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初中各类英语作文范文大全[1]

发布时间:2013-11-28 08:01:43  

应用文是人们日常生活或工作中经常使用的文体,包括书信、通知、便条、启事等。其语言重在实用,要求朴实、准确、简洁。

应用文在实践中逐渐形成了各自的格式,且各种格式都有一定的规范。掌握应用文的基本结构和特点是学生应该具备的基本功之一。

第一节 书信

书信是人们在日常生活、学习、工作和公务活动中应用最为广泛的有一定惯用格式的应用文,是个人与个人之间、个人与组织之间、组织与组织之间交流思想感情、传递意见要求、传播信息的书面形式。

同其它类应用文一样,书信具有实用性强、格式固定、使用广泛等特点。

由于文化背景与习俗的不同,英文书信与中文书信在书写格式上有较大差异,需特别注意。

书信的写法应注意三大部分。

一、信封的格式

在信封正面的中间略偏右的地方写收信人的地址,注意要先写收信人的姓名,再从小到大写上收信人的地址,寄信人的地址则按从小到大的顺序写在信封的左上角,或者是写在信封的背面。格式如下所示:

二、书信的格式

书信分为正式信件(公务性信件和商务性信件)和非正式信件(家人、朋友之间的信件)两种。常见的书信格式如下图所示:

三、正文的写法

1. 信头(Heading):信头是指写信人的地址及日期,位于信笺的右上方,距信纸的顶头约一英寸。顺序是先写地址,后写日期。地址由小写到大,即门牌号→街名→城市→省份→国名,由小到大的顺序书写。如“江西省万载县康乐镇田下路159号”,英文写法是:159 Tianxia Road, Kangle Town, Wanzai County, Jiangxi Province;日期可按“日—月—年”的顺序或“月—日—年”的顺序写。

2. 信内地址(Inside Address):它是指收信人的姓名和地址,写在信笺的左上方,稍低于信头一至二行,在称呼语上方。顺序是先写收信人姓名,后写职务,再写地址(由小到大)。商业往来信件及公函必须写信头和信内地址。但亲友、熟人之间的信可不写信内地址,信头处只写发信日期。

3. 称呼(Greeting):收信人的称呼,写在信纸的左边,低于信内地址。

4. 书信的正文(Body):是写信者所要说的话,正文信的内容,从左向右横写,低于称呼语,常在缩进四、五个字母处起笔。写信与写文章一样,要分段写,每段有一个中心思想,内容要表达清楚,语言要简单明了,态度要诚恳礼貌。给亲友的信还应亲切热情。考试时必须把规定的内容写清楚。正文结束时,还可写一两句表达心愿的话,如:Best wishes to you /Remember me to your family /Hoping to hear from you soon等。

5. 结束语(Closing):发信人表示自己对收信人的一种客套称呼,写在书信正文结尾下面低两行的位置上。一般它均从正中或偏右处写起。结束语的第一个字母必须大写,后面须加上逗号。收信人与写信人之间是朋友关系时常用:Yours,/Yours ever,/Ever yours,/Always(Sincerely) yours, 等等。

6. 签名(Signature):发信人自己的姓名,写在结束语的下面一行。可与结束语齐头或略向右靠一点儿。 在这里给大家介绍一些关于书信的开头和结尾的写法:

A. 开头语

1. Thank you for your letter of September 1.

2. Many thanks for your kind letter which reached me yesterday.

3. You letter come to me this morning.

4. I was delighted to receive your letter.

5. I am in receipt of your letter.

6. It?s a long time since I saw your last.

7. I have been missing you a lot since we met last time.

8. I am sorry for not writing to you sooner.

9. I am writing to you tell that ……

10. I often think of you. How are you recently?

B. 结束语

1. Good luck!

2. Best wishes!

3. Take care of yourself, will you?

4. Send my love to your…

5. Please write to me when you have time.

6. Please write soon.

7. Let?s keep in touch.

8. I am looking forward to your next letter soon.

9. Thank you for an early reply.

10. Please tell me if you need my help.

[实例点评]

请按以下提示给美国总统写一封信。提示:

1. 你是一个中国学生,对美国攻打伊拉克很关注。

2. 战争已经持续十多天了。这些天来,大约二十万美、英士兵一直在攻击伊拉克(Iraq) 。到目前为止,已经有很多房屋被摧毁(destroy) ,数以百计的平民(civilians) 在战争中被打死。伊拉克的儿童不能安静地上学,甚至连吃的都没有。

