称。它们可以是: 人的名字 Li Ming, Tom 地方名称 China, London 职业称呼 teacher, doctor 物品名称 pencil, dictionary 行为名称 study, invention 抽象概念 history, grammar (二)普通名词和专有名词 1.普通名词

凡不属于特定的人名、地名、事物名称或概念名称的名词,都属于普通名词。这类名词在所有的名词中占绝大多数。普通名词大致有以下四种类型: 1)个体名词

个体名词指作为个体而存在的人或物。可以指具体的人或物,例如: 他有两个姑姑。

多数教室里都有电脑。 也可指抽象东西,例如: We?ve lived here for twenty 我们在这里住了二十年了。

我昨晚做了一个梦。

个体名词有复数形式,如:weeks, problems;单数形式可以和a/an连用,如:a week, a problem, an old man. 2)集体名词

集体名词表示由个体组成的集体,下面是一些常见的集体名词:

family(家,家庭) army(军队) company(公司;全体船员) enemy(敌人) government(政府) group(小组,团体) public(公众) team(队;组) police(警方) 集体名词有时作单数看待,有时作复数看待。 一般说来,视为整体时作单数看待,想到它的成员时作复数看待:

例如:

有的集体名词通常用作单数,例如:

我们公司将派他去柏林工作。

有的集体名词多作复数看待。例如:

警察正在找他。

3)物质名词

物质名词指无法分为个体的东西,我们学过的常见的物质名词有:

beer, cloth, coal, coffee, coke, cotton, ice, ink, jam, juice, meat, medicine, metal, milk, oil paper, rain, salad, salt, sand, snow, soup, steel, sugar, tea, water, wine, wood, wool等。

一般说来,物质名词是不可数折,因而没有复数形式。但有一些特殊情况:

a.有些物质名词可用作可数名词,表示“一份”,“一杯”:

请来三杯啤酒。

给我一份巧克力冰淇淋。

b.有此物质名词可作可数名词,表示“一种”:

这是一种特别的茶,有桔子花叶。

那是一种美味的红酒。

c.个别物质名词可用于复数形式或有特殊意义:

现在是春天雨季的时候。

这是去看的积雪。

d.抽象名词

抽象名词主要表示一些抽象概念,一般不可数,因此没有复形,前面也一般不加不定冠词a/an。常见的抽象名词有:

age, anger, beauty, childhood, death, duty, fear, fun, happiness, health, help, history, industry, joy, labour, love, luck, music, nature, peace, pleasure, power, safety, silence, sleep, time, training, travel, trust, truth, waste, weather, work, worth, youth等。

在多数情况下,这种名词常用于单数形式,不加任何冠词。例如:

安全第一!

It?s wonderful

天气好极了。

但有时也加定冠词the,或不定冠词a/an.

例如:

我永远不会忘记那个湖的美丽。

There?s

朴实之中有一种美。

2.专有名词

专有名词主要指人名、地名及某些类人和事物专有的名称。例如:

1)人名:Mary, Mrs Green, Zhanghua

2)地名:Beijing, West Lake

3)某类人的名称:Americans, Russians

4)某些抽象事物的名称:English, Chinese

5)月份、周日及节日名称:May, Saturday, Easter

6)书名、电影及诗歌的名称:Cone with the Wind

7)对家人等的称呼:Mum, Dad, Uncle Tom

专有名词的第一个字母要大写。

(三)可数名词和不可数名词

名词按其所表示的事物的性质分为可数与不可数名词两类。可数名词有复数形式,不可数名词一般没有复数形式。

普通名词中的个体名词和集体名词一般是可数的,所以它们又可称为可数名词。可数名词单数往往要同不定冠词a或an连用,复数则要使用其复数形式。例如:

普通名词中的物质名词和抽象名词及专有名词一般是不可数的,这些名词又可称为不可数名词。不可数名词不能用不定冠词修饰,也不存在复数形式,如ice (冰),water (水), rice (稻子)等。 在英语中个别名词既可以作不可数名词,又可以作可数名词。但由于用法不同,它们的意思往往也不大相同,对这些名词要特别注意。

例如

一般说来,汉语和英语对某一个名词是否可数的看法基本上是一致的。但也有不少名词在汉语中常被用作可数名词,而在英语中却绝对是不可数名词,对这些名词也要特别注意,发如:fun ,work ,advice ,weather ,homework ,news ,money ,information ,bread ,hair ),chalk ,furniture 等。

(四)可数名词复数形式的构成

少数以辅音字母加o结尾的名词变为复数时只加-s。如:photo→photos, piano→pianos 等。

有些以f结尾的名词变为复数时也只加-s。如:handkerchief→handkerchiefs, roof→roofs等。

英语中还有不少名词的复数形式是不规则的,必须把它们牢记在心。如:man→men, woman→women, Frenchman→Frenchmen, child→children, tooth→teeth, foot→feet, goose→geese, mouse→mice, sheep→sheep, deer→deer, fish→fish等。

(五)名词的所有格

在英语中,有些名词的词尾 可以加上?s,用来表示所有关系,这种结构称为名词的所有格。

1.名词所有格的构成

名词所有格的构成一般有以下三种情况:

1)如果名词是单数,只在词尾加?s。

例如:

the boy?s schoolbag 这男孩的书包

the worker?s shoes 这个二人的鞋

2)复数名词如果以s结尾,只加?(在s的右上角)即可

如:

the teachers? office 老师们的办公室

the students? classroom 学生们的教室

3)复数名词如果不以s结尾,则在词尾加?s

如:

Women?s Day 妇女节

the People?s Park 人民公园

2.名词所有格的用法

名词的所有格主要有以下五种用法:

1)表示人成动物与其他的人、动物或事物的所有关系。

例如:

He is Mary?s younger brother.

他是玛丽的弟弟。

They are reading Lei Feng?s Diaries.

他们在读雷锋的日记。

2)表示时间、距离、国家、城市等名词与其他事物的所有关系。

例如:

Our school is half an hour?s walk from here.

我们学校离这儿步行有半小时的距离。

Beijing is China?s capital.

北京是中国的首都。

3)表示无生命东西的名词的所有关系,一般使用与of构成的短语结构。

例如:

The front door of the house was painted red.

那屋子的前门被漆成了红色。

There is a map of the world on the front wall of our classroom.

我们教室前面的墙上有一幅世界地图。

4)名词所有格后面跟地点,往往要将地点名词省略。

例如:

My sister often goes to my uncle?s.

我的妹妹经常到我叔叔家去。

You look ill. You?d better go to the doctor?s.

你脸色不好,最好去看看病。

5)被名词所有格所修饰的词,如果前面已经提出到过,一般可以省略。

例如:

I am using my dictionary. You can use Tom?s.

我们字典我正在用,你可以用汤姆的。

Our bedroom is much larger than John and Dick?s.

我们的寝室比约翰私迪克的大得多

(六)可数名词和不可数名词的数量表达

1.两种名词都有能修饰的数量词有:some, any, plenty of, a lot of, lots of等。

例如:

Please give me some paper.

请给我一些纸。

I don?t want to borrow any magazines.

我不想借什么杂志。

2.用来修饰可数名词的数量词有:many, several. hundreds of, a number of, a pair of, a few, few等。 例如:

You have made quite a few spelling mistakes in your composition.

你的俄文中有很多拼写错误。

Several days later, a group of students went to help the old man.

几天以后,一群学生去帮助了那位老人。

3.用来修饰不可数名词的数量词有:much, a great deal of, a bit of, a drop of, a piece of, quite a little, little,等。 例如:

I want a piece of red chalk.

我想要一支红粉笔。

Please give her a bit of bread.

请给她一点面包。

(七)名词的用法

1.作主语

例如:

广播说一会儿雨可能会停。

2.作表语

例如:

三班获胜了。

3.作宾语

例如:

我给他讲了个故事。

4.作宾语补足语

例如:

他给她取名詹妮。

5.作定语

例如:

我们正在讨论人口问题。

6.作状语

例如:

He sat here a long time.

他坐在这儿很久了。

7.与介词组成词组

例如:

我正在努力学习汉语。

8.作介词宾语

例如:

Give the money to your sister.

把钱给你姐姐。

三、随堂监测A组

I. 写出下列名词的复数形式:

1. house _________ 2. village ___________ 3. map __________

4. orange _________ 5. bag ___________ 6. exercise ___________

7. brush __________ 8. family ___________ 9. bus ___________

10. city __________ 11. box ___________ 12. baby __________

13. class __________ 14. factory _________ 15. glass __________

16. dictionary __________ 17. watch _________ 18. woman _________

19. match __________ 20. man _________ 21. wish __________

22. German __________ 23. tomato _________ 24. policeman ___________

25. kilo __________ 26. human _________ 27. potato ___________

28. Chinese __________ 29. shelf __________ 30. Japanese __________

31. leaf ___________ 32. American __________33. life ___________

34. tooth __________ 35. wife ___________ 36. foot ___________

37. knife __________ 38. sheep __________ 39. half ___________

40. child __________

II. 将下列词组译成英语:

1、一群孩子 2、两箱子苹果

3、三篮子蔬菜 4、九块面包

5、十杯牛奶 6、五块肉

7、多种植物 8、一副眼镜

9、两块冰 10、三张纸

11、四瓶橘汁 12、五杯茶

13、六碗米饭 14、七袋米

15、八块木头 16、九块金属

III. 写出下列各词的名词形式:

1. work _________ 2. teach _________ 3. sing ________ 4. ill ___________

5. fight ___________ 6. invent ________ 7. wait ________ 8. woolen __________

9. win ____________ 10. thankful ________ 11. foreign _________ 12. cloudy ________

13. run __________ 14. dirty __________ 15. visit _________ 16. funny __________

17. wooden ________ 18. medical ________ 19. operate ________ 20. hot __________

21. invite __________22. worried ________ 23. build __________ 24. please ________ 25. help _________ 26. safe _________ 27. die _________ 28. dangerous _______ 29. draw ________ 30. noisy ________

四、随堂监测B组

Ⅳ. 选择填空:

1. I want to buy ________.

A. two bottles of ink B. two bottle of ink C. two bottle of inks D. two bottles of inks 2. They don?t have to do _______ today.

A. much homework B. many homeworks C. many homework D. much homeworks 3. The ______ of machine made us feel sick.

A. voice B. noise C. sound D. noises 4. The blouse is made of ________.

A. a wool B. these wood 5. There are three ______ and seven ______ in the picture.

A. cows, sheeps B. cows, sheep 6. June 1 is _______.

A. children?s day B. children?s Day 7. ______ room is next to their parents?.

A. Kate?s and Joan?s B. Kate?s and Joan 8. Miss Green is a friend of _______.

A. Mary?s mother?s B. Mary?s mother 9. Tom is ______. He will come to see me.

A. my a friend B. a friend 10. Sheep _______ white and milk _______ also white.

A. is, are B. are, is 11. I?d like to have a glass of milk and _______.

A. two breads C. two pieces of bread 12. It?s a long ______ to Paris. It?s two thousand kilometers.

A. street B. road 13. Many ______ are singing over there.

A. woman B. women 14. He bought _______.

A. two pairs of shoes C. two pairs of shoe 15. Mr. White has three _______.

A. child B. children 16. Beijing is one of the biggest _______ in the world.

A. citys B. city 17. --- Where?s Mr. White? --- He?s in _______.

A. the room 202 B. Room 202 18. Shops, hospitals and schools are all _______.

A. places B. homes 19. Every morning Mr. Smith takes a _______ to his office.

A. 20 minutes? walks B. 20 minute?s walk 20. ---Are these ______? --- No, they aren?t. They?re _______.

A. sheep, cows B. sheep, cow 21. There are many ______ in the fridge.

A. fish B. fruit

C. wools C. cow, sheep C. Children?s Day C. Kate and Joan?s C. Mary mother?s C. mine friend C. is, is B. two pieces of breads D. two piece of bread C. way C. girl B. two pair of shoes D. two pair of shoe C. childs C. cityes C. the Room 202 C. rooms C. 20-minutes walk C. sheeps, cow C. eggs D. wool D. cow, sheeps D. Children?s day D. Kate and Joan D. mother?s of Mary D. a friend of mine D. are, are D. end D. child D. childrens D. cities D. room 202 D. buildings D. 20-minute walk D. sheeps, cows D. bread

22. --- Whose room is this? --- It?s _______.

A. Li Ming B. Li Ming?s C. Li Mings D. Li Mings? 23. Here are ______ for you, Sue.

A. potatos B. some potatoes C. three tomatos D. some tomato 24. Here are some birthday cards with our best ______ for her.

A. wish B. hope C. wishes D. hopes 25. I always go to that ______ to buy food on Sunday.

A. shop B. park C. zoo D. garden 26. What?s the Chinese for “ PRC”?

A. 中国人民解放军 B. 中华人民共和国 C. 联合国 D. 中国共产党 27. Sam gave Ann some _______ to look after Polly while he was away.

A. picture-books B. inventions C. instructions D. messages 28. --- Which of the following animals lives only in China? --- The ________.

A. monkey B. elephant C. panda 29. ______ room is on the 5th floor.

A. Lucy and Lily B. Lucy and Lily?s C. Lucy?s and Lily Lily?s

30. The third month of the year is _______.

A. March B. January C. February 31. Mum, I?m quite thirsty. Please give me ________.

A. two orange B. two bottle of oranges C. two bottles of orange D. two bottles of oranges 32. How wonderful! The ______ is made of _______.

A. house, glass B. house, glasses C. houses, glass 33. I met some ______ in the park and talked with them the other day.

A. Janpaneses B. American C. Chineses 34. _______ is the best time for planting trees.

A. Summer B. Winter C. Spring 35. Tom was badly hurt in the match. They carried him to the ______ as quickly as possible.

A. bank B. post office C. shop 36. There are two ______ in the room.

A. shelf B. shelfs C. shelfes 37. There are seven ______ in a week.

A. years B. months C. days 38. My father is a ______. He works in a hospital.

A. teacher B. doctor C. farmer 39. It?s very cold today. Why don?t you put on your ______?

A. watch B. shirt C. sweater 40. --- Excuse me, are you ______? --- Yes, I?m from ________.

A. Japan, Japanese B. China, Chinese C. England, English America

V. 各地中考题选编:

1. --- Where is Tom? --- He?s left a ______ saying that he has something important to do.

A. excuse B. message C. exercise 2. There is no ______ in the bus so we have to wait for another bus.

A. room B. a room C. rooms 3. --- Would you like some ______? --- Oh, yes. Just a little.

A. pears B. oranges C. sugar 4. You can find the following INSTRUCTIONS on _______. KEEP IN A COLD PLACE

D. cat D. Lucy?s and D. April D. houses, glasses D. English D. Autumn D. hospital D. shelves D. minutes D. writer D. glasses D. American, D. news D. seats D. apples

A. food B. money C. clothes D. books

5. Mr. Green has lived in the _____ hotel since he came to China.

A. five-star B. five-stars C. five star?s D. five stars

6. She was born in Wuhan, but Beijing has become her second _______.

A. home B. family C. house D. place

7. --- What?s the _____ today? --- It?s June 26.

A. day B. date C. time D. hour

8. English is spoken as a first language in ______.

A. the USA B. India C. Japan D. China

9. ______ comes from cows.

A. Wool B. Chicken C. Pork D. Milk

10. Which of the following does paper burn in?

A. co2 B. N2 C. O2 D. H2

11. Let the children go away. They?re making too much ______ here.

A. noise B. voice C. noisy D. sounds

12. ______ comes from sheep and some people like eating it.

A. Wool B. Pork C. Mutton D. Milk

13. --- Oh, there isn?t enough ______ for us in the lift.

--- It doesn?t matter, let?s wait for the next.

A. ground B. floor C. place D. room

14. _______ is the biggest city in China.