3. 希望美、英立刻停止战争,让伊拉克人民能重新过上平静的生活,让伊拉克的儿童重新回到课堂。

[写作指导]

1. 这是一封写给美国总统呼吁停止战争的信。措词要恰当。要以学生身份去写。

2. 一些关键词:last 持续, two hundred thousand 二十万,be killed 被打死,live a…life 过着……生活,

care about 关注。

3. 要正确使用被动语态。

[参考范文]

No. 28 Middle School

Yangzhou

April 8, 2005

Dear Mr President Bush,

I am a student from China. All my classmates and I are caring about the war between your country and Iraq.

So far, the war has lasted about ten days. During these days, about two hundred thousand soldiers from your country and Britain have kept attacking Iraq. Many houses have been destroyed. Hundreds of civilians have been killed in the war. What?s worse, the children in Iraq couldn?t go to school like the children in your country and all of us. They even have no food to eat.

Mr President Bush, will you please stop the war at once? Let the people in Iraq live a quiet life and let the children go back to their schools, will you?

Love,

Li Lei

[强化训练]

1. 假如你叫Li Ming, 中学生,经常收听音乐节目,请你用英语给节目主持人写一封信。信的要点如下:(1)你很喜欢这个节目,特别是英语歌曲;(2)学习很疲劳时,你会打开收音机,听这个节目;(3)从英语歌里你学了很多单词;你最喜欢“Take Me to Your Heart”这首歌,希望得到歌词(the words of a song)。

注意:信要通顺连贯;词数70左右。信的开头和结尾已为你写好,不计入总词数。

2. 假定你叫周海,家住江西省南昌市北京西路 153号,你刚收到好友张辉8月15日的来信。他说对英语学习失去了信心,准备放弃,你很吃惊。现请你给他复信,劝他继续学习,并告诉他英语是一门重要学科,要有克服困难的意志,要有好的学习方法。写信时间为8月 20日,词数100左右。

3. 你是尚佳,在昆明大学英语系(English Department)一年级读书,九月十五日给你父母亲(辽宁省海城市八里镇头道村)写了一封信,信中说,你到昆明半个月了。这里很美,四季如春,昆明人更美,处处盛开友谊(friendship)之花。昆大的老师和同学们对你都很好,恐怕东北人在此不适应(fit),他们便常常关照你,这里就像一个欢乐的大家庭,请你父母亲放心,待家里活忙完后,也来昆明住几天。请你用100字左右写出这封信的全文。

4. 假如你叫李海,暑假里你和父亲去北京旅游。几天后你给你的同学赵涛写信,向他介绍首都北京及你们参观长城情况。(你住在北京西长安街809号)

5. 假若你叫王梅,你的英国笔友Betty写信请你给她介绍有关中国春节的一些情况。请你给她写封回信。

6. 假如你是张吉,你的加拿大笔友Tim给你来信,告知你他将来宁波度假。请你根据所给提示用英语写一封回信。词数:60-80。

回信须包括以下要点:

1) 欢迎他来宁波;2) 恰好你也有一个月的假期;3) 在宁波可以游泳、钓鱼、爬山、吃各种海鲜、浏览市容;4) 你们可以互相学习语言;5) 请对方告知到达的时间和航班号,以便去机场迎接。

7. 假如你叫李平,参加了学校开展的“有烦恼向谁说”的调查活动,调查结果如图所示。请你用英语给校报编辑写一封信,内容包括:调查结果(不局限于用分数表述)、理由及自己的想法。

要求:1) 语句通顺,合乎逻辑;

2) 词数80-100(信的开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数)。 提示词:survey 调查,trust 信任 [参考范文]

1. No. 28 Middle School

Suzhou

April 8, 2005

Dear Mr Liu,

I?m a middle school student. In my spare time, I?d love to listen to the radio, especially the programme you present. When I am tired, I usually turn on my radio to relax. I enjoy the English songs in the programme most. From the songs, I learn new words. It is helpful in my English study.

I was wondering whether you could help me find the words of the song Take Me to Your Heart, as it is one of my favourites.

Yours sincerely, Li Ming

2. 153 Beijing West Road

Nanchang, Jiangxi August 20, 2005

Dear Zhang Hui,

I have received your letter of August 15. I?m surprised to learn that you have lost heart in your English and that you want to give it up.

In my opinion, English is an important subject for us middle school students. It?s wrong for you to give it up. I hope you?ll go on studying English. You should have more confidence and when you are learning a language you will make mistakes, this is part of learning. Where there is a will, there is a way. Besides, you must develop a good way of learning. If you have any questions, please don?t hesitate to ask your teacher for help. I?m sure you?ll make great progress in your English very soon.

Yours, Zhou Hai

3. Grade One

English Department

Kunming University 650032 Kunming, Yunnan Province September 15, 1999

Dear parents,

How are you? How time flies! I?ve been in Yunnan for nearly half a month.

All is beautiful here and so are the people. All the year is just like spring, and there are flowers of friendship here and there.

Here?s a big family and we are brothers and sisters. They take good care of me, for they are afraid it can?t fit a friend from the Northeast. So I?m very happy here and you needn?t worry.

Hope you come and visit here after farm work.

Yours loving, Shang Jia

4. 809 West Chang?an Street, Beijing

July 20, 2005

Dear Zhao Tao,

I?ve been in Beijing for several days. I miss you very much. Does everything go well at home? Now let me tell you something about Beijing.

Beijing, our capital, is a very beautiful city. There are too many people, cars and big buildings in Beijing. There are all kinds of shops. They sell all kinds of things. There are lots of places of great interest. Now it?s the best time to visit Beijing. Too many travellers have come here.

Yesterday my father and I visited the Great Wall. How great! I was very excited when I saw the Great Wall. We took lots of photos. I saw lots of foreigners, they?re very interesting. We enjoyed ourselves very much there.

Zhao Tao, have you finished your lessons? I?m going home soon.

Please tell my mother not to worry about us.

Yours,

Li Hai

5. Dear Betty,

Thank you for your last letter. I?m getting on well with all my subjects. I hope you can come to China one day. The following is the answer to your questions. The Spring Festival is the most important festival for China people. It always comes during winter holidays. It?s time for families to get together. People all have a big dinner in the evening before the Spring Festival. On the Spring Festival, every people wears their new clothes. People say “Happy New Dear” to each other. In the following few days, people will be busy visiting friends and relatives. Everyone enjoys the Spring Festival. Our winter holidays will come soon, so will the Spring Festival. I?m busy with my lessons now. I have to stop writing. Thank you for helping me with my English.

Yours sincerely

Wang Mei

6. August 9th

Dear Tim,

I received your letter yesterday. I?m very happy to hear that you?ll come to Ningbo. I?m going to have a one-month holiday after the exams finish. We can spend our holiday together. We can go swimming, go fishing, climb the hills and enjoy many kinds of seafood. We can also visit different parts of this beautiful city. I?m sure you?ll like it. At the same time, we can learn language from each other. Please call me and let me know your flight number and the arrival time as soon as you get the ticket. I?ll meet you at the airport. I?m sure we?ll have a good time together.

Best wishes to your family!

Yours,

Zhang Ji

7. June 26th, 2005

Dear editor,

I am a student in Grade Three. We have made a survey-“To whom do you go when in trouble”.

Here are the results. Most of the students will go to their classmates or friends when in trouble because they?re almost the same age and they can talk with, communicate with and understand each other easily. Some students will tell their teachers or parents about their troubles as the teachers and parents have rich experience and love them very much. They can be trusted by these students. Only a few students solve their problems all by themselves. They hate to talk with others and can?t get on well with others. They have few friends.

In my opinion, when in trouble we should ask our teachers, parents, friends or classmates for help.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ping

第二节 日记

日记常用来记叙自己一天生活中所看到、遇到、想到和做过的事情,特别是那些具有教育意义或值得回忆、查阅或参考的事情,也可以用来抒发自己当天对某些事件的感受,以及对将来的打算等。因此,要记的内容丰富

多彩,这正是日记题材广泛,选材容易的原因。体裁以记叙文或简单的议论文为主。英文日记的格式与中文日记大体一样。

写日记时要注意以下几点:

1. 格式:英文日记和中文日记的写法大致相同。一般是第一行写上日期、星期、天气状况。日期通常顶格写,后面是星期,天气状况写在右上角。表示天气情况的词一般用形容词,如:

fine, cold, rainy, windy, cloudy, sunny, snowy, foggy等。正文部分另起一行。

日记各部分的书写格式示意图如下:

2. 人称:日记要用第一人称写。

3. 时态:写日记的时间一般是在下午或晚上,有时也有在第二天补记的。所记叙的事情通常发生在过去,所以常用一般过去时态。但如果要记叙天气、描写景色、展望未来、议论某事或对话引语等,可以使用一般现在时或一般将来时,以生动再现当时的情景。

4. 日记的写作顺序:日记一般按照时间顺序或事情的经过来写。语言要清楚、自然,内容要连贯、完整。

5. 类型:日记可分为记事型、议论型、描写型以及抒情型等类型。记事型日记,就是学生用所学英语词汇记述当天自己生活中所发生的事情。议论型,就是对生活中的某一事情或情况、现象发表自己的看法。描写型就是对某人、某物的特征进行细致的描述,或对某事物抒发自己的感情。

[实例点评]

假设今天是六月十日(星期一),天气晴朗。请根据以下提示,用英语写一则日记。

1. 全世界人民热爱足球,我也最喜欢足球;

2. 今天下午一位有名的足球运动员张林,来我校给我们作了“足球与中国”的报告;

3. 报告结束后,他和我们一起在学校操场踢了半小时足球;

4. 今天过得很愉快。我一定要更加努力学习,将来当一名像张林一样的优秀足球运动员。

[写作指导]

1. 首先要将日记的格式写对。

2. 注意时态的一致性和真实性。

3. 用词要准确,行文要流畅,不能照汉语提示硬译。

[参考范文]

May 10th, 2005 Monday Fine

The people all over the world love football. Football is my favourite sport. This afternoon a famous football player came to our school and gave us a talk about “Football and China”. His name was Zhang Lin. He was tall and strong. After the lecture, he played football on the school playground with us for half an hour. I enjoyed myself very much today. I think I must work hard at all my lessons and try to become a good football player like Zhang Lin.

[强化训练]

1. 就植树节这一天的植树活动写一篇简短的日记。单词数:50左右。

提示:

1) 穿旧衣服;

2) 早餐后乘车到西山;

3) 挖坑、种树、浇水,每人种树3棵;

4) 12点结束;

5) 感想;

6) 天气晴朗。

2. 按下列要求写一篇日记。

要求:今天是5月21日星期六 ,不上课,吃完早饭后你做作业。然后和飞鸣一起去看电影。路上看到一个小男孩在修自行车,你们停下来帮忙。飞鸣花了10分钟的时间帮助他修好了自行车,小男孩非常的感激。当你们匆忙赶到电影院时正好电影开始。

3. 2005年5月1日,星期六,晴,上午约8点,你和你的朋友们在去香山的路上。此时你们看到前方有几个外国客人正在不知所措,周围不少人围观,由于语言的障碍,谁也不知发生了什么事。正在这紧要关头,你们赶去。原来,在刚刚的一起交通事故中,他们的一位朋友受了伤正要去医院,可是他们没有那么多的钱。你和你的朋友打电话叫来警察,你们陪同他们去了医院,他们的朋友得救了,十分感激你们。尽管旅游没去成,但你们都

为做了件增进中外友谊(friendship)的大好事并从中学到许多知识感到高兴。根据以上提示写一则100-150字的日记。

4. 今天是2005年4月11日,星期天,晴。我去听香港四大歌王之一刘德华的演唱会。我早就买好票期盼着(look forward to)这一天早日来到。演唱会于晚上7:00开始,持续三个小时。刘德华比实际年龄显得年轻,他的歌令歌迷很激动。

注意:1) 字数90词左右。2) 请不要逐字翻译。3) 可适当发挥。

5. 根据图画内容和所给词汇写一则日记,时间为6月3日,星期日。

要求:1) 注意英文日记的格式;2) 必须用第一人称“I”来写;3) 字数:50-80左右。

所给词汇:afternoon; play; playground; suddenly; fall over; hurt; take; Li Hua; hospital; look over; leg; with; home

6.下列六幅画描述了你5月31日(星期日)那天的活动。请根据这些图画用英语写一篇日记。

注意:1) 日记须包括所有图画的内容,可以适当增加细节,使日记连贯。2) 词数100左右。

[参考范文]

1. March 12th, 2005, Monday Fine

Today is Tree Planting Day. After breakfast we went to the West Hill to plant trees by bus. We were all in old clothes and worked very hard. Some dug holes, some put trees in them and others watered them. Each of us planted three young trees. When we finished our work, it was already twelve o?clock. We felt a little tired, but we were very happy.