A. Beijing B. Shanghai C. Guangzhou D. Kunming

15. The Englishman Stephenson (史蒂芬孙), invented _______.

A. the ship B. the car C. the plane D. the train

冠词

重点知识归纳及讲解

(一)概说

1.冠词是一种虚词,不能独立担任一个成分,只能附着在一个名词上,帮助说明其词义。英语中有两个冠词:

1)定冠词the

2)不定冠词a/an

定冠词the通常读作[],在元音前读作[i],特别强调或单念时读作[i:]。

不定冠词在元音音素开始的单词前用an这个形式,读作[n];在其他情况下则使用a,读作[]。

2.冠词的基本意义

不定冠词a/an与数词one同源,表示“一个”的意思,用在可数名词单数前。

例如:

She is a nurse.

她是个护士。

He is an Englishman, with an Irish wife.

他是一位英国人,有一个爱尔兰妻子。

定冠词the,与this同源,有“这(那)个”的意思,但比较弱,表示一(几)个特定的人或东西,有时可译作“这个(些)”或“那个(些)”。

例如:

That?s the book you want.

这就是你要的那本书。

Who?s the young man over there?

那边那个年轻人是谁?

但在很多情况下,“这”或“那”这类词在译文中并不出现。

例如:

Put it on the table.

把它放在桌上。

Shut the door, please.

请把门关上。

3.特指和泛指

一般来说,名词有特指和泛指两种情况,请比较下面的句子:

A gentleman is asking to see you.

有位先生要求见你。(泛指)

Ask the gentleman to come in.

请那位先生进来。(特指)

在特指时一般前面要加定冠词,而泛指时则有三种情况:

1)在可数名词单数前加不定冠词。

例如:

She sent me a postcard

她寄给我一张明信片。

2)在可数名词复数前可不加冠词,可使用some, any这类词。

例如:

These are new words.

这些是生词。

She sent me some flowers.

她送给我一些花。

3)在不可数名词前多不加什么,有时也可加some, any等。

例如:

It?s lovely weather.

天气真好。

Do you want any sugar in your tea?

你茶里要放点糖吗?

Give us some help.

给我们一些帮助。

(二)不定冠词的基本用法

1.泛指某一类人或事物中的一个,代表某一类别(不一定译为“一”)

例如:

His father is a doctor.

他父亲是医生。

2.代表某一类人或事物,相当于any(+名词)(不必译为“一”,但必须用a,表示类别) 例如:

A horse is a useful animal.

马是有用的动物。

3.指某人或某物(不是指某一类),但不具体说明何人或何物(一般译为“一”) 例如:

This book was written by a worker.

这本书是一位工人写的。

4.表示数量,有“一”的意思,但数的概念没有one强烈(一般译为“一”)

例如:

Wait a moment.

等一下。

5.表示单位,相当于“每”的意思

例如:

We have three meals a day.

我们每日吃三餐。

6.用于某此固定词组中

例如:

a few, a little, a bit (of), a lot of等。

(三)定冠词的基本用法

1.特指某(些)人或某(些)事物

例如:

Give me the book.

把那本书给我。

2.指谈话双方都知道的人或事物

例如:

Where is the doctor?

医生在哪儿?

3.再次提到上文提到过的人或事物

例如:

I bought a dictionary yesterday. The dictionary is at home. 昨天我买了一本词典。词典在家里。

4.用在大家所熟悉的、世界上独一无二的事物 例如:

The earth is bigger than the moon, but smaller than the sun. 地球比月亮大,但比太阳小。

5.用在序数词和形容词最高级前

例如:

Mr Wang teaches the first class.

王先生上第一节课。

Of all the stars the sun is the nearest to the earth. 在所有的恒星中,太阳离地球最近。

6.用在单数可数名词,表示某一类人或事物 例如:The horse is a useful animal.

马是有用的动物。

7.与下列专有名词连用

1)在江、河、湖、海、群岛、山脉的名称前 例如:

the Changjiang River, the Great Lake

2)在姓氏的复数名词前,表示夫妇二人或全家人 例如:

The Greens are sitting at the breakfast table.

格林一家人正围坐在早餐桌旁。

8.和某些形容词连用,表示一类人

例如:

the old 老人 the young 年轻人

the rich 富人 the poor 穷人

the sick 病人 the dead 死人

9.在一些习惯说法中

the east (west, south, north)

in the morning (afternoon, evening)

on the left (right)

in the end

go to the cinema

(四)不用冠词的几种情况

1.在专有名词,抽象名词和物质名词前

例如:

Have you ever been to Shanghai?

你到过上海吗?

We love science.

我们爱好科学。

2.在表示一类人或事物的复数名词前

例如:

Girls can be scientists.

女孩子可以当科学家。

3.在季节、月份、星期、一日三餐的名称前

例如:

It is hot in summer.

夏天天气热。

It?s Tuesday, August the 22nd.

今天是八月二十二日,星期三。

Have you had breakfast?

你吃过早饭没有?

4.称呼语或表示头衔,职务的名词前

例如:

What?s the matter with you, Mike?

怎么啦,迈克?

He is headmaster of our school.

他是我们学校的校长。

5.学科和球类运动的名称前

例如:

We study English.

我们学习英语。

Do you like to play football?

你喜欢踢足球吗?

6.名词前已有用作定语的this, that my, your, some, any, no, whose, every, each等代词时,不用冠词 例如:

That is her bike.

那是她的自行车。

Each student in his class studies hard.

这个班的每个学生都努力学习。

7.在某些固定词组的名词前

例如:

at home, at night, after school, by bus, in bed, in town, in front of, go to school, go to bed等。

三、随堂监测A组

I. 在下列句子的空格中填上适当的冠词,不需要的地方用“/”表示:

1. This is ______ old map. It is ______ useful map.

2. We have no classes in ______ afternoon on _______ Saturday.

3. ______ spaceship flies at about eleven kilometers _______second.

4. Beijing is ______ capital of ______ China. It is _______ beautiful city.

5. Roman was not built in ______ day.

6. Chinese is quite ______ difficult language for Mike.

7. Many ______ students will take ______ active part in sports meet.

8. There is ______ interesting picture on ______ wall.

9. Jenny found ______ wallet lying on ______ground. ______ wallet was Mr. Black?s.

10. Which is ______ biggest, ______ sun, ______ moon, or ______ earth?

11. --- Which picture is more beautiful? --- ______one on ______ left, I think.

12. --- Which is _____ way to ______ hospital?

--- Go down this road and turn left on ______ second crossing.

13. _______ more, _______ better.

14. _______ Turners are sitting at breakfast table.

15. Joe Hill was _______ fighter for ______ working class.

16. When was ______ People?s Republic of China founded?

17. In China ______ first English textbooks were published in _____late nineteenth century.

18. After ______ breakfast he went to ______ school on ______ foot.

19. ______ Huanghe River lies in ______ north of China.

20. He likes playing ______ football. His sister likes playing ______ piano.

II. 单项选择:

1. 上学 A. go to school B. go to the school C. go to a school

2. 住院 A, in the hospital B. in a hospital C. in hospital

3. 此刻 A. at the moment B. at a moment C. at moment

4. 在课堂上 A. in class B. in a class C. in the class

5. 在地球上 A. on earth B. on an earth C. on the earth

6. 步行 A. on foot B. on the foot C. on feet

7. 吃饭 A. at a table B. at the table C. at table

8. 乘公共汽车A. take bus B. by bus C. by the bus

9. 在家 A. at the home B. at a home C. at home

10. 在工作 A. at work B. at the work C. at works

11. 跳高 A. jump high B. high jump C. the high jump

12. 坐飞机 A. by air B. by the air C. on air

13. 乘火车 A. by the train B. by train C. on train

14. 在校学习 A. in the school B. in school C. in schools

15. 睡觉 A. go to bed B. go to the bed C. go to a bed

16. 感冒 A. have a cold B. have the cold C. have cold

17. 乘船 A. by ship B. on ship C. by a ship

18. 玩得痛快A. have good times B. have a good time C. have good times

19. 事实上 A. in the fact B. in facts C. in fact

21. 从早到晚A. from morning to the evening

B. from morning to evening

C. from a morning to an evening

四、随堂监测B组

III. 选择填空:

1. There is ______ old woman in the car.

A. / B. the C. a D. an

2. Shanghai is in _______ east of China.

A. / B. an C. the D. a

3. Bill is ______ English teacher. He likes playing ______ football.

A. a, the B. an, the C. a, / D. /, /

4. The museum is quite far. It will take you half _____ hour to go there by ______ bus.

A. an, / B. an, a C. a, / D. /, /

5. The story is ______ interesting. That means it is ______ interesting story.

A. an, the B. the, a. C. /, an D. /, a

6. Let?s go for ______ walk, shall we?

A. a B. an C. the D. /

7. This is ______ interesting story-book and it is also ______ useful one.

A. a, a B. an, an C. an, a D. a, an

8. _______ woman over there is ______ popular teacher in our school.

A. A, an B. The, a C. The , the D. A, the

9. They passed our school ______ day before yesterday.

A. an B. one C. a D. the

10. Australia is ______ English-speaking country.

A. a B. an C. the D. /

11. Don?t play ______ basketball here. It?s dangerous.

A. a B. an C. / D. the

12. This is ______ apple. It?s _______ big apple.

A. an, a B. a, the C. a, an D. an, the

13. --- Have you seen ______ bag? I left it here just now.

--- Is it ______ one on the chair near the door?

A. a, a B. the, the C. a, the D. the, a

14. I have ______ blue coat.

A. a B. an C. the D. some

15. This is _____ orange. _______ orange is on the table.

A. a, The B. an, The C. an, An D. the, An

16. Have you had ______ breakfast?

A. a B. an C. the D. /

17. He wondered when the doctor could finish _____ operation.

A. a B. an C. the D. any

18. After ______ supper, he stayed at home and played ______ violin.

A. the, the B. /, the C. /, a D. /, /

19. There is ______ apple on the plate.

A. a B. an C. the D. /

20. He said that he got ______ “ C” in the test.

A. a B. an C. the D. /

21. ______ new bridge has been built over ______ Huangpu River.

A. The, a B. A, / C. A, the D. An, an

22. English is _______ useful language in ______ world.

A. an, the B. a, the C. the, the D. an, an

23. In the word “ cariage” _______ “ r” is lost.

A. the B. an C. a D. /

24. With the help of his teacher he studied hard and got ______ “ A” in the test.

A. a B. an C. the D. one

25. I have two dogs. ______ black one is two years old and ______ yellow one is three years old.

A. A, a B. The, a C. The, the D. A. the

26. Li Dan can play ______ piano very well.

A. / B. a C. an D. the

27. What ______ interesting film it is! I like ______ film very much.

A. a, the B. a, a C. an, the D. The, /

28. ______ tall man over there is our ______ English teacher.

A. A, the B. The, a C. A, an D. The, /

代词

一、本周内容概述

1.代词的作用

严格地讲,代词是代替名词的,在句子中起名词的作用,可用作:

1)主语

例如:

这是我们的新家。

谁在打电话?

2)宾语

例如:

多多保重。

我们应互相帮助。

3)表语

例如:

That?s not

那不是我的。 —It?s

谁呀? —是我。

4)同位语

例如:

我们两人都住宿舍。

他把它们全吃了。

5)呼语

例如:

大家都耐心点。

2.代词的分类

代词通常可分为以下八类:

1)人称代词(I, you, he , we等)

2)物主代词(our, your, their, his等)

3)反身代词(myself, ourselves, yourself, itself等)

4)相互代词(each other, one another)

5)指示代词(this, that, these, those等)

6)疑问代词(who, what, which, whose等)

7)关系代词(who, that, which, whose等)

8)不定代词(both, all, some, any等)

二、重点知识归纳及讲解

(一)人称代词

2.人称代词的用法

1)人称代词的主格在句子中充当主语

例如:

I am studying English now.

我现在正在学英语。

We love our country.

我们热爱我们的国家。

如果有几个人称代词并列充当主语,它们的顺序是:

单数形式 you, he and I

复数形式 we, you and they

2)人称代词的宾语在句子中充当宾语、介词宾语或表语。

例如:

你能帮助我们吗?

我们正在等他们。

Who is there? It?s me.

是谁呀?是我。

(二)物主代词

物主代词用来表示人和物之间的所有关系,这类代词有形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词两种,并有不同的人称和单复数之分。

2.形容词性物主代词与名词性物主代词的主要用法区别

1)形容词性物主代词不能独立使用,只作定语,用来修饰后面的名词。

例如:

我的父母都是医生。

我们昨天看了一场电影,片名是《生死时速》。

2)名词性物主代词应独立使用,后面不跟名词,相当于形容词性物主代词+名词,它们在句中可以作主语、宾语或表语。

例如: (主语)

这是她的钢笔吗?不,她的是红色的。

Let?s clean their room first, and then clean (宾语)

咱们先打扫他们的房间,然后再打扫我们的。 (表语)

这些信是他的。

(三)反身代词

反身代词用来表示反射或强调。

2.反身代词的用法

1)在句子中作宾语,表示动作回射到动作的执行者本身。

例如:

My grandmother is too old to look after herself.

我奶奶年纪太大了,照顾不了她自己。

Lei Feng was always ready to help others, he never thought of himself.

雷锋总是乐于帮助别人,从不考虑自己。

2)在句中作名词或代词的同位语,用来加强语气,常可译为“亲自”、“本人”等。在这种情况下,反身代词可以紧跟名词或代词之后,也可以放到句末。

例如:

We ourselves will build the factory.

我们将自己建造这个工厂。

He spoke to me myself.

他对我本人说话。

3)反身代词在实际运用中可构成许多常用词组。

例如:

by oneself 亲自 for oneself 为自己

call oneself 称自己 teach oneself 自学

help oneself to 随意吃 lose oneself 迷路

speak to oneself 自言自语 seat oneself 就座

make oneself understood 让别人懂得自己的意思

(四)指示代词

指示代词是表示“这个”、“那个”、“这些”、“那些”等指示概念的代词,如:this, that, these, those等。英语中指示代词的用法同汉语中的情况相似。this和these一般用来指较近的事物,that和those则指较远的事物。

指示代词可以充当句子中的主语、定语、宾语或表语。

例如:

这是个难题。

That basketball isn?t ours.

那个篮球不是我们的。

Do you like these?

你喜欢这些吗?

(五)不定代词

不定代词是不指明代替任何特定名词的代词。

1.不定代词有以下形式:

some, somebody, someone, something, any, anybody, anyone, anything, nobody, nothing, all, both, neither, none, either, each, everybody, everyone, everything, other, another, much ,one

2.不定代词在句子中的作用:

1)作主语

例如:

Everyone has come. Let?s begin.

大家都到了,我们开始吧。

Both of his parents are doctors.

他的父母都是医生。

One is the teacher, the others are students.

一人是老师,其余的是学生。

2)作宾语

例如:

This one is too small, please show me another.

这个太小,请另外拿一个给我看看。

Please introduce me to the others.

请把我介绍给所有其他的人。

3)作表语

例如:

That?s all for today.

今天就到这儿吧。

It?s too much for me.

这件事非我力所能及。

3.常见不定代词的用法讲解

1)some和any

a.some常用于肯定句,any多用于否定句,疑问句或条件状语从句,两者都可以代替可数或不可数名词。 例如:

Some say yes and some say no.

有的人说是,有的人说不是。

I don?t like any of them.

我对他们一个也不喜欢。

Does any of them know this?

他们当中有谁知道吗?

b.如果在提问时期待对方肯定回答,或鼓励别人说yes时,疑问句中的不定代词要用some,不用any。 例如:

Would you like some of the tickets?

你想要些票吗?

c.在强调“任何一个”意思的时候,any也可用于肯定句。

例如:

You can take any of the newspapers here.

你可以拿这儿任何一份报纸。

2)either和neither

either用于肯定,neither用于否定,二者均限于两个个体的情况。

例如:

You can see tall trees on either of the river banks.

在河的两岸你们能看到高大的树。

Neither of them wants to see the film with me.

他们两个谁也不想和我去看电影。

3)one和ones(one的复数形式)

one可以指某人,人人或某物,也可以用来代替上文中提及的可数名词,以避免用词的重复。当one指人时,其反身代词为oneself,所有格形式是one?s。

例如:

One should follow the laws.

人人应该遵守法律。

The one in red is our monitor.

穿红衣服的那位是我们的班长。

Shanghai has a lot of new buildings, but it also has many old ones.

上海有很多新的建筑物,也有不少老的建筑物。

4)复合不定代词

复合不定代词是由some, any, no, every同body,one, thing等词构成的代词。复合不定代词都可看作单数,表示“某人”或“某物”,并在句中作主语、宾语或表语。同some和any在用法上的区别一样,some, someone和something一般用于肯定句,anybody, anyone和anything一般用于否定句、疑问句和条件状语从句中。

例如:

We want somebody to help us.

我们想要有人来帮助我们。

Have you found anything here?

你们在这儿发现什么了吗?

If anyone comes to visit us, tell him we have gone to the cinema.

如果有人来访,就告诉他我们去电影院了。

表示人的复合不定代词后面都可以加?s构成所有格。

例如:

Somebody?s wallet has just been stolen.

有人的钱包刚刚被偷了。

复合不定代词要求后置定语。

例如:

We will have something important to do this afternoon.

今天下午我们有些重要事情要做。

(六)疑问代词

疑问代词是用来构成特殊疑问句的代词,如who, whom, whose, what和which等。

在疑问句中,疑问代词一般都放在句首,并在句中充当主语、宾语、表语或定语。

例如:

Who is your maths teacher?(表语)

谁是你们的数学老师?

Whose bag is that?(定语)

那是谁的书包?

Who teaches you English?(主语)

谁教你们英语?

Whom are you talking about?(宾语)

你们在谈论谁?

(七)相互代词

在当代英语中,each other和one another意思上没有区别,它们在句中可以作宾语,其所有格可以作定语。 (互相)

(彼此的)

例如:

Do you often help each other?

你们经常互相帮助吗?

We are interested in one another?s work.

我们对彼此的工作感兴趣。

三、随堂监测A组

I. 选择填空:

1.This dictionary is not hers. It?s _______.

A. I B. me C. mine D. my

2. --- Is this ______ magazine? --- No, it isn?t. It?s ________.

A. your, her B. hers, mine C. yours, hers D. your, hers

3. There are two books on the desk. One is a maths book, _______ is an English book.

A. others B. other C. the other D. another

4. _______ of the girls plays tennis well.

A. Neither B. Both C. All D. Some

5. Mary speaks very quickly. _______ is difficult to understand what she is saying.

A. That B. she C. It D. There

6. The school was built by the villagers _______.

A. us B. ourselves C. them D. themselves

7. He put a finger into ______ mouth and sucked it.

A. his B. he C. him D. his?s

8. He is always ready to help ______.

A. another B. others C. the other D. other

9. Let _______ do this exercise myself.

A. him B. her C. us D. me

10. Have you _______ to tell us?

A. important something B. something important

C. important anything D. anything important

11. I met an old friend of ______ on ______ way home.

A. mine, my B. my, the C. mine, a D. mine, the

12. ______ of the students in our class has a ticket.

A. Every B. Both C. Each D. All

13. There are several books on the desk.. _____ of them is English.

A. All B. Both C. None D. Neither

14. _______ live in Shanghai.

A. We B. Our C. Ours D. Ourselves

15. --- Is this ______ jacket? --- Yes, it?s _______.

A. her, her B. her, hers C. hers, her D. hers, hers

16. --- _______ is that boy? --- He?s my son.

A. Who B. Whom C. What D. Which

17. _______ humans ______ animals can live without air.

A. Both, and B. Neither, nor C. Either, or D. Not only, but also

18. They have twenty-six desks in the classroom. One is for the teacher, ______ are for the students.

A. the other B. other C. the others D. others

19. My dictionary is in my bag. Where is _______?

A. yours B. you C. yourself D. your

20. I think you can do the job ______.

A. yourself B. myself C. himself D. your

21. --- Which jacket is Mary?s? --- The red one is _______.

A. she B. her C. hers D. his

22. My uncle was so angry that he was no ______ when he found I was beating his dog.

A. him B. his C. himself D. he

23. There are many trees on ______ side of the street.

A. all B. both C. every D. each

24. _____ is important for us to keep the balance of nature.

A. There B. That C. This D. It

25. She can?t find ______ watch.

A. hers B. it C. her D. it?s

26. There is ______ milk in the glass.

A. many B. little C. few D. a few

27. Please pass ______ the cap of tea.

A. me B. my C. mine D. I

28. Have you heard from ______ recently?

A. them B. they C. themselves D. their

29. There is _____water in the bottle.

A. not B. some C. any D. many

30. There isn?t ______ food left on the table.

A. many B. few C. much D. little

31. Sorry, I can?t answer your question. I know ______ about the news.

A. a little B. little C. few D. a few

32. This is his schoolbag, ______ is on the desk.

A. my B. yours C. your D. you

33. We made the radio ______.

A. us B. ourselves C. myself D. our

34. Would please give me ______ hot tea?

A. one B. little C. some D. any

35. --- Would you like some milk in your tea? --- Yes, just _______.

A. a little B. little C. a few D. few

36. This question is so difficult that ______ students can answer it.

A. few B. a few C. little D. a little

37. They have only _________ homework for Sunday.

A. few B. a few C. little D. a little

38. They told us about their school and we told them about_______.

A. we B.us C. our D. ours

39. This blue suit looks better than the green ________.

A. / B. one C. suits D. ones

40. _________ is your father ,a worker or a teacher?

A. How B. Which C. What D. Who

四、随堂监测B组

II. 中考题集:

1.--- Whose painting is this? It?s really wonderful!

--- Oh, it?s not ________ . It?s _________ .

A. hers; your B. mine; Elsa?s C. yours; he?s D. his; my

2._________ of the twins went to watch Peking Opera last Sunday.

They were staying at home all that day.

A. Either B. Both C. Neither D. One

3.The English novel is quite easy for you. There are __________ new words in it.

A. a little B. little C. a few D. few

4.This ruler is mine. __________ is over there.

A. She B. She?s C. Her D. Hers

5.I?ll tell you ________ news about the sports meeting.

A. many B. some C. a few

6.All the boys were very tired, but _______ of them would take a rest.

A. all B. neither C. any D. none

7.Every day Mr. Hu checks _________ homework and corrects the mistakes we make.

A. his B. her C. our D. its

8.--- When shall we meet again, this afternoon or tonight?

--- I don?t mind. _________ time is OK.

A. Either B. Every C. Neither D. Both

9.The old man has two sons. One is a worker ; ________ is a teacher.

A. another B. other C. others D. the other

10.Pass _________ the knife, please. My pencil is broken.

A. I B. me C. my D. mine

11.--- Which do you prefer, orange juice or coke?

--- _________, thanks. I?d like just a cup of tea.

A. Either B. Neither C. Both D. None

12.Bob couldn?t buy the dictionary because he had _________ money with him.

A. a few B. few C. a little D. little

13.This is not my dictionary. It?s ________.

A. her B. his C. your D. their

14.--- Oh! I came n a hurry and forgot to bring food.

--- Never mind. You can have _________ .

A. us B. ours C. you D. yours

15.--- The watch is so nice! Is it for ________?

--- Yes. Happy birthday. Mary!

--- Thank you very much.

A. his B. me C. my D. hers

16.--- May I use your pen?

--- Yes, here are two and you can use ________ of them.

A. both B. every C. any D. either

17.--- Whose book is this?

--- It?s ________ .

A. my B. mine C. me D. I

18.--- How many more oranges can I have ?

--- You can have one more. __________ are for Tom.

A. The others B. Another C. Others D. The other

19.--- Can I talk to you for a minute, Brain?

--- Sure, I have _______ time.

A. a few B. little C. few D. a little

20.Their English teacher is from America, but ________ is from England.

A. ours B. my C. your D. her

21.Anne has a son. _______ name is Edward.

A. Her B. His C. Hers D. Him

22.This isn?t my sweater. It?s __________ , I think.

A. she B. her C. hers D. mine

23.Hurry up! There?s _________ time left.

A. few B. a few C. little D. a little

24.--- Could I have some milk?

--- Certainly. There?s ________ in the bottle.

A. little B. a little C. a few D. few

25.You can?t see many of the stars in the sky because __________ are too far away.

A. they B. their C. them D. theirs

26.Lei Feng asked _________ for return when he helped others.

A. everything B. nothing C. anything D. something

27.--- Is it your ticket?

--- No, _________ is in my pocket. It?s ________.

A. mine; her B. my; his C. mine; hers D. my; hers

28.Can you tell me ________ she is waiting for?

A. why B. whose C. whom D. which

29.Miss Brown will teach ________ English next term.

A. us B. we C. our D. ours

30.There is _________ in today?s newspaper.

A. new anything B. new something

C. anything new D. something new

数词

一、本周内容概述

表示数目和顺序的词叫数词。数词可分为基数词和序数词两类。

二、重点知识归纳及讲解

(一)基数词

说明:

1.13—19是由个位数加后缀-teen构成。注意其中13、15的拼写是thirteen和fifteen。

2.20—90由个位数加后缀-ty构成,注意其中20—50的拼写分别是twenty, thirty, forty 和fifty;80的拼写是eighty。

3.其它非整十的两位数21—99是由整十位数加连字符“-”,再加个位数构成。如: 81 eighty-one。

4.101—999的基数词先写百位数,后加and再写十位数和个位数。如: 691 six hundred and ninety-one。

5.1000以上的基数词先写千位数,后写百位数,再加and,最后写十位数和个位数。

如:5893 five thousand eight hundred and ninety-three。 在基数词中只有表示“百”、“千”的单位词,没有单独表示“万”、“亿”的单位词,而是用thousand(千)和million(百万)来表达,其换算关系为:1万=10 thousand;1亿=100 million; 10亿=a thousand million=a billion。

7.多位数的读法:

1)1000以上的多位数,要使用计数间隔或逗号“,”。即从个位起,每隔三位加一个间隔或逗号。第一个间隔或逗号前是thousand(千),第二个间隔或逗号前是million(百万),第三个间隔或逗号前是a thousand million或a billion(十亿)。

2)每隔三位分段以后就都成了101—999。读的时候十位数(或个位数)的前面一般要加and。如: 888,000,000读作:eight hundred and eighty-eight million。

(二)、基数词的用法

1.基数词的复数形式表示大量的 的数目。

在这种情况下,表示单位的基数词(hundred, thousand, million, billion)不能在词尾加-s。

例如:

two hundred students 二百个学生

five thousand years 五千年

2.基数词的复数形式表示大量的 的数目,在这种情况下,表示单位的基数词词尾加-s,要与of短语连用。

3.基数词在句中的作用

基数词的作用相当于名词和形容词,它在句子中可充当主语,宾语,表语和定语。

例如:

主语 表语

How many oranges do you want?你要多少桔子?

我要八个。

宾语

湖里有八条小船。

定语

(三)序数词

表示顺序的词,叫序数词。序数词用来表示数词顺序。除特殊情况外,序数词一般都由相应的基数词加后缀-th构成。

说明:

1.英语中表示第一、第二、第三的序数词属特殊形式,要注意它们的拼写。

2.表示“几十”的序数词通常是将基数词词尾y变成i再加上后缀-eth。

3.其余的二位数序数词是以相应的整十基数词加个位序数词。如:fifty-first(第五十一)。

4.少数序数词拼法不规则,如:fifth(第五),eighth(第八),ninth(第九),twelfth(第十二)等。 注意:

1.序数词可缩写为阿拉伯数字加序数词最后两个字母。

例如:

第一:(the) first=1 st

第二:(the) second=2 nd

第三:(the) third=3 rd

第五:(the) fifth=5th

第九十七:(the) ninety-seventh=97 th

第一百零一:(the) one hundred (and)first=101st

2.编了号的事物要用基数词表示顺序,但是基数词要后置。

例如:

第一课:Lesson One

第三十二页:Page 32

第305房间:Room 305

第12路公共汽车:Bas No.12

五、序数词的用法

序数词和基数词一样,也能起名词或形容词作用,在句子中作主语、表语、宾语和定语。

例如:

第一个比第二个大。

主语

把第一个给我。

宾语

She?s often 她经常第一个去上学。

表语

We?re going to learn 我们将要学习第八课。

定语

六、年、月、日和时间的表达法

1.年份用基数词表达,分两位一读,年份前用介词in。

例如:

1999 nineteen ninety-nine

2000 two thousand

2001 two thousand and one

2.月份的第一个字母要大写,有些月份名称有缩写形式。

例如:

一月January(Jan.), 二月February(Feb.), 三月March(Mar.), 四月(Apr.),五月May, 六月June, 七月July, 八月August(Aug.),九月September(Sep.), 十月October(Oct.), 十一月November(Nov.), 十二月December(Dec.)。

3.日期的表达要用序数词,读时前面要加定冠词the,介词要使用on。

例如:

在6月1日:on June 1 st 读作:on June the first.

年、月、日同时表达时,一般应先写月、日、后写年。

例如:

在2001年5月4日:on May 4 th, 2001。

4.年代用基数词的复数表示。

例如:

20世纪90年代:nineteen nineties

21世纪20年代:twenty twenties

5.时间表达法:时间可用顺读法或倒读法两种方式表达。

例如:

顺读法 倒读法

5:00 five (o?clock)

6:18 six eighteen eighteen past six

12:15 twelve fifteen fifteen (a quarter) past twelve

4:30 four thirty half past four

5:50 five fifty ten to six

6:45 six forty-five a quarter to seven

注意:

1)表示整点时间,直接用基数词表达,后边可接o?clock (也可不加)。表达“几点几分”时,绝不能用o?clock。

2)表达“15分”或“45分”时,常用quarter(刻)。

3)在倒读法中,如果钟点不过半,须用“分钟数+past+钟点数”的形式;如果钟点过半,则用“差多少分钟数+to+全钟点(下个钟点数)”的形式。

例如:

8:20 twenty past eight

8:40 twenty to nine

6.分数的表达法

1)分子用基数词,分母用序数词。分子大于1时,分母用复数。

2)小数的读法:小数点前面的数按照基数词的读法,小数点后面的数按照数本身读,小数点读point。 例如:

0.38 zero point three eight

96.89 ninety-six point eight nine

3)百分数,在数词后加percent。

例如:

15%读作:fifteen percent

60%读作:sixty percent

7.表示语数

1)…几倍大小(长短,数量)=…几倍(或分数)+the size(length, amount)。

例如:

The earth is forty-nine times the size of the moon.

地球是月球的49倍。

2)…比…几倍=…倍数(或分数)+形容词(副词)比较级+than+被比部分。

例如:

His house is three times bigger than mine.

他的房子比我的房子大三倍。

3)…是…倍=…倍数(或分数)+as +形容词+as +被比部分。

例如:

This factory is four times as big as that one.

这个工厂是那个工厂的四倍。

8.表示约数

1)“多于”用more than或over。

例如:

The street is over(more than) 500 metres long.

这条街有500多米长。

2)“小于”用less than。

例如:

Three are less than 30 people in the classroom.

教室里不到三十人。

3)“或…以上”用or more。

例如:

The building can hold 5000 people or more.

那座建筑物可容纳5000人或5000人以上。

4)“或…以下”用or less。

例如:

We can finish the work in two weeks or less.

我们可以在两周内或不到两周完成这件工作。

5)“大约”用about, around, nearly等。

例如:

The box weighs about 50 pounds.

这箱子重约50镑。

6)“左右”用or so.

例如:

In the past ten years or so, they have changed a lot.