2. May 21 Saturday Fine

We had no lessons today. After breakfast I did my homework. After that Feiming and I went to the cinema.

On the way, we saw a little boy. He was mending his bike. He looked worried. We decided to help him. There was nothing much wrong with it. So it took Feiming only ten minutes to finish it. The boy was very thankful.

When we hurried to the cinema, we were just in time. We both felt very happy.

3. May 1st Saturday Fine

My friend and I were on our way to the Xiangshan Mountains at about 8 in the morning when we found some foreign friends were looking worried in front of us. There were a lot of people around them, but they didn?t know what had happened because they didn?t know foreign languages. Just at that time we got there and got to know one of their friends was hurt in an accident. They had little money with them. So we telephoned the police and they took him to the hospital with us. They thanked us because he was saved.

Though we didn?t go to the Xiangshan Mountains, we did a good deed between China and foreign countries and we learnt a lot from it, we feel well enough.

4. April 11, 2005 Sunday Fine

Liu Dehua is my favourite pop star.His English name is Andy. He is one of “the four kings” in Hong Kong music field.

I bought a ticket to his concert a few days ago. I was looking forward to the day. At 7:00 in the evening the concert began. I heard him singing face to face for the first time. He was very handsome and looked much younger than his age. His song “Stupid Child” made us excited!

The concert ended at 10:00. On my way home, I was still excited. What a wonderful evening! I?ll never forget it.

5. Sunday June 30th Sunny

This afternoon Li Hua and I played football on the playground with other classmates. Suddenly he fell over and hurt himself. So we quickly went over and took him to hospital by bike. The doctor looked over his leg carefully and said it was not too serious. After that he was taken back home with our help. We all hope that he will be all right very soon.

6. May 31st, 2005 Sunday Sunny

It was Grandma?s birthday. Father, Mother and I went to visit her. She lives with my uncle in a village not too far away. Early in the morning we bought some presents and took the bus to get there. Grandma and Uncle were so glad to see us. We gave the presents to Grandma and she was very happy. Then we sat down to talk, while Uncle went to prepare lunch. The meal was so nice that we all enjoyed it very much. At 4 o?clock, we said goodbye and set off for home.

第三节 通知

通知属于应用文,通常是上级对下级、组织对成员布置工作、召开会议、传达事情所用的一种应用文。通知包括口头通知和书面通知。

1. 口头通知

口头通知是面对面地把事情传达给对方。在发布口头通知时,应该注意以下几个问题:

开头应有称呼语:Boys and girls 或 Ladies and gentlemen等。

应有引起听众注意的开场白:Attention, please! 或Be quiet, please!

结尾应给听众结束通知的信号:That?s all. Thank you.或 So much for this. Thank you.

口头通知的内容要讲清楚时间、地点、活动内容及注意事项。

2. 书面通知

书面通知是以布告、张贴的形式出现,为醒目起见, 标题的每个字母都常大写。

格式包括:

标题:在正文的上面写“NOTICE”。

正文:包括具体的时间、地点、活动内容及注意事项。

单位:一般写在右下角,有时放在标题的上面。

时间:发出通知的时间一般写在左下角。若右下角无发通知单位的名称,也可以写在右下角。

人称:发通知的单位和被通知的对象均用第三人称,但如果正文前已有称呼语,就用第二人称表示被通知的对象。

[实例点评]

请按以下要求拟定一份通知:

1. 为了提高口语水平,学校准备举办英语口语竞赛。

2. 时间:2005年6月13日。

3. 地点:二楼会议大厅。

4. 参加对象:初三年级学生。

5. 前三名发奖。

6. 本周到王老师那儿报名(sign up)。

7. 通知人:校长办公室。

8. 欢迎初三学生参加。

[写作指导]