在过去的十年里,他们改变了许多。

三、随堂监测A组

I. 写出下列基数词相应的序数词:

1. one __________ 2. two _________ 3. three _________ 4. five ________

5. eight __________ 6. nine _________ 7. twelve _________ 8. twenty __________

9. thirty-one __________ 10. forty-four ___________ 11. fifty-seven ____________

II. 把下列短语译成英语:

1. 第12课 ________________________ 2. 304号房间 _______________________

3. 半小时 ________________________ 4. 每日三次 _______________________

5. 第25页 _______________________ 6. 20世纪90年代 ___________________

7. 4路公共汽车 _____________________ 8. 第15中学 _____________________

9. 21世纪 _________________________ 10. 两吨半 ______________________

11. 差一刻三点 _____________________ 12. 第二册 ________________________

13. 在他五十几岁时 ___________________ 14. 二年级八班 ____________________

15. 10:45 _____________________________ 16. 第十五单元 ____________________

17. 第三册第十三课 _______________________ 18. 三分之一 __________________

19. 三百英镑 _________________________ 20. 1994年3月22日 __________________

四、随堂监测B组

III. 选择填空:

1. 333 reads ___________.

A. three hundred and thirty three B. three hundreds and thirty-three

C. three hundred and thirty-three D. three hundred thirty-three

2. The _______ month of the year is February.

A. one B. first C. two D. second

3. The beautiful skirts are on show in the shop, Jane likes _______.

A. the ninth B. the nineth C. nine D. ninth

4. It took me _______ to finish my homework.

A. a half and two hour B. two hour and a half

C. two and a half hour D. two and a half hours

5. December is the _______ month of the year.

A. twelve B. twelveth C. twelvieth D. twelfth

6. Tom bought ______ for himself yesterday.

A. two pairs of shoes B. two pair of shoe

C. two pair of shoes D. two pairs shoes

7. There are _______ seconds in a minute.

A. fourty B. forty C. sixteen D. sixty

8. Lin Tao gets up at ______ in the morning.

A. half past six B. six past half C. past half six D. half six past

9. December ______ is Christmas.

A. twenty-five B. the twenty-fifth C. the twentieth-five D. twentieth-fifth

10. There are _____ stars in the universe.

A. millions B. million of C. millions of D. million

11. Monday is the _______ day of the week.

A. two B. second C. three D. third

12. Mr. Black left here _____ ago.

A. half a hour B. half an hour C. an half hour D. a half hours

13. There are _____ students in their school.

A. nine hundred B. nine hundreds C. nine hundred of D. nine hundreds of

14. There are _____ words in the text of the _____ Lesson.

A. hundred of, Fifth B. a hundred of, Fiveth

C. hundreds of, Fifth D. hundreds of, Fiveth

15. We had learned about _____ English words by the end of last term.

A. nine hundreds and forty-five B. nine hundreds of and forty-five

C. nine hundred and forty-five D. nine hundred and fourty-five

IV. 中考题集:

1. About ______ people are in the People?s Park at weekends.

A. two hundreds B. two hundreds of C. two hundred D. hundred of

2. The water behind the Three Gorges Dam (三峡大坝) should be _____higher than downstream (下游).

A. sixty-five meter B. sixty-fifth meter C. sixty-five meters D. sixty-fifth meters

3. In our school several _____ students are able to search the Internet for useful information now.

A. hundred of B. hundreds for C. hundred D. hundreds

4. I was 8 years old when my father was 31. this year my father is twice my age. How old am I?

A. 21 B. 22 C. 23 D. 24

5. When was the PRC founded? It was founded on _______.

A. July 1, 1921 B. October 1, 1949 C. August 1, 1927 D. May 1, 1922

6. Look at the menu:

SNACKS

Hamburger $ 2.60 Orange juice $1.20

Hot dog $2.15 Coffee $1.00

Ice cream $2.00 Coke regular $0.75

Popcorn $1.00 large $1.00

Jeff wants to buy a hamburger, a large coke and ice cream.

How much will he pay?

A. Five dollars and sixty cents. B. Five dollars and thirty-five cents.

C. Three dollars and sixty cents. D. Two dollars.

7. --- How many workers are there in your factory? --- There are two _______.

A. hundreds B. hundred C. hundred of D. hundreds of

8. The film star is going to spend ______ dollars on a new dress for the coming party.

A. three thousands B. thousands of C. thousand of D. three thousands of

9. There are ______ doctors and nurses working hard in that hospital.

A. thousand B. two thousand C. two thousands D. two thousands of

10. --- How many teachers are there in your school? --- ________, but I?m not sure.

A. Hundreds B. Hundred C. Hundreds of D. One hundred

11. I think ______ lesson is the most difficult in this book.

A. five B. fifth C. the fifth D. fifteen

1. _______ travelers come to visit our city every year.

A. Hundred of B. Hundreds of C. Five hundreds D. Hundred

2. The Games of ______ Olympiad in 2008 will be held in the city of Beijing.

A. 29 B. the 29 C. 29th D. the 29th

3. Fan Zhiyi?s transfer to Dundee Football Club at the end of last year aroused ______ Chinese people?s interest.

A. thousand of B. thousand C. thousands of D. thousands

4. About ______ films were shown during the 5th Shanghai International Film Festival.

A. two hundred of B. two hundreds of C. two hundred D. two hundreds

5. --- Do you have enough men to carry these chairs? --- No. I think we need ______ men.

A. another B. two others C. more two D. two more

6. --- Can you write the number eight five thousand, six hundred and twenty-six?

--- Yes, it is _____________.

A. 85662 B. 85626 C. 58662 D. 58626

7. There?re ______ students in our grade.

A. hundreds of B. three hundreds of C. three hundreds D. three hundreds?

8. ______ of the workers in this factory is about two hundred, _______ of them are women workers.

A. The number, first third B. The number, one third

C. A number, half D. A number, three quarters

9. _______ Germans come to visit China every year.

A. Thousands of B. Thousands C. Thousand of D. Two thousands

动词(I)

重点知识归纳及讲解

一、概述

动词是表示动作或状态的词。句子中的谓语成分是由动词充当的,谓语通常是句中不可缺少的成分,因此动词是英语词类中最重要的一种。动词可以通过本身的变化来表示动作发生的时间以及说话人的语气、态度等。

1.动词的种类

动词按其词义和在句中的作用可以分为:行为动词(或称实义动词)、连系动词、助动词和情态动词。详见下表:

注意:

1)行为动词又可分为及物动词(vt.)和不及物动词(vi.)两种。及物动词作谓语,后面必须跟宾语意思才完整。不及物动词作谓语,后面不能跟宾语,只有加上介词后才可接宾语。

2)英语中有些动词常常是既作及物动词又作不及物动词;既作连系动词工作及物动词。 例如: He speaks English very well. (vt.) 他英语讲得好。

He spoke at the meeting. (vi.)

另外,动词按其在句中能否作谓语,又可分为谓语动词(finite verb)和非谓语动词(non-finite verb)两大类。

说明:

谓语动词又称限定动词,非谓语动词又称非限定动词。 非谓语动词初中阶段主要学习动词不定式的用法。 2.动词的基本形式

英语动词有五种基本形式,即动词原形、过去式、过去分词、现在分词和第三人称单数形式。如:

说明:

1)词尾-ed在清辅音后读[t];在浊辅音和元音后读[d];在[t]和[d]后读[id]。

2)词尾-es或-s在[s ]、[z]、[t ]、[d ]后面读[iz];在清辅音后读[s];在浊辅音及元音后读[z];在

[t],[d]后读[ts]、[dz]。

3)不规则动词的过去式与过去分词则要根据不规则动词表逐渐记住。

二、动词的时态

在英语中,由于谓语动作发生的时间不同,或表达不同时间存在的状态,谓语动词都要发生相应的变化。这些动词的变化形式就叫做动词的时态。

初中阶段主要学习,掌握以下八种时态。

1.一般现在时

1

)构成

动词一般现在时,除主语为单数第三人称以外,谓语动词一律用原形,若主语为第三人称单数,则谓语动词的词尾应发生变化(加-s或-es)。另外be和have有特殊的人称变化形式。

2)用法

a.表示经常发生的动作、行为或存在的状态。

常用的时间状语有:often, usually, always, every day等。

I go to school every day except Sunday.

除了星期日,我每天上学。

There are fifty students in our class.

我们班上有五十个学生。

b.表示主语的身份或特征。

His father is a doctor.

他的父亲是医生。

Tom is tall.

汤姆个子高。

c.表示一种客观事实或普遍真理

The earth is round.

地球是圆的.

The sun is bigger than the moon.

太阳比月亮大。

d.在条件状态从句和时间状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来。

If you don't go soon, you'll be late.

如果你不快去的话,你就要迟到了。

I will wait for you until you come back.

我将一直等到你回来。

2.一般过去时

1)构成

一般过去时其谓语动词使用动词过去式形式。

2)用法

a.表示在过去某一时间内发生的动作或存在的状态,常与表示过去的时间状语连用,如:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, just now, upon a time, in 1989, in the old days, when I was at middle school等。

He left for Beijing yesterday morning.

他昨天上午到北京去了。

She wasn't at home last night.

她昨晚上在家。

Did you finish your work at four yesterday afternoon?

你昨天下午四点完成工作了吗?

b.表示过去经常或反复发生的动作。

I got up very early at that time.

我那时总是起得很早。

Mary always got up too late and never had enough time for breakfast when she was at middle school.

玛丽上中学时总是起得很晚,从来都没有足够时间吃早饭。

3.一般将来时

1)构成

动词一般将来时由助动词shall或will加动词原形构成。shall用于第一人称作主语,will用于第二、三人称作主语。除英国以外的说英语的国家,在陈述句中,即使在第一人称作主语时一般也使用助动词will,在英国现在也有这种趋势。在口语中,shall,will常缩写成I?ll You'll, We'll等。在否定句中,will not缩写成won't shall not

a.表示将要发生的动作行为或存在的状态。

常与表示将来的时间状语连用,如:tomorrow, next time, next year, in a few days等。

I'll go and see her next Friday.

我下周五去看她。

He won't go there tomorrow morning.

他明天上午不到那儿去。

Will you do it again?

你再做一遍好吗?

b.有时没有时间状语,根据上下文判断其谓语动作是将要发生的。

I don't know who will do it.

我不知道谁将做这件事。

Don't worry, he will be there on time.

别着急,他会准时在那儿。

c.表示将来经常发生的动作。

From now on I'll get up early every morning.

从今以后,我每天早晨早起。

注意:

1)表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态,除了用上述的一般将来时外,还可以用be going to 来表示。be going to这个结构表示:a.即将发生的动作;b.主语打算或准备要做的事;c.说话人根据已有的迹象判断即将发生的事。be going to 结构中的be随着句子中主语的人称而变化。

例如:

We are going to learn English.

我们将学习英语。

How are you going to spend your holidays?

你们打算怎样度过假期?

Look at these black clouds. I think it's going to rain.

看这些黑云,我想天要下雨了。

2)在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,一般将来时要用一般现在时代替。

例如:

He will come to see you when he has time.

他有空时会来看你的。

They will ring you up as soon as they get back.

他们一回来就打电话给你。

4.现在进行时

1)构成

现在进行时由助动词be的人称形式加动词的现在分词构成。它的肯定式,否定式及疑问式的结构如下:

2)用法

a.现在进行时表示说话时谓语的动作正在进行。

Who are you waiting for?

你在等谁?

He knows that we are helping him now.

他知道我们现在正在帮助他 。

b.在现阶段正在进行的动作,但不一定说话时动作正在进行。

The students are working on the farm there days.

这些天学生们正在农场劳动。

c.有些动词的进行时态还可用来表示将来时。这类动词有go, come, leave, arrive, move, die等。

He is coming soon.

他不久就要来了。

Mary is arriving here at 4 o/clock this afternoon.

玛丽今天下午四点到达这里。

注意:

1)表示状态或感觉的动词,如:know, love, like, want, hear, see, think等,一般没有进行时态,因为它们不能表示正在进行的动作。但是,如果词义发生变化,能表示一个正在进行的动作,也可使用进行时态。

例如:

Stop, I am thinking.

停下来,我正在想问题呢。

2)无法延续动作的动词,如:jump, begin, start, stop等一般不宜用于进行时态。但是,若想表示动作反复或即将发生,也可使用进行时态。

例如:

He is jumping up and down.

他一下一下地跳个不停。

5.现在完成时

1)构成

现在完成时由have的人称形式加动词的过去分词构成。它的肯定式、否定式及疑问式如下:

2)用法

a.表示过去某一时间发生的动作或存在的状态,对现在仍有影响。

She has been ill for three days.

她病了三天了。

He has already left.

他已经走了。

b.表示从过去某一时间开始一直持续到现在的动作或状态。

We've known each other since we were children.

我们从小就认识。

注意:

在用already, always, yet, just, ever, never等副词作状语时,或者由for, since引起的短语作状语或状语从句时,句子的谓语动词常用现在完成时。

区别:

1)have (has) been to 与have (has) gone to

have (has) been to +某地,表示到过某地,说明去过某地,说话时已经回来了。

have (has) gone to +某地,说明去某地了,说话时还没有回来。

例如:

He has been to Beijing three times.

他去过北京三次。

He has gone to Shanghai.

他去上海了。

2)have (has) been to do sth. 还可以表示做过某事。have (has) gone to do sth.则表示去做某事了。 例如:

He has been to see Tom in the hospital.

他去医院看过汤姆。

He has gone to see Tom in the hospital.

他到医院看汤姆去了。

3)have got虽然在形式上是现在完成时,却和have是相同的意思。

例如:

Have you got any book?=Do you have any book?

你有书吗?

6.过去进行时

1)构成

过去进行时由be动词的过去式加动词的现在分词构成。

2)用法

过去进行时主要表示过去某个时刻或过去一段时间正在进行的动作。过去进行时常与表示过去的时间状语如:then at that time, once, a moment ago等连用,或者用另一动作表示过去的时间。

例如:

I was writing a letter at home at seven yesterday evening.

我昨晚七点在家写信。

He was watching TV when I came home yesterday evening.

昨天晚上回家时,他在家看电视。

7.过去完成时

1)构成

过去完成时由助动词had加动词的过去分词构成。

2)用法

过去完成时表示过去某一时间以前或过去某一动作以前已完成的动作,即过去的过去。

为了更容易理解过去完成时的时间概念,使之与过去时有明显的区别,可见下面的时间示意图。 例如:

I had learned eight hundred English words by the end of last year. (在过去某一时间之前)

到去年年底之前,我已经学会了八百个英语单词。

He had finished his work before I came here.(在过去另一动作之前)

在我来这儿以前,他已经完成了工作。

说明:

1)在包含when, as soon as, before, after, until等连词的复合句中,若主句谓语和从句谓语所表示的过去的动作是在不同时间发生的,那么,先发生的动作用过去完成时,后发生的动作用一般过去时。

例如:

I told them after you had left.

你走后我就告诉了他们。

I had been at the bus stop for twenty minutes when a bus finally came.

我在公共汽车站等了二十分钟,汽车终于来了。

2)如果主句动作和从句动作紧接着发生,特别是连词为after或before时,由于连词本身很清楚地表明了动作发生的先后,两个动作此时都可使用一般过去时来表示。

例如:

After we said good-bye to them, we left the village.

在和他们告别后,我们就离开了村庄。

8.过去将来时

1)构成

过去将来时由助动词should或would加动词原形构成。第一人称用should,其他人称用would。但目前在美、英等国也有第一人称用would的情况。

2)用法

a.过去将来时是个相对的时态,主要用于从过去某一时间来看将要发生的事情。常用在宾语从句中表示从句的动作发生在主句动作之后。

They said they would go to visit the second factory.

他们说他们将要去参观第二个工厂。

The teacher told us that there would be a concert the next Tuesday.

老师告诉我们下周二将要有场音乐会。

b.过去将来时也可由“was / were going to + 动词原形”来表示。

She said she was going to see her uncle.