1. 所写通知要包含所有内容,不得遗漏。

2. 语言要简洁。

3. 时间、地点可以连在一起写,一气呵成。

1. 假如你是班长,你班要与来华的美国学生一起举行一次英语晚会,请根据以下的内容拟个通知,将这次活动的情况提前一天告诉同学们。

提示:1) 时间:2005年12月10日,星期五,晚7:00-9:00。

2) 地点:本班教室。

3) 参加人员:本班同学, 美国学生和我们的英语老师,也欢迎别班的同学来参加。

4) 内容:唱歌、跳舞、讲故事。

5) 注意事项:晚会上要讲英语。

6) 望准时参加,祝玩得愉快。

要求:1) 格式正确。2) 语意连贯, 语法正确。3) 60-80词。

2. 学校准备组织一次英语讲座,请以校学生会的名义将有关事项通知全校同学。请参看以下提示。

提示:

1) 时间:5月30日,星期六,晚上6:00-8:00。

2) 地点:学校大礼堂。

3) 内容:英美文化的差异。

4) 主讲人:本校主任Mr Li。

5) 注意事项:欢迎感兴趣的同学前来参加,但不要迟到。

要求:1) 格式正确。2) 语意连贯,语法正确。3) 60-80词。

3. 一个参观团准备访问某城市。请你起草一份通知,在欢迎参观团时宣讲。内容包括以下几点:

1) 参观日期:七月一日,星期六。

2) 时间:早餐后8点出发。

3) 在参观地点吃午餐。下午回来。

4) 每人只能参观一个地方,工厂、学校、农场或医院。欢迎人人参加。今晚9点前在服务台(the Service Desk)写下名字,并告诉我们你要去的地方。

4. 请你拟写一个书面通知,告诉同学们明天去参加植树活动。

内容:明天是植树节,天气暖和。你们不上课,去公园植树。早晨八点在学校门口集合,骑自行车去。中午在那里吃饭,请带好水和食物。(词数50-70)

5. 请根据下面的提示以学生会的名义写一则通知,通知的内容已经给出。

1) 内容:本校最受欢迎的英语老师谢老师做关于如何提高英语写水平的讲座。

2) 时间:2005年2月28日下午4点到6点。

3) 参加人员:全体初三年级学生,也欢迎其他年级的学生参加。

4) 讲座地点:教学楼六楼会议室。

5) 不少于80个单词。

6.

[参考范文]

1. NOTICE

Boys and girls,

We will have an English evening party in our classroom. The party will be held from 7:00 to 9:00 p.m. on Friday December 10th. We?ll sing, dance and tell stories at the party. All of us must be on time. We will invite some American students and our teachers to join us. Students from other classes will be welcome. At the party, we must speak English. I hope we?ll have a good time.

That?s all. Thank you.

The Students? Union

December 9th, 2005

2. NOTICE

There will be an English lecture on the differences between American Culture and English Culture. It will be given by Mr Li of our college in the school hall on Saturday evening from 6:00 to 8:00, May 30th. Everyone who is interested in it will be welcome.

Be sure not to be late.

The Students? Union

May 29th

3. NOTICE

Ladies and gentlemen,

May I have your attention, please?

On Saturday July 1st, there will be visits to several places. Everybody is welcome. Each can only go to one place, a factory, a school, a farm or a hospital. Please write down your name at the Service Desk before 9:00 p.m. You should tell us where you will go.

We?ll set out at 8:00 a.m. after breakfast. We will have lunch at the place that you visit. In the afternoon we?ll come back.

That?s all. Thank you.

4. NOTICE

Tomorrow is Tree Planting Day. It is warm. You will have no classes. We shall (will) plant trees in the park. We will meet at the gate of our school at 8:00 in the morning and go there by bike. We will have lunch there. Please bring some water and food with you. Don?t be late.

the Headmaster Office

5. NOTICE

There is going to be a lecture on how to improve writing English by Mr Xie, one of the most popular English teacher in our school. All the students of Junior Grade Three will attend the lecture. And students of other grades are also welcome. The lecture will be held on the sixth floor meeting room in the school building between four and six in the afternoon the day after tomorrow. All the students should be on time and take with your pens and notebooks. Please take notes carefully while listening. Don?t be late.

The Students? Union

February 26th, 2005

6. Attention, please!

Boys and girls,

About 50 Australian students will come to visit our school on December 15. We?ll meet them at the school gate at 8:

30. We?ll take them to the reading-room in the library. At 9:00, a get-together will be held there. After that, we?ll take them to visit the botanic garden and the school-run factory. At 11: 00 there will be a basketball match on the playground. They?ll leave our school at 12:00.

Please be friendly to the foreign visitors and we are supposed to speak English with them.

That?s all. Thank you.

第四节 便条

一、便条的格式和特点

人们在日常生活、工作中往往有一些简单的事情需要告知别人,而因某种原因无法见到对方时,就可以采取写便条的办法来传递信息。在日常生活中便条应用非常广泛,如有事需告诉别人,委托他人办事而不面谈,因事因病请假等,都可以写便条。英文的便条包括以下几部分:

1. 日期 日期写在右上角,只要写出月、日或星期几,有时只需写明上、下午的具体几点。

2. 称呼 称呼写在第二行,要左起顶格写。语气可随便一些。如Dear Tom, Tom, Xiao Wang等。

3. 正文 正文应再起一行,用词要通俗简明,只要把事情说清楚就行。

4. 署名 署名要写在正文的右下角。一般的留言条只写留条人的姓名,姓或名均可。请假条、借条的署名要正式些,在姓名前写上Yours, Your student , Your friend等。遗失、启事、招领启事,有时不署名,只留下联系单位的电话号码。

二、两种最常见的便条

1. 电话留言条

英语电话留言条包括五部分:发话者(From);收话者(To);日期(Date);时间(Time);留言内容(Message)。有时,最后可以出现记录人签名。

电话留言条最根本的特点就是内容必须言简意赅,切忌冗长。即写电话留言条时,行文要简明扼要,通俗易懂,将发话者的意思清楚明白地表达出来。

写一个电话留言条,咋一看似乎很难,但只要对电话内容加以分析,注意电话留言条的格式和特点,也就容易写出来。

英语电话留言条格式如下:

[实例点评] 史密斯先生给你父亲打电话,因你父亲不在,你接了电话。史密斯先生说,他将于明天上午10点半飞抵沈阳,请你父亲去接他。假设你的名字是赵威,接电话的时间是今天(5月11日)下午4点20分,请你写个电话记录。

[写作指导]

1. 体裁为电话记录,属应用文体。要明确格式。

2. 明确人物,不是你本人,而是赵威。接电话的时间,不是现在,而是5月11日下午4点20分。飞机到沈的时间是明天(5月12日)上午10点30分。事件是飞机到沈后请赵威的父亲去接史密斯先生。

[参考范文]

2. 请假条

请假条(written request for leave)是中学生必须掌握的常用应用文之一,它包括请病假(note for sick leave)和请事假(leave of absence)。请假条是用于向老师或上级领导等因身体状况不好或因某事请求准假的场合。

英文请假条写作需注意三点:

1) 英文中请假条的写法和汉语请假条相同,它一般由四部分组成,即时间、称呼、正文和签名。

2) 一般而言,可认定请假条是一种简单的书信文体。请假条一般写在纸上,不用信封。其书写格式与书信有很多相似之处,是书信的大大简化。

3) 请假条的特点是要求开门见山、内容简短、用词通俗易懂。

[实例点评]

假如你是王立。昨天你和同学们去农场帮助农民们摘苹果,不幸(unluckily)从梯子上摔下来伤了腿,但伤得不重。医生让你在家里好好休息。因此,你向高老师请假两天(ask for leave for two days)。

[写作指导]

1. 这是一份请假条。日期是September 28, 日期写在正文的右上角。由于请假条的内容大多是当天、近几日因病或因事请假,所以不必写上年份;称呼是Dear Miss Gao,称呼写在左上角。请假条因是向上级请示,一般以Dear..., 或My dear..., 开头。有时可在Dear之后,用上Mr.或Miss等的称呼加上姓氏。不过,有一点仍要提醒大家,各种称呼后面一般都用逗号。

2. 写请假条只要把请假的理由和请假时间说清楚即可。有的请假条为了说明其请假事由是真实的,在正文之后另起一行,写上I enclose a doctor?s certificate.(我附上了医生证明。);签名为Wang Li。签名(署名)写在右下角,签名(署名)上面一行可以写上Yours, Your student等字样,有时由于写条的人和收条的人彼此一般很熟悉,所以在称呼和签名上比较随便和简单。特别是在签名部分,有时可简单到只写个姓或只写个名就可以了。

[参考范文]

September 28

Dear Miss Gao,

I?m sorry I can?t go to school today. I helped the farmers pick apples with my classmates on the farm yesterday. Unluckily, I fell off the ladder and hurt my leg, but I wasn?t badly hurt. The doctor asked me to stay in bed and have a good rest. So I ask for leave for two days.