她说她要去看望她的叔叔。

c.有些动词的过去进行时也可表示过去将来时。这一用法与某些动词的现在进行时表示一般将来时的用法相同。

I didn't have much time to talk with you became I was leaving for Shanghai in two hours.

我没有多少时间跟你谈话了,因为再过两个小时我就要动身去上海。

注意:

“would+动词原形”有时并不表示过去将来时,而表示一种客气的请求。

例如:

Would you please open the window?

请把窗子打开好吗?

三、随堂监测A组

单项选择:

1. Look! There _________ some apples in that tree.

A. is B. was C. are D. were

2.We'll have to clean the plates before Mother _________ home.

A. will come B. is coming C. come D. comes

3.—Will your mother _________ you if you _________ the English exam?

—Of course not. Because I am trying my best.

A. be angry with; don't pass B. be angry with; won't pass

C. be angry to; don't pass D. be angry to; won't pass

4.I'm sorry you've missed the train, it _________ 10 minutes ago.

A. left B. has left C. had left D. has been left

5. I don't think I _________ you in that dress before.

A. have seen B. was seeing C. saw D. see

6. _________ you _________ to the radio? —No, you can turn it off.

A. Did; listen B. Have; listened C. Do; listen D. Are; listening

7. —Where's Mr Lee? I have something unusual to tell him.

—You _________ find him. He _________ Japan.

A. may not; has gone to B. may not; has been to

C. can't; has gone to D. can't; has been to

8. —I won't come to the party unless Sue _________, too.

—You mean if Sue comes you'll come?

A. will invite B. invites C. invited D. is invited

9. The world _________. Things never stay the same.

A. changes B. is changing C. was changing D. will change

10. —Excuse me, does Mr Smith's son live here?

—He _________ live here, but he has moved.

A. has to B. used to C. tried to D. happened to

11. The children planted more threes and flowers after they _________ Greener China.

A. joined B. took part in C. became D. were

12. —Where's Mr Zhang? —He _________ London.

A. has been to B. has been C. has gone D. has gone to

13. —Do you know if he _________ to play basketball with us?

—I think he will come if he _________ free tomorrow.

A. comes; is B. comes; will be

C. will come; is D. will come; will be

14. —May I speak to Mabel, please? —Sorry. She's _________ Pairs.

A. gone in B. been in C. gone to D. been to

15. My pen friend Phillip _________ to see me from Australia. He will be here soon.

A. comes B. came C. has come D. is coming

16. I won't go to the concert because I _________ my ticket.

A. lost B. don't lose C. have lost D. is coming

17. —Do you know Jack well? —Certainly, we _________ friends since ten years ago.

A. were B. have made C. have become D. have been

18. —Where is Jim? —He ______ to the shop. He'll back in an hour.

A. goes B. go C. has gone D. will go

19. —Excuse me, look at the sign NO PHOTOS! —Sorry, I ________ it.

A. don't see B. didn't see C. haven't seen D. won't see

20. Jim's father said to him, "I hope you ________ what I ________ you to buy."

A. didn't forget; told B. not to forget; have told

C. won't forget; have told D. haven't forgotten; will tell

21. I like my new bike. It ________ very well.

A. rides B. is riding C. is ridden D. has ridden

22. A lot of trees ________ along the river last year.

A. planted B. are planted C. were planted

23. These books ________ out of the reading room. You have to read them here.

A. must be taken B. can't take C. can take D. mustn't be taken

24. — Whose CD player is this? —It's mine. It ________ me 800 yuan.

A. took B. spent C. paid D. cost

25. —May I ________ you Chinese-English dictionary? —Sorry, I ________ it at home?

A. borrow; forgot B. lend; left C. lend; forgot D. borrow; left

26. Can you ________ a little French?

A. say B. talk C. speak D. tell

27. The internet ________ it easy go get much new information in a short time.

A. finds B. makes C. feels D. takes

28. —Do you like the music The Moonlight Sonata? —Yes, it ________ really beautiful.

A. feels B. sounds C. listens D. hears

29. Alice, we are going to spend our holiday in Canada,if you ________, we can go to China instead.

A. hope B. wish C. prefer D. agree

30. —Hello! Would you like to go to the concert with me tonight?

—I'm sorry I can't Mother won't ________ me to go out in the evening.

A. let B. allow C. offer D. ask

31. It's too dark here. Please ________ the light.

A. turn back B. turn down C. turn on D. turn off

32. After finishing your paper, look it over to ________ there are no mistakes.

A. find out B. try out C. make sure D. think about

33. The baby is sleeping. Please ________ the radio a little.

A. turn down B. turn up C. turn on D. turn off

34. —Look! The bus is coming.

—But there are too many people. We can't ________ it.

A. get off B. get down C. get on D. get up

35. Don't ________ your coat, Tom! It's easy to catch a cold in spring.

A. take away B. take off C. take down D. take out

36. The trees must ________ three times a week.

A. water B. is watering C. be watered D. waters

四、随堂监测B组

II.用所给词的适当形式填空:

1 They ________ (visit) the museum last week.

2. Zhang Hong ________ (make) many friends since she came to Paris.

3. She ________ (go)to the cinema with her classmates tomorrow evening.

4. John is always busy. He ________ (sleep) only six hours very night.

5. Stay here; boy; don't go out. It ________ (rain) now.

6. She often ________ (do) her lessons after supper.

7. Hurry up! The train ________ (leave) in five minutes.

8. They ________ (arrive) in London on the night of April 30, 1989.

9. While we ________ (talk) in the room, the light suddenly went out

10. They ________ (learn) about 200 English words since this term.

11. The meeting ________ already ________ (start) when we got there.

12. He ________ (work) hard at English every day.

13. Put on your coat. The wind ________ (blow) hard outside now.

14. I ________ (not finish) my homework yet.

15. He ________ (must send) to the hospital at once.

16. By the end of last year we ________ (plant) 1,500 trees.

17. She ________ (play) the piano when I went to see her last night.

18. I'll tell him about i8t as soon as I ________ (see) him.

19. She isn't at home, she ________ (go) to Shanghai.

20. ________ you ________ (get) up early every morning this year?

21. The film ________ (be) on for five minutes when I got to the cinema.

22. He said that light ________ (ravel) much faster than sound.

23. How many Chinese words ________ Mike ________ (learn) since he got to Beijing?

24. The earth ________ (move) around the sun.

25. The teacher said he ________ (give) us a talk on history soon.

26. All the students ________ (plant) trees tomorrow.

27. Please ________ (not shout) here, the baby is sleeping.

28. We were sure that he ________ (can work) out the problem.

29. The singer said she ________ (not sing) twice in one evening.

30. We are sure he will come to see us before he ________ (leave) Tianjin.

31. Look! The Yong Pioneers ________ (pant) trees on the hill.

32. Mr Wang ________ (not give) us a talk last Monday.

33. They ________ (play) basketball this time yesterday.

34. He said that they ________ (clean) the classroom the next day.

35. We often ________ (have) an English party on Saturday evenings.

36. He ________ (joint) the army a few years ago.

37. I'll tell him the news as soon as he ________ (come) back.

38. Tom always ________ (think) much of others, but little of himself.

39. Mr Black, together with his students, ________ (visit) the Science Museum now.

40. There ________ (be) a League meeting the day after tomorrow.

41. My brother ________ (be) away form home for three years.

42. When Black got to the classroom, the first class ________ (begin).

43. I don't know if he ________ (come). If he ________ (come), please let me know.

44. Tom said, "This pair of trousers ________ (be) mine!"

45. The story ________ (take) place in 1985.

46. —Where is your uncle?

—He________ (go) to the bank.

47. I usually ________ (do) my homework in the evening.

48. If it ________ (not rain) tomorrow, the League members of class ________ (plant) trees around the lake?

49. I ________ (finish) my homework by half past eight last night.

50. —What's in the lake?

—Some boys ________ (swim) in the lake.

51. The USA ________ (attack) Iraq (伊拉克) in March, 2003.

52. My brother likes English very much, and he ________ (practice) reading every morning.

动词II

典型应用剖析

一、动词的被动语态

1.主动语态和被动语态

英语语态有主动语态和被动语态两种。主语是动作的执行者,叫做主动语态;主语是动作的承受者,叫做被动语态。

例如:

We swept the floor.

我们打扫了地板。(主动语态)

The floor was swept.

地板被打扫过。(被动语态)

2.被动语态的构成

1)被动语态是由“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”构成的。

助动词be有人称,数和时态的变化,其变化规则与其作为连系动词的be的变化完全一样。被动语态的肯定式的结构是:主语+be+过去分词(vt.)+(by+宾语)。

例如:

Apple trees aren't planted in the south.

苹果树不种在南方。

The building hasn't been completed.

这座建筑物没有竣工。

3)被动语态的一般疑问句

被动语态的一般疑问句的结构是:Be+主语+过去分词(vt)+(by+宾语)?其答语用yes或no作简单回答。 例如:

Are they made in China? Yes, they are.

它们是中国制造的吗?是的,是中国制造的。

Was the museum built in 1993?

这座博物馆是在1993年建成的吗?

No, it was built in 1986.

不,它是在1986年建成的。

4)被动语态的特殊疑问句

被动语态的特殊疑问句的结构是:疑问词+be+主语+过去分词(vt),其答语要作具体回答。

例如:

What is the machine used for?

这台机器用来作什么?

It is used for making paper.

它是用来造纸的。

Where were the car made?

这些小汽车是哪里制造的?

They were made in China.

它们是中国制造的。

5)被动语态的八种时态形式

被动语态的八种时态(以动词ask为例):

注意:

被动语态没有完成进行时态和将来进行时态。

初中阶段主要应掌握的被动语态的时态有:一般现在时,一般过去时,现在进行时,过去进行时和现在完成时。

3.什么时候使用被动语态

1)在没有指明动作的执行者的情况下。

例如:

The meeting was held last week.

会议上周召开了。

English is taught in all middle schools.

所有中学都开设英语课。

2)要强调动作的承受者而不是执行者时。

例如:

Teapots are used for drinking.

茶壶是饮水用的。

Where's cotton produced?

棉花产于何地?

The bike was stolen yesterday afternoon.

昨天下午自行车被偷了。

4.主动语态变为被动语态的方法

1)将主动句里的宾语成分变为被动句里的主语成分。把主动句里的宾格人称代词改为主格形式。

2)把主动结构的谓语动词改为be+过去分词形式。

3)将主动句的主语变为介词by的宾语。

例如:

People use radios for listening to the news.(主动)

→Radios are use for listening to the news by people.(被动)

I posted a letter last week.(主动)

→A letter was posted by me last week.(被动)

注意:

在make, let, see, hear, notice, watch, feel等动词后面作宾语补足语的动词不定式都不带to,但这种句子如果变为被动语态时,则应加上to。

例如:We heard her sing an English song.(主动)

→She was heard to sing an English song by us.(被动)

5.主动语态变为被动语态的主要类型

1)谓语动词只有一个宾语的。

例如:The workers are building a ship.(主动语态)

→The ship is being built by the workers.(被动语态)

I have finished the exercises.(主动语态)

→The exercises have been finished by me.(被动语态)

2)谓语动词有两个宾语的,其中一个变为被动句的主语,另一个仍作为宾语,称为保留宾语。 例如:

I sent him a present. (主动语态)

→He was sent a present by me.(被动语态)

A present was sent to him by me.(被动语态)

注意:

a)在主动句中有些动词,如ask, answer, teach等变成被动句时,一般将间接宾语(指人的)改成被动句的主语。

例如:

He asked us a lot of questions.(主动语态)

→We were asked a lot of questions by him.

b)在主动句中有些动词,如build, buy, choose等变成被动句时,将直接宾语(指物的)改成被动句的主语。 例如:

My father bought me a new bike.(主动语态)

→The new bike was bought for me by my father.(被动语态)

3)谓语动词后跟复合宾语,只把宾语改为被动句的主语,宾语补足语不变。

例如:

宾语 宾补

He left the door open.(主动语态)

他让门开着。

→The door was left open by him.(被动语态)

门由他打开着。

4)许多由不及物动词加介词构成的短语动词,相当于一个及物动词,可以有宾语,因而也可以有被动语态。但应注意:短语动词是一个不可分割的整体,在变为被动语态时,不可丢掉构成短语动词的介词或副词。

例如:

We must take good care of our books.(主动语态)

→Our books must be taken good care of.(被动语态)

我们应该保管好我们的书本。

我们的书本应保管好。(被动)

5)谓语动词含有情态动词时,只变及物动词为被动语态,构成为:情态动词+be+过去分词(vt.) 例如:

We must finish it at once. (主动语态)

我们必须马上做完这件事。

→It must be finished at once(被动语态)

这件事必须马上做完。

6)带有be going to结构的被动语态,被动结构表现在不定式上。结构为:sth be going to be done。 例如:

I am going to close the door.(主动语态)

我将去关门。

→The door is going to be closed.(被动语态)

门将要关上。

6.被动语态中应注意的几个问题

1)在被动语态句子中要注意主语与谓语在人称和数方面要保持一致。

2)主动语态不能变为被动语态的情况:

a.have(有)以及和have构成的短语动词不能用于被动语态

b.不及物动词没有动作的承受者,不能用被动语态。

c.主动句的宾语是each other或反身代词时,不能变成被动句的主语。

d.主动句的宾语是不定式或动词的-ing形式时,不能变成被动句的主语。

3)注意有时用主动语态表示被动意义的情况。

例如:

This kind of cloth washes very well.

这种布很禁洗。

The machine made in China sell well abroad.

中国制造的机器在国外畅销。

二、动词不定式

不定式是动词的一种非限定形式,通常前面带有小品词to,动词不定式的基本形式由“to +动词原形”构成,有时也可以省略to。

不定式可以有自己的宾语或状语。带有宾语或状语的不定式叫不定式短语。

1.不定式在句子中的作用

1)作主语

例如:

To learn a a foreign language well is not easy.

学好一门外语不容易。

如果不定式(短语)过长,可用形式主语it,而将真正的主语不定式(短语)放在句末。

例如:

It is better to see once than to hear a hundred times.

百闻不如一见。

2)作宾语

They all wanted to see you yesterday.

他们昨天都要来看你。

3)作表语

To eat is to live,but to live is not to eat.

吃饭是为了活着,但活着不是为了吃饭。

4)作宾语补足语

He wants you to call him back at eleven.

他要你在十一点给他回电话。

I helped him (to) find his things.

我帮他找到他的东西。(help后跟不定式作宾补,可省略to,也可以保留to)

注意:

在某些复合宾语中,由于谓语动词的要求,我们往往先用it代表示定式,作为形式宾语,而把真实宾语——不定式放在句子的后面。这类动词还有make, think等。

例如:

They found it important to get everything ready in time.

他们发现把一切事情及时准备好很重要。

5)作定语

作定语的不定式与经所修饰的名词有逻辑上的动宾关系。如果这个不定式是不及物动词,它后面就要有必要的介词。

Do you have anything more to say?

你还有什么话要说吗?

There is nothing to worry about.

没有什么值得发愁的。

6)作状语

The child is not old enough to go to school.

这个孩子还没到上学年龄。(结果状语)

They ran over to welcome us.

他们跑过来欢迎我们。(目的状语)

To hear the news, she cried.

听到这个消息后,她哭起来了。(原因状语)

7)有些动词,如want, like, wish, hope, try, ask, start, learn, agree, teach, decide, understand等,后面可以接连接代词或连接副词加不定式作宾语。

例如:

No one could tell me where to get the book.

没有人能告诉我哪里能找到这本书。

Show us what to do.

告诉我们应该做什么。

I don't know whether to answer his letter.

我不知道要不要给他回信。

3.不定式的时态和语态

1)不定式动作和谓语动作同时发生,这时不定式用进行式。

例如:

They are said to be building a house.

据说他们正在建房子。

2)不定式动作发生在谓语动作之前,这时不定式用完成式。

例如:

I am goad to have seen your mother.

见到你的母亲我很高兴。

3)不定式有主动式和被动式。不定式的被动式可以用来:

a.作主语

It is happy for me to be asked to speak here.

被邀请在这里讲话我很高兴。

b.作宾语

She asked to do sent to work in the western part of the country.

她请求派她去西部地区工作。

c.作宾语补足语

He wanted the letter to be written at once.

他让马上把信写好。

d.作状语

She was too young to be given so much money.

她太小,不能把许多钱给她。

e.作定语

There are a lot of trees to be planted.

有很多树要种。

4.不定式的复合结构

不定式的复合结构由“for/of+名词(或代词宾格)+不定式”构成。其中名词(或代词宾格)表示不定式动作的执行者,是不定式的逻辑主语。

不定式的复合结构在句子中可以作用主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语。 例如:

It's very kind of you to help us. 非常感谢你帮助我们。(主语) This is for you to decide. 这得由你来决定。(表语)

I think it necessary for us to study English hard. 我认为我们努力学英语是必要的。(宾语) There are a lot of difficulties for them to overcome. 有许多困难要他们克服。(定语) The text is too long for us to learn by heart. 课文太长,我们记不住。(状语)

三、随堂监测A组 单项选择:

1. The no. 12 bus __________ to the Town Hall and not to the station.

A. has come B. has been going C. goes 2. Don't use that pen. It __________ smoothly .

A. didn't write B. don't write C. doesn't write 3. If it __________, I won't go for a walk.

A. rains B. will rain C. rained 4. The child is playing while his mother __________ dinner.

A. cooked B. cooks C. was cooking 5. He __________ in a cotton factory these day.

A. is working B. works C. will be working 6. Don't turn off the light I __________a report now.

A. have been reading B. read C. am reading 7. John __________ the first party in his life tomorrow night.

A. is given B. is giving C. has given 8. My uncle __________ to see me. He'll be here soon.

A. comes B. is coming C. had come 9. At this moment I __________ we have a good chance of victory.

A. feel B. am feeling C. felt 10. My uncle never __________ a hat even in winter.

A. is wearing B. are being worn C. wore 11. By next December, I __________ fifty-five.

A. will have to be B. will have been C. will be being 12. Look at these black clouds __________.

A. It'll rain B. It's going to rain C. It'll be raining 13. Look out! That tree __________ fall down.

A. is going to B. will be C. shall 14. "Have you read the book I gave you?"

"No, but __________ going to read it soon."

A. I'd be B. I'll be C. I've been 15. We __________ for Shanghai tonight.

A. are starting B. starts C. started

D. is going D. isn't write D. rain D. is cooking D. has been working D. have read D. has been giving D. came D. am felt D. wears D. shall be D. It is to rain D. would D. I'm D. have started

16. I think she __________ right now.

A. reading B. reads C. is reading D. read

17. Before long, he __________ all about the matter.

A. will have forgotten B. will forget C. forgets D. forgot

18. We don't go unless you __________ soon.

A. had come B. came C. has said D. has been saying

19. Do be quiet! I'm trying to hear what the man __________.

A. says B. is saying C. has said D. has been saying

20. Smith__________ his friends for money.

A. often ask B. is often asking C. often asks D. has been asked

21. Twelve inches __________ one foot.

A. make B. makes C. is making D. will make

22. While Connie __________ a baseball match, her sister is typewriting a letter in her office.

A. Has watched B. watches C. is watching D. has been watching

23. James Watt __________ the steam engine

A. was inventing B. invented C. had invented D. has invented

24. "The possibility of the flood was just reported over the radio."

"I know. I heard abut it. The river __________ the top of its bank."

A. got B. get C. gets D. has got

25. "Where's your uncle's home?" __________ in Boston in the past years.

A. He's lived B. He's living C. He lives D. He lived

26. I __________ him a lot during the past two weeks.

A. saw B. have seen C. had seen D. am seeing

27. They can't leave until they __________ their work.

A. did B. are doing C. have done D. had done

28. Will you please lend me the book when you __________ it?

A. will finish B. have finished C. will have finished D. finishing

29. Is that the first time you __________ Beijing?

A. have visited B. would visited C. visited D. have been visiting

30. She has worked in this factory __________.

A. after 1968 B. in 1968 C. since 1968 D. for 1968

31. __________ three years since i left school. Now I miss my classmate very much.

A. It was B. It have been C. It is D. It had been

32. My parents have lived here __________.

A. since 1952 B. for many years ago C. many yeas ago D. since 1952 ago

33. My parents have lived here __________.

A. It have been B. It is C. It was D. That is 34. So far, she __________ her holiday very much.

A. hasn't enjoyed B. didn't enjoy C. doesn't enjoy D. was not enjoy

35. "Your arm is bleeding !" "Yes, I __________ it with a knife."

A. hurt B. was hurting C. have just hurt D. had hurt

36. His grandfather __________ for thirty years.

A. died B. was dead C. has been dead D. has died

37. My brother __________ the Youth League for two years.

A. has been in B. has entered C. has taken part D. has joined

38. They will be as tall as you soon, it they __________.

A. would help growing like that B. keep to grow like it

C. keep growing like that D. will keep growing like that

39. We used to go skiing in the Michigan every winter, but __________ for the past five seasons.

A. I don't go B. I haven't gone C. I'm not going D. I didn't go

40. "Have you read the book I gave you?"

"No, But __________ going to read it soon."

A. I'd be B. I'll be C. I've been D. I'm

41. I will come when I __________ free.

A. will be B. shall be C. was D. am

42. When I arrived in Birmingham the sun __________.

A. has been shining B. shone C. has shone D. was shining

43. James has just arrived, but I didn't know he __________ until yesterday.

A. will come B. was coming C. has been coming D. comes

44. "I heard you talking to somebody just now." "Oh, I __________ to myself."

A. have only talked B. only talk

C. was only talking D. have only been talking

45. The teacher __________ it was important to know English grammar.

A. had always been saying B. was always saying

C. had always had said D. was always said

46. As he __________ I couldn't ask him anything.

A. will already left B. have already left

C. had already left D. already leaves

47. By the end of last term, We __________ 2, 500 words.

A. had learned B. has learned C. has been learned D. learned

48. When we got to the airport, we found that the plane __________.

A. had already taken off B. already took off

C. was already taken off D. was already taking off

49. As soon as John's mother __________ out, he stole some food.

A. goes B. had gone C. was going D. were going

50. The singer had lived in California before he __________ university.

A. had been sent B. had been sending C. was sending D. was sent 51. The singer had lived in California before he __________ university.

A. would return B. had return C. will return D. should return

52. It was December 20. In five days it would be Christmas Day. The Lord Mayor , together with overseas students, __________ to celebrate it .

A. was going B. will go C. is going D. went

53. When I reached the station, the train __________ already __________.

A. had ... left B. were ... leaving C. was ... left D. had ....been left

54. While I __________ my breakfast the morning post came.

A. had had B. had been having C. was having D. have had

55. By eleven o'clock yesterday, we __________ at the airport.

A. had arrived B. have arrived C. shall arrive D. arrive

56. I was hungry. I __________ nothing all day.

A. ate B. had eaten C. had been eating D. have

eaten

57. "My father will be here tomorrow." —"Oh, I thought that he __________ today."

A. was coming B. is coming C. will come D. comes

58. I thought that honesty __________ the best policy.

A. was B. is C. were D. been

59. When I was at middle school, I knew that William Shakespeare ____________ in 1564.

A. was born B. had been born C. is born D. has born

60. He is so rich that be __________ to work.

A. hasn't been B. haven't C. doesn't have D. isn't being

四、随堂监测B组

用所给动词的正确形式填空:

1. Li Ping often __________ (read) English in the morning.

2. __________ he __________ (clean) the windows once a week.

3. The workers __________ (have) sports on the playground now.

4. How long __________ you __________ (stay) there the day before yesterday.

5. Who __________ (listen) to the music?

6. When I __________ (be) a middle school student, I often __________ (sing).

7. His parents __________(go) to the Great Wall tomorrow morning.

8. __________ they __________ (study) Japanese next term?

9. What time __________ you __________ (do) your homework everyday.

10. Look! The students __________ (clean) the classroom.

11. What __________ your after __________ (do) yesterday? —He __________ (write) two letters.

12. There __________ (be) a football match on TV this evening.

13. My father __________ (leave) for Japan tomorrow morning.

14. Tom __________ (not listen) to the radio every morning.

15. __________ (be) there any hospitals here twenty years ago?

16. I __________ (come) to see you again before long.

17. __________ there __________ (be) an English evening next Saturday?

18. __________ your uncle __________ (have) a meeting last Friday?

19. What __________ the young Pioneers __________ (do) on the hill now?

20. They __________ (not go) fishing on Sunday.

21. How many classes __________ you __________ (have) every day.

22. It's seven in the evening, Tom's family __________ (watch) TV.

23. He __________ (join) the army in 1985. He __________ (be) still in the army how.

24. I __________ (visit) my friend next Sunday.

25. If it snows tomorrow, we __________ (play) with snow.

26. I __________ (make) a lot of mistakes in my test yesterday.

27. __________ it __________ (snow) outside now? —No, it __________.

28. Where __________ they __________ (live)? They __________ (live) in Shanghai.

29. If it __________ (rain) this morning, we won't go shopping.

30. Listen! Who _________(sing)in the next room?

31. The teacher _________(not teach)us a Chinese song,he ________(teach)us an English song two days ago.

32. If I am free this evening,I ________(help)you with your maths.

33. ________you ________(be)there tomorrow? No,I ________.

34. Where _________(be)your parents last year? They ________(be)in Xi'an.

35. Why _______ they _______(go)to the library after school yesterday? Because they _________(want)to borrow some books.

36. What _______ you _______(do)these days?

37. Don't make a noise. Grandma _________(sleep).

38. Sometimes he _________(help)his mother with the housework.

39. Please write to us as soon as you _________(get)there.

40. We ________(show)the foreign friends around Beijing when they get here.

41. We'll wait till you _______(make)up your mind.

42. They ______ just _______(talk)about you.

43. Where _____he ______(be)? He _________(be)to the bank.

44. ______ you______(visit)the Science Museum? ---Yes,I________.

45. ______she ______(tell)you the good news? ---No,she _______.

46. How long _______ your mother _______(teach)English in this school? ---For ten years.

47. We _______ already _______(draw)five pictures.

48. My grandson ______________(be)ill for a week.

49. ________ the train _________(arrive)?---No,not yet.

50. Our physics teacher ____________________(not come)to work today,because he is ill.

51. My brother _________(make)so many American friends since he went there two years ago.

52. She _______(work)in a factory for three years before she went to college.

53. Mr. Brown _______________(live)in London for ten years by the end of last month.

54. How many English words _________ you _________(learn)by the end of last term?

55. ______ they _______(pick)all the apples before the farmer got there?

56. I didn't return the book to the library,because I _________(not finish)reading it.

57. The boy said that he ___________(not break)the window.

58. Jack said that he ___________ (not go) over his lessons yet.

59. John told me that he ___________ (fly) to Japan next Wednesday.

60. Did she say when she ___________ (be) back tomorrow?

61. The head master said he ___________ (meet) some foreigners at the station soon.

62. I wondered if our team ___________ (win) this evening.

63. He said he ___________ (not make) the same mistakes again.

63. He said he ___________ (not make) the same mistakes again.

64. We ___________ (have) a meeting at that time.

65. Tom ___________ (not have) breakfast yesterday morning.

66. Did he know he ___________ (have) an English lest the next day?

67. ___________ your father ___________ (go) to work by bike every day?

68. Mr Wang ___________ (teach) us maths since 1990

69. They will have a trip to the Great Wall if it ___________ (not rain) next Sunday.

70. When I got home my grandmother ___________(make)cakes

71. I ___________ (give) the note to him as soon as school is over.

72. The English song ___________ (teach) now over the radio.

73. English ___________ (speak) all over the world.

74. The Great Green Wall must ___________ (build) in the world.

75. Can the report ___________ (write)in English?

76. The mountain will ___________ (cover) with the trees in a few years.

77. The young trees must ___________ (tie) to the stick to keep it straight.

78. So far, many man-made satellites have ___________ (send) up into space.

79. English ___________ (speak) in Canada.

80. Tennis ___________ (invent) a hundred years ago.

81. It ___________ (snow) hard now. We'd better ___________ (not go) home right now.

82. These exercises must ___________ (do) by yourself.

83. Our teacher told us time ___________ (be) life.

84. We ___________ (not see) each other since he ___________ (leave) here.

85. ___________you ever ___________(ride) a horse before?

86. Miss Green ___________(be) in China for 6 years.

87. We ___________ never ___________ (be) to Hawaii.

88. You'd better try to give up ___________ (smoke). It's too bad to your health.

89. Who is doing well in ___________ (describe) things?

90. Have you finished ___________ (read) the book?

91. Have you saw someone ___________ (ski) before?

92. Can a shark stop ___________ (swim)? —No, It can't

93. You'd better try ___________ (do) it by yourself.

94. The students kept ___________(talk)about the football match.

95. I had a computer lessons first. Then I went on ___________ (have) tennis lessons.

96. He hopes ___________ (see) the famous football player as soon as possible.

97. The boy kept ___________ (ask) strange questions to his teacher, it made the teacher unhappy.

98. Edison enjoyed ___________ (try) his new ideas.

99. He asked me ___________ (speak) loudly.

100. Students must study hard ___________ (make) our country strong.

101. The policeman made him ___________ (stand) in the rain for half an hour.

102. Would you like something nice ___________ (eat)

103. I can't decide which sweater ___________ (choose)

104. He hasn't decided whether choose (tell) the truth.

105. He told me where ___________ (buy) a computer.

106. Will you please ___________ (not talk) in the reading room.

107. I have a lot of work ___________ (do).

108. Why not ___________ (come) a little earlier?

109. I'm sorry ___________ (hear) that.

110. When did you finish ___________ (pack) ?

111. ___________ (talk) with her is a great pleasure.

112. English is not so easy ___________ (learn) well.

113. When makes him ___________ (think) I am a scientist.

114. I forgot ___________ (bring) my textbook with me.

115. Last night I heard Mike ___________ (cry) in the room.

116. My idea is ___________ (have) a meeting at once.

117. At night, the robot watched him ___________ (sleep). It knew everything about Mr. Mott. 118. In the country, he can hear birds ___________ (sing) and sheep ___________ (bleat) 119. My job is ___________ (feed) the animals.

120. In about 600 years, we will hardly have enough space ___________ (stand) in on the earth. 121. Forest help to keep water from ___________ (run) away.

122. He printer is used for ___________ (print) documents.

123. He is busy ___________ (write) his composition.

124. The film is worth ___________ (see).

125. They prefer to ___________(stay) at home rather than ___________ (play) basketball. 126. Your opinion is worth ___________ (consider).

127. Ed starts ___________ (carry) the bag, but trips over his shoes.

128. We are going to have lots of fun ___________ (hike) and ___________ (eat) a new kind fruit. 129. Are you good at ___________ (read) maps?

130. Mary heard her father ___________ (say) he would set off the next week.

131. Do you enjoy ___________ (live) here?

132. My father likes ___________ (read) newspaper in the evening.

133. There is nothing ___________ (worry) about.

134. A computer tells the robot what ___________ (do).

135. He always tells us how ___________ (learn) English well.

136. It took me about an hour ___________ (go) to work by bus.

137. The box is too heavy ___________ (carry).

138. Cody is a good dog. He likes ___________ (follow) people.

139. They want ___________ (take) some fruit with them.

140. My father often tells me ___________ (not swim) in the river because it's over 4 metres deep.

141. Ann had no time ___________ (open) these presents.

142. Let the boy ___________ (do) it by himself.

143. When I saw him, he was busy ___________ (read) a new

从属连词 状语从句

重点知识归纳及讲解

(一)从属连词

从属连词是引导状语从句,宾语从句及其他从句的连词。

1.引导状语从句的从属连词有:

1)when, while, before, after, as soon as, until, since等,引导时间状语从句。

2)because, as, since等引导原因状语从句。

3)if, as long as等引导条件状语从句。

4)though, although引导让步状语从句。

5)so…that…, such…that…等引导结果状语从句。

6)so that引导目的状语从句。

7)as?as?;than等引导比较状语从句。

2.常用从属连词的辨析

1)when, as, while

when, as, while都表示“当…的时候”,但when引导的时间状语从句的动作和主句的动作可以是同时发生,也可以先后发生,when既可指时间点,也可指一段时间,所以既可引导一短暂动作动词,也可引导持续性动作的动词。

用as作从属连词引导时间状语时强调主句和从句的动作并行发生,不指先后,尤指短动作或事件同时发生。如:As I looked, someone came near.(正当我看的时候,有个人走上前来。)as还可说咱两种正发展或变化的情况,意为“随着”。如:As spring warms the earth, all flowers begin to bloom.(随着春回大地,百花开始绽放。)表示主从句动作同时,as意为“一边…一边…”。如:He hurried home, looking behind as he went.(他匆匆忙忙跑回家,一边走一边回头望。)

while只指一段时间,从句中的谓语动词不能用终止性动词,强调某一段时间内主从句动作同时发生,常对同类的动作进行对比。如:While we were waiting for a bus, it was raining hearily.(我们在等车时,天正下着大雨。)

2)till和until

till和until都表示“直到…为止”。主句用延续性动词,主句和从句都用肯定式:意为“直到…才”。主句用终止性动词,从句用肯定式,主句用否定式。until较till正式,until引导的时间从句可以放在句首。

例如:

She won't go away till you promise to help her.

直到你允诺要帮助她,她才走开。

Until you told me, I had heard of nothing what happened.

直到你告诉我,我才知道发生了什么事。

3)since

since引导的时间状语从句常用一般过去时,其主句一般使用现在完成时。

例如:

Jim has been in the factory for two years since he left school.

从吉姆毕业起,他在这家工厂工作两年了。

(二)状语从句

修饰主句中的谓语动词,形容词或副词等的从句叫状语从句。

例如:

He didn't go to school yesterday because he was ill.(修饰动词go)

昨天他没去上学,因为他病了。

We must study so well as our teacher hoped.(修饰副词well)

我们应该学得你我们老师希望的那么好。

Lucy is younger than Jim(is)。(修饰形容词younger)

露茜比吉姆年轻。

状语从句的语序应是主语+谓语+其他成分,即陈述句的语序。

状语从句的位置,可以放在主句前面或后面,但是若放在主句前面,要用逗号与主句分开;主句若是疑问句,那么时间状语从句只能放在主句的前面。

1)时间状语从句

时间状语从句由when, while, after, before, since, as soon as, till, until等连词引导。

例如:

I went to bed after the TV play was ever.

电视剧完了以后我上床睡觉。

Could you look after her while we're away?

我们不在时你能照顾她吗?

She has taught in this school since she came to this city in 1989.

自从一九八九年她来到这座城市以来一直在这所学校教书。

Wait until I come back.

请你等到我回来。

注意:

如主句是一般将来时,则表示将来的时间状语只用一般现在时。

例如:

I'll write to you as soon as I get to Beijing.

我一到北京就将写信给你。

It will get warmer and warmer when spring comes.

春天来临时,天气将变得越来越暖和。

2)原因状语从句

原因状语从句由because, as, since等连词引导。

例如:

He sold the car because it was too small.

他卖掉那辆小汽车,因为它太小了。

Since you won't help me, I must do the job myself.

你既然不帮我忙,我必须自己做这项工作。

As my mother is away at this moment, I have to look after my younger sister.

由于我的妈妈现在不在,我不得不照顾我的妹妹。

注意:

a)because, as, since, for的用法辨析

because, as, since, for都是表示各种理由的连词,但because多表示所叙述的理由是本句的重点,故because所引导的从句常放在句末。

例如:

Why was he absent? Because he was badly ill.

他为什么缺度?因为他病得很重。

as, since用于表示理由是已知,而理由以外才是叙述的重点,两者皆多用于句首,但要注意since重形式,as多表示理由以外的才是重点。

例如:

As it is raining, let's stay as home.

因为下雨,我们就留在家里吧。

Since you have no license, you are not allowed to drive.

因为你没有驾驶执照,所以你不可以开车。

for不用于句首,而用于主句之后,补充说明理由;主句表推测时,用for说明原因。 例如:

I'll follow his advice, for he is a doctor.

我会听从他的劝告,因为他是医生。

b)because of也是表示原因状语,但后面只能跟短语。

例如:

I stayed at home because of the bad weather.

因为天气不好我留在家里。

3)比较状语从句

比较状语从句由than或as来引导。

例如:

I feel better now than (I was) before.

我现在觉得比以前好了。

He writes as well as you (do).

他写得和你一样好。

This problem is more difficult than that one (is).

这道题比那道题难。

4)条件状语从句

条件状语从句由if, unless(= if not)算连词引导。条件从句中的动词多用一般现在时表示将来。 例如:

I shall go if he asks me.

如果他请我,我就去。

I shan't go unless he asks me.

除非他请我,否则我是不去的。

I shall go, whether he asks me or not.

不管他请不请我,我都要去。

Come with me if you have time.

如果你有时间请跟我来。

I want to watch a basketball match if I'm well tonight.

如果今晚我好了的话,我要看一场篮球赛。

由and连接的简单句,可以用条件状语从句来改写。

例如:

Run faster and you'll catch up with him.

跑快点儿你就会赶上他。

=If you run faster, you'll catch up with him.

如果你跑得快点,你就会赶上他。

5)结果状语从句

结果状语从句由so that, so… that引导。

例如:

He has lost his bike so that he can't come to school on time.(结果状语)

他去了自行车,所以不能准时到校。

Your shirt were so dirty that you must wash it.(结果状语)

你的衬衣这么脏,你应该把它洗洗。

注意:

由so…that引导的状语从句若是表示否定意思,可以用too…to(太…而不能)来替换。 例如:

She was so angry that she could not say a word.

=She was too angry to say a word.

她气得说不出话来。

6)让步状语从句

让步状语从句一般用though(虽然)、although(虽然)、even though(即使)引导。

例如:

Though/Although he tried hard, he was not successful.

他虽然努力尝试,但没有成功。

He went on working though it was very late.

虽然很晚了,他还在继续工作。

注意:

1.汉语中的“虽然…但是…”在英语中用连词though就可以了,或单独使用but连接两个并列句也可以,但不能在一个句子中同时用这两个连词(主句前不用连词)。

例如:

“虽然我很喜欢照顾我姐姐的婴儿,但她不让我干”。这个句子我们可以用下面两种方法来表达。

Though I like looking after my sister's baby, she doesn't let me do it.

I like looking after my sister's baby, but she doesn't let me do it.

=though可以与yet连用,这里yet虽然意思与but相同,但yet不是连词,而是副词。

例如:

Though it was cold, yet he went out without a coat.

虽然很冷,但他没穿外衣就出去了。

三、随堂监测A组

I. 用when, before, after, until, as soon as, if, as, because, though, than, since, so…that填空:

1. I haven?t heard from him _______ he left home.

2. He was _______ tired _______ he couldn?t go on working.

3. I was cooking ______ she knocked at the door.

4. He didn?t go to bed ______ he finished his homework.

5. The soldiers set off to the front ______ they received the officer?s order.

6. She went to bed _______ the TV play was over.

7. I won?t believe it _______ I hear with my own ears.

8. We should strike _______ the iron is hot.

9. Take the medicine _______ you go to bed.

10. They couldn?t send their children to school _______ life was very hard in those days.

11. _______ this method doesn?t work, let?s try another.

12. We?re leaving for Shenzhen _______ it is fine today.

13. I knew nothing about it _______ he told me.

14. The singer was _______ pleased _______ he couldn?t say a word.

15. Please work harder _______ all of you can pass the final exam.

16. Army and people are as inseparable (不可分的) _______ fish and water.

17. The harvest of this year is much better ______ that of last year.

18. _______ the story is short and there are no new words in it, it is difficult to understand.

II. 用适当的连词完成改写后的句子,使其与第一个句子意思相同或相近:

1. We can?t finish the work in time without your help.

We can?t finish the work in time _______ you don?t help me.

2. Now shop blowing, and the glass will be clear again.

_______ you now stop blowing, the glass will be clear again.

3. If we don?t hurry, we?ll be late for the film.

Let?s hurry, ______ we?ll be late for the film.

4. The girl is too young to go to school.

The girl is ______ young ______ she can?t go to school.

5. Jenny got up even earlier the next morning in order to get to school on time.

Jenny got up even earlier the next morning _______ she could get to school on time.

6. Jack hasn?t seen the new film. I haven?t seen it, either.

______ Jack ______ I have seen the new film.

7. Wei Hua is a League member. Han Meimei is a League member, too.

______ Wei Hua ______ Han Meimei are League members.

8. The little boy speaks English very well. He speaks Russian very well, too.

The little boy speaks ______ English ______ Russian very well.

9. Xiao Ming was born in 1988. Wang Lin was born in 1988, too.

Xiao Ming is just as old ______ Wang Lin.

10. Miss Gao is very kind. All the students like her.

Miss Gao is ______ kind ______ all the students like her.

四、随堂监测B组

III. 单项选择:

1. We were getting ready to go out ______ it began to rain.

A. where B. when C. since D. if

2. We love spring ______ there?re beautiful flowers everywhere.

A. but B. if C. though D. because

3. The work was _______ difficult _______ it took us quite a long time to do it.

A. such, that B. so, that C. too, that D. too, to

4. I?ll tell him to give you a call ______ he comes back.

A. because B. since C. as soon as D. but

5. --- Why did Li Lei use a pencil? --- _______ his pen was broken.

A. Because B. When C. Until D. If

6. I think Chinese is more popular ______ any other subject.

A. than B. for C. as D. then

7. What do I have to do ______ I want to be thinner?

A. if B. because C. since D. for

8. I won?t turn off the light ______ you?ve finished reading.

A. when B. after C. as soon as D. until

9. I?ll study English and other objects _______ I can.

A. so hard as B. as hard as C. so hardly as D. as hardly as

10. Though it rained heavily, _______ were still playing on the playground.

A. they B. so they C. but they D. and they

11. You should finish your exercises ______ you go to bed.

A. after B. before C. because D. if

12. --- Are we going to West Hill Farm by bike?

--- No. By bus, _______ it is quite far from here.

A. if B. when C. though D. because

13. Mr. Read has taught in that small town ______ he left Canada in 1988.

A. when B. after C. for D. since

14. I?m ______ busy getting ready for Christmas _______ I have no time to write to you.

A. not, until B. too, to C. so, that D. neither, nor

15. You?ll do better in English ______ you work harder.

A. or B. than C. if D. before

16. Tom didn?t go to school yesterday ______ he was ill.

A. but B. until C. if D. because

17. Li Hua ______ in the factory since she left school ten years ago.

A. works B. worked C. has worked D. had worked

18. --- I?m going to Hangzhou for a holiday this weekend.

--- ________ you are there, can you buy me some green tea?

A. Because B. If C. While D. After

19. What shall we do ______ it rains tomorrow?

A. so B. if C. but D. because

20. If you ______ him tomorrow, please ask him if he _______ to work on the farm with us.

A. see, goes B. will see, goes C. will see, will go D. see, will go

21. The room is ______ dirty ______ we don?t want to stay here.

A. so, that B. such, that C. either, or D. as, as

22.

23. They will have a sports meeting if it ______ tomorrow.

A. won?t rain B. will rain C. doesn?t rain D. rains

24. My parents will go out for an outing with me if they ______ free next Sunday.

A. will be B. are C. have D. will have

25. We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl.

A. know B. had known C. have known D. knew

26. Could you ring me up as soon as he ______?

A. arrived B. would arrive C. arrives D. will arrive

27.

28. Kate ______ to bed until her father returned yesterday evening.

A. won?t go B. doesn?t go C. went D. didn?t go

29. If the child _______, please telephone the police.

A. found B. is found C. was found D. has found

30. If you ______ here tomorrow, I?ll be delighted.

A. comes B. will come C. came D. come

宾语从句

重点知识归纳及讲解

<一>概述

1.在复合句中作主句及物动词的宾语的句子叫宾语从句。它一般是由从属连词,连接代词或连接副词来引导。它可以作动词,介词或某些形容词的宾语。

例如: 他说他认识你。 他问我为什么来这里。 我问他要什么。 你是否能告诉我他们都是团员吗?

I?m interested in 我对他说的话很感兴趣。

2.宾语从句中的谓语动词的时态常受到主句中谓语动词时态的影响。因此,要注意保持主句和从句间时态的一致。当主句的谓语动词是现在或将来时态时,从句的谓语动词可用所需要的任何时态。

例如:

He says that Lily is(will be/ was) a doctor.

他说莉莉是(将要成为/过去是)医生。

I?ll tell you what I am doing (did/shall do).

或将要告诉你我正在做(过去做/将要做)什么。

如果主句的谓语动词是过去时态,宾语从句的时态就比较复杂。在这种复合句中,宾语从句的时态可以有:

1)从句的谓语动词表示与主句同时发生的动作,则用过去时或过去进行时。

例如:

I thought he was old.

我认为他老了。

He wanted to know who she was waiting for.

他想知道她在等谁。

2)从句的谓语动词表示在主句动作之前完成的动作,则用过去完成时。

例如:

He said that he finished reading the book.

他说他看完了这本书。

3)从句谓语动词表示在主句动作之后发生的动作,则用过去将来时。

例如:

She said that she was going to buy a new bike next week.

她说她下个星期要去买一辆新自行车。

I wasn?t sure if it would rain.

我没有把握是否会下雨。

4)从句表示普通真理时,其谓语动词用一般现在时。

例如:

The teacher told us the moon travels round the earth.

老师告诉我们,月亮绕地球转。

<二>初中阶段学习的宾语从句

在带宾语从句的复合句中,宾语从句前面一般要有连词(有的可省略)引导。由that引出的宾语从句相当于陈述句;由whether/if引出的宾语从句相当于一般疑问句;由连接代词或连接副词引出的宾语从句相当于特殊疑问句。但应该注意的是它们的语序都是陈述句语序。主句是陈述句时,句末不用问号。

1.由从属述连词that 引导的宾语从句。在口语和新正式文体中常省略that。

例如:

He said(that) he would be back.

他说他将回来。

We knew (that) he had made a mistake.

我们知道他犯了一个错误。

在某些be+形容词的结构后面也可以跟that引导的宾语从句。

例如:

I am sure that I have posted the letter.

我的确把那封信寄了。

I am afraid that you are right.

恐怕你是对的。

2.由连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句,

例如:

Did you ask the teacher when we would have a test?

你问老师我们什么时候进行测验了吗?

Do you know whose child he is?

你知道他是谁的孩子吗?

I can?t find out why the machine doesn?t work well.

我不能找出这台机器为什么动转不灵。

Do you remember what the teacher said at the class meeting yesterday.

你记得老师昨天在班会上说的话吗?

Could you tell me how long it will take me to get to the hospital from here?

你能告诉我从这里到医院需要多长时间吗?

I want to know which medicine he has taken.

我要知道他服了哪种药。

Please tell me who called me just now.

请告诉我刚才谁打电话给我。

I don?t know whom they are speaking to.

我不知道他的在跟谁讲话。

He asked me where they were born.

他问我他们出生在哪里。

Do you remember how much you paid for the coat?

你记得你买这件外衣付了多少钱吗?

3.由从属连词whether 或if引导的宾语从句,在口语中常用if。

例如:

I don?t know whether/ if this bike is hers.

我不知道这辆自行车是否是她的。

Can you tell me whether/ if your father joined the Party in 1990?

你能告诉我你父亲是不是1990年入党的?

<三>宾语从句应掌握的要点

1.在三种类型的宾语从句中必须用陈述句的语序,即主语+谓语动词+其它成分,句末用句号;但主句为疑问句时,句末用问号。

2.在带有宾语从句的复合句中,要注意主句和从句的时态的呼应。

1)当主句的谓语动词是现在或将来时态时,从句的谓语动词可用任何需要的时态。

2)当主句的谓语动词是过去时态时,从句的谓语动词只能用过去时态范围内的某一种形式。

3)从句表示普遍真理时,即使主句的谓语动词是过去时,从句的谓语动词也须用一般现在时。

4)在think, believe等动词引起的宾语从句中,如果否定的是后面的从句,一般要将主句动词改为否定形式,而从句仍然用肯定式。

例如:

I don?t think you are right.

我认为你不对。

I don?t believe she will take part in the English evening.

我相信她不会参加英语晚会。

三、随堂监测A组

I. 选择填空:

1. Did you hear ______?

A. what did I say B. what I said C. I said what D. what I say

2. Can you tell me ________?

A. which class you are in B. which class are you in

C. you are in which class D. are you in which class

3. ---Excuse me. Could you tell me _______? --- Certainly.

A. when can I get to the station B. I can get to which station

C. which station can I get to D. how I can get to the station

4. Could you tell me where _______ yesterday?

A. did you go B. you go C. you have gone D. you went

5. Tom asked me ________.

A. whose shirt was this B. whose shirt this was

C. who shirt was this D. who shirt this was

6. Excuse me, could you tell me _______?

A. where?s the teachers? office B. where?s the bus station

C. what?s she doing D. where the post office is

7. I want to see Mrs. Wang , but I don?t know _______.

A. she lives where B. she where lives C. where she lives D. where does she live

8. --- Go and ask Mr. White for help. --- But I don?t know _______.

A. where does he live B. where he lives

C. where is he living D. he lives there

9. --- Can you tell me ______? --- Yes, he lives in a small town.

A. where he lives B. who is singing C. when he will leave D. what he said

10. Have you decided ______ for London?

A. when will you leave B. when you will leave

C. when are you going D. when you are going

11. Excuse me. Could you tell me ______our tickets?

A. where do we show B. where shall we show

C. where did we show D. where we shall show

12. --- What are you interested in about cooking food? --- We are all interested in ______.

A. how egg is fried B. how is egg fried C. how egg fries D. how does egg fry

13. Do you know _______?

A. what it is B. what is it C. who is he D. whose name is it

14. Do you know _______?

A. whose book is this B. whose book this is

C. this book is whose D. who?s book this is

15. I don?t know ______ now.

A. where is my cat B. my cat is where C. where my cat is D. where my cat

16. Does he know ______?

A. what?s your name B. what name is your

C. what your is name D. what your name is

17. Do you know ______?

A. which floor he lives B. which floor he lives on

C. he lives on which floor D. which floor does he lives on

18. Can you tell me where _______?

A. is the hospital B. the hospital is C. is hospital D. hospital is

19. He hasn?t decided _______.

A. if he?ll go on a trip to Wuxi B. when will he go on a trip to Wuxi

C. if he goes on a trip to Wuxi D. when does he go on a trip to Wuxi

20. Can you see ________?

A. what he?s reading B. what is he reading

C. what does he read D. he reads what

四、随堂监测B组

中考题集:

1. --- When are the Shutes leaving for New York?

---Pardon?

--- I asked _______.

A. when are the Shutes leaving for New York B. when the Shutes are leaving for New York

C. when were the Shutes leaving for New York D. when the Shutes were leaving for New York

2. Could you tell me ______? I have something interesting to tell him.

A. where is Li Hong B. where Li Hong is

C. where was Li Hong D. where Li Hong has been to

3. --- Could you tell me _______?

A. how many people have been out of hospital B. when is Thanksgiving

C. which animal does he like best D. what time will the dolphin show start

4. I want to know _______.

A. what is his name B. what?s his name

C. that his name is D. what his name is

5. He asked me ________.

A. if she will come B. how many books I want to have

C. they would help us do it D. what was wrong with me

6. Do you still remember ______ at the meeting?

A. that Jim said B. what Jim said C. did Jim said that D. what did Jim said

7. --- Excuse me, ______ to the nearest bookshop, please?

--- Go straight and take the second turning on the left.

A. where the way is B. which the way is C. where is the way D. which is the way

8. Mike, go and see who ______ football on the playground.

A. is playing B. plays C. played D. were playing

9. The woman still doesn?t know what ______ in her hometown while she was away.

A. happens B. happened C. will happen D. was happened

10. --- Can I help you? --- Yes. I?d like a ticket to Mount Emei. Can you tell me ______take to get there?

A. how soon will it B. how soon it will C. how long it will D. how long will it

11. --- I hear we?ll have a new teacher this term. --- Really? Do you know ______?

A. what subject does he teach B. what subject will he teach

C. what subject he teaches D. what subject is he going to teach

12. He asked his teacher _______.

A. if there was a monster in Loch Ness B. when was Albert Einstein born

C. how would the scientists find out the result D. where could he find the library

13. Do you know ______ over there?

A. what happens B. what was happened

C. what is happening D. what did happen

14. --- Do you know ______ we will arrive at your hometown? --- This afternoon.

A. when B. why C. if D. where

15. Could you tell me ______ to Mount Putuo tomorrow?

A. how you will go B. how will you go

C. how you have gone D. how have you gone

16. Could you tell me ______?

A. which room he lives B. which room he lived

C. which room did he live in D. which room he lives in

17. --- Do you know ______ he is? --- He says “1.75 metres”, but I?m not sure.

A. how many B. how old C. how far D. how tall

18. She said she _______ me five letters in one month.

A. has written B. will write C. had written D. wrote

19. Can you tell me ______ she is waiting for?

A. why B. whose C. whom D. which

20. I don?t know ______ he still lives here.

A. where B. what C. when D. whether

21. --- Be careful! Don?t break the bottles. Do you hear ______ I said, David? --- Yes, mum.

A. what B. that C. why D. if

22. I?d like to know ______.

A. when will he give back the tape B. whether has he received higher education

C. that he has been busy D. whether she will join in our English evening

23. Could you tell me _______?

A. when shall we start B. who are you waiting for

C. where the bus station is D. why were you late

24. --- Do you know _______? I?m going to see him. --- Sorry, I don?t know.

A. where does Mr. Li live B. where did Mr. Li live

C. where Mr. Li lives D. where Mr. Li lived

25. He asked me ______.

A. who did kick the first goal in the World Cup B. when was the APEC meeting held

C. when China became a member of the WTO D. where will the 2008 Olympics be held

26. She wanted to know _____ her mother liked the present.

A. which B. that C. if D. what

27. Could you tell me _______?

A. who is she B. where?s the nearest fast restaurant

C. if he will come tomorrow D. which way is to the underground station

28. Do you know if ______ back next week? If he ______ back, please let me know.

A. he comes, will come B. will he come, comes

C. he will come, comes D. will he come, will come

29. --- Can you tell me why ______? --- Because I want to help the people there.

A. do you go to Tibet B. did you go to Tibet

C. are you going to Tibet D. you are going to Tibet

30. --- Where does he come from? --- Pardon? --- I asked where ______.

A. did he come from B. he came from

C. he comes from D. does he come from

31. You must remember _______.

A. what your teacher said B. what did your teacher say

C. your teacher said what D. what has your teacher said

32. Lily likes _____.

A. what her twin sister like B. what her twin sister does

C. what is her twin sister like D. what does her twin sister do

33. --- Excuse me. Could you tell me ______ get to the plane?

--- Certainly. Go straight along here.

A. how can we B. how we can C. when can we D. when we can

34. Do you know what time _______?

A. does the train leave B. leaves the train

C. the train leave D. the train leaves

35. --- I don?t know _____ Mr. Green will come to see us?

--- He will help us with our English.

A. why B. when C. how D. where

语法练习答案

名词

A组

I. 1. houses 2. villages 3. maps 4. oranges 5. bags 6. exercises 7. brushes

8. families 9. buses 10. cities 11. boxes 12. babies 13. classes 14. factories

15. glasses 16. dictionaries 17. watches 18. women 19. matches 20. men 21. wishes

22. Germans 23. tomatoes 24. policemen 25. kilos 26. humans 27. potatoes

28. Chinese 29. shelves 30. Japanese 31. leaves 32. Americans 33. lives

34. teeth 35. wives 36. feet 37. knives 38. sheep 39. halves 40. children II. 1. a group of children 2. two boxes of apples 3. three baskets of vegetables

4. nine pieces of bread 5. ten glasses of milk 6. five pieces of meat

7. many kinds of plants 8. a pair of glasses 9. two pieces of ice

10. three pieces of paper 11. four bottles of orange juice 12. five cups of tea

13. six bowls of rice 14. seven bags of rice 15. eight pieces of wood

16. nine pieces of medal

III. 1. worker 2. teacher 3. singer 4. illness 5. fighter 6. invention/inventor

7. waiter 8. wool 9. winner 10. thanks 11. foreigner 12. cloud

13. runner 14. dirt 15. visitor 16. fun 17. wood 18. medicine 19. operation

20. heat 21. invitation 22. worry 23. builder/building 24. pleasant 25. help

26. safety 27. death 28. danger 29. drawing 30. noise

B组

IV. 1—5 AABDB 6—10 CCADB 11—15 CCBAB 16—20 DBDDA

21—25 CBBCA 26—30 BCCBA 31—35 CADCD 36—40 DCBCD

V. 1—5 BACAA 6—10 ABADC 11—15 ACDBA

冠词

A组

I. 1. an, a 2. the, / 3. A, a 4. the, /, a 5. a 6. a 7. /, an

8. an, the 9. a, the, The 10. the, the, the, the 11. The, the 12. the, the, the

13. The , the 14. The 15. a, the 16. the 17. the, the 18. /, /, /

19. The, the 20. /, the

II. 1—5 ACAAC 6—10 ACBCA 11—15 BABBA 16—20 AABCB

B组

III. 1—5 DCDAC 6—10 ACBDB 11—15 CACAB 16—20 DCBBA

21—25 CBBBC 26—28 DCD

代词

A组

I.

1—5 CDCAC 6—10 DABDD 11—15 ACCAB 16—20 ABCAA

21—25 CCDDC 26—30 BAABC 31—35 BBBCA 36—40 ADDBC

B组

II.

1—5 BCDDB 6—10 DCADB 11—15 BDBBB 16—20 DBADA

21—25 BCCBA 26—30 BCCAD

数词

五、参考答案

I. 1. first 2. second 3. third 4. fifth 5. eighth 6. ninth

7. twelfth 8. twentieth 9. thirty-first 10. forty-fourth 11. fifty-seventh

II. 1. Lesson 12 / the Twelfth Lesson 2. Room 304 3. half an hour

4. three times a day 5. page 25 6. 1990s / the nineties of the twentieth century

7. the No.4 bus 8. The No.15 Middle School 9. the 21century

10. two and a half kilos / two kilos and a half 11. a quarter to three 12. Book Two

13. in his fifties 14. Class Eight, Grade Two 15. ten forty-five 16. Unit 15

17. Lesson 13, Book 3 18. a third / one third 19. three hundred dollars

20. March 22nd, 1994

III. 1—5 CDADD 6—10 ADABC 11—15 BBACC

IV. 1—5 CCCCB 6—10 ABBBD 11—15 CBDCC 16—20 DBABA

st

动词(I)

五、参考答案

A组

I.1-5C D A A A 6-10D C D B B

11-15A D C C D 16-20 C D C B C

21-25 C C D D D 26-30 C B B C B

31-36C C A C B C

B组

II.1. visited 2. has made 3. is going 4. sleeps

5. in raining 6. does 7. is leaving 8. arrived

9. were talking 10. have learned 11. had, started 12. works

13. is blowing 14. haven't finished 158. must be sent

16. had planted 17. was playing 18. see 19. has gone

20. Do, get 21. had been on 22. travels 23. has, learned

24. moves 25. would give 26. will plant/are going to plant

27. don't shout 28. could work 29. wouldn't sing

30. leaves 31. are planting 32. didn't give

33. were playing 34. would clean 35. have

36. joined 37. comes 38. thinks 39. is visiting

40. will be 41. has been 42. had begun

43. will come 44. is 45. took 46. has gone

47. do 48. doesn't rain, will plant

49. had finished 50. are swimming 51. attacked 52. practices

动词II

五、参考答案

A组

1—5 C C A D A 6—10 C B B A D

11—15 D B A D A 16—20 C B D B C

21—25 B C B D A 26—30 B C B C C

31—35 C A B A C 36—40 C A C B D

41—45 D D B C B 46—50 C A A B D

51—55 A A A C A 56—60 B A B A C

B组

1. reads 2. Does, clean 3. are having 4. did, stay 5. is listening

6. was, sang 7. will go 8. Will, study 9. do, do 10. are cleaning

11. did, do, wrote 12. will be 13. is leaving 14. doesn't listen

15. Were 16. will come / is coming 17. Will, be 18. Did, have

19. are, doing 20. don't go 21. do, have 22. are watching 23. joined, is

24. will visit 25. will play 26. made 27. Is, snowing 28. do, live, live

29. rains 30. is singing 31. hasn't taught 32. will help 33. Will, be

34. were, were 35. did, go 36. are, doing 37. is sleeping

38. helps 39. get 40. will show 41. make 42. have talked

43. has, been 44. Have, visited, have 45. Has, told, hasn't

46. have, drawn 48. has been 49. Has, arrived 50. hasn't come

51. has made 52. had worked 53. had lived 54. had, learned 55. Had picked

56. hadn't finished 57. hadn't 58. hadn't gone 59. would fly

60. would be 61. would meet 62. would win 63. wouldn't make

64. were having 65. didn't have 66. would have 67. Does, go 68. has taught

69. doesn't rain 70. was making 71. will give 72. will give

73. is spoken 74. be built 75. be written 76. be covered

77. be tied 78. been sent 79. is spoken 80. was invented 81. is snowing, not go

82. be done 83. is 84. haven't seen, left 85. Have, ridden

86. has been 87. have, been 88. smoking 89. describing

90. reading 91. ski 92. swimming 93. to do 94. talking

95. to have 96. to see 97. asking 98. trying 99. to speak

100. to make 101. stand 102 to eat 103. to choose

104. to tell 105. to buy 106. not talk 107. to do

108. come 109. to hear 110. packing 111. Talking

112. to learn 113. think 114. to bring 115. cry

116. to have 117. sleep 118. singing 119. to feed

120. to stand 121. running 122. printing 123. writing

124. seeing 125. stay, play 126. considering 127. to carry

128. hiking, eating 129. reading 130. saying 131. living

132. reading 133. to worry 134. to do 135. to learn

136. to go 137. to carry 138. following 139. to take

140. not to swim 141. to open 142. do 143. reading

从属连词 状语从句

A组 I. 1. since 2. so, that 3. when 4. until 5. as soon as 6. after 7. until 8. while 9. before 10. because 11. Since 12. if

13. until 14. so, that 15. so, that 16. as 17. than 18. Though

II. 1. if 2. If 3. or 4. so, that 5. so that 6. Neither, nor 7. Both, and 8. both, and 9. as 10. so, that

B组 III. 1—5 ACCDA 6—10 BBBDB 11—15 BDDCC 16—20 DCCBD 21—25 ACCBC 26—30 CBDBD

宾语从句

I. 1—5 BADDB 6—10 DCBAB 11—15 DAABC 16—20 DBBAA

II. 1—5 DBADD 6—10 BDABC 11—15 CACAA 16—20 DDCCD

21—25 ADCCC 26—30 CCCDB 31—35 ABBDA

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