Wang Li

[强化训练]

1. 根据以下对话内容写一个电话留言条。

(It?s eight o?clock on Saturday morning, June 14th.Mr Hu is answering a telephone.)

Mr Hu: Hello!

Linda: Hello! Could I speak to Kate, please?

Mr Hu: I?m sorry she isn?t at home at the moment. Could I take a message for her?

Linda: Er, yes. This is Linda speaking. I want to ask Kate to come to my birthday party this evening. Would you please ask her to give me a call earlier this afternoon? My telephone number is 6764352.

Mr Hu: Certainly. I?ll leave a message on her desk.

Linda: Thank you very much. Bye-bye!

Mr Hu: Goodbye!

2. 假如你叫高飞,是Miss Mary的朋友,请根据以下的提示给Miss Mary写一个留言条。

你于今早(6月18日)从广州乘飞机到北京,10:30 去她的办公室看她,Miss Mary不在,你告诉她你住在和平宾馆088房间, 你明天去美国,询问Miss Mary是否给父母带些东西,见条后立即打电话,号码是7782079。

3. 今天是5月4日青年节(Youth Day),你班晚上7:00举办晚会,你下午去邀请王老师参加,不巧她不在家,请根据上述内容给王老师留一便条。

4. 假如你叫李明,因患重感冒今明两天不能上学。请你参考下面方框中所给的词语给你的外籍英语教师写一张请假条,说明你这两天不能上学的原因。词数:60左右。

5. 你是赵松,今天晚上5点10分(4月3日)你去钟美华家给她送电影票,不料她不在家。于是你给她写了张便条,告诉她票已买到,片名为 Wars in Liaohai,在新华影院上映,请她今晚7点20分到你家找你,你们一同步行去。字数20-40。

April 3rd

Dear Zhong Meihua,

I?ve got the tickets for the film. Its name is Wars in Liaohai. Can you come to my home and then to Xinhua Cinema with me at 7:20 this evening?

Zhao Song

6. 你的笔友来度暑假,住在你家。今天上午,你有事外出,他还在睡觉。请用英语给他写一张字左右的便条。并告诉他:

1) 他在家里可干些什么?

2) 你中午何时回来?

3) 提醒他别忘了下午有何安排。

7. 假定今天是12月30日。下午3点,三年级一班的王凯和张阳去邀请格林先生参加明天上午8:30在他们班教室举行的新年联欢会,但碰巧他不在。如果你是王凯,请根据上述内容及所给的提示词语给格林先生留一个便条,要求60-80个单词。

提示词语:It happened that...碰巧......

[参考范文]

1.

Dear Mary,

I got to Beijing from Guangzhou by plane this morning. I came to your office to see you, but you were not in. I?m going to fly to America tomorrow morning. I don?t know if you want to ask me to take something to your parents for you. I live in Room 088 of Heping Hotel. Please ring me up after you read the note. My telephone number is 7782079.

Yours,

Gao Fei

3. May 4

Dear Miss Wang,

We are going to have a Youth Day arty in our classroom at 7:00. All of our classmates whole heartedly hope you can join us. This afternoon, I called on you at about 2:40. It happened that you were not at home. So I am leaving this note for you. Would you please come at 7:00 this evening? You are sure to be warmly welcomed.

Yours faithfully,

Zhang Hua

4. Dear Mr Green,

I?m sorry to tell you that I?m not feeling well today. This morning I went to see the doctor and he told me that I had caught a bad cold. He asked me to stay in bed for two days. So I can?t go to school today and tomorrow. I hope I?ll get well soon.

Your student,

Li Ming

5. April 3rd

Dear Zhong Meihua,

I?ve got the tickets for the film. Its name is Wars in Liaohai. Can you come to my home and then to Xinhua Cinema with me at 7:20 this evening?

Zhao Song

6. Dear Jack,

I have to go out because I have something to do .Have breakfast yourself first after you get up. Then you may watch TV or do something else as you like. I?ll be back at half past eleven. Do remember we?ll visit my school this afternoon.

Li Ming

7. December 30th

Dear Mr Green,

We are going to have a New Year party in our classroom at 8:30 tomorrow. All of our classmates wish you to join us. This afternoon Zhang Yang and I have come here to ask you to our party. But it happens that you are not at home. So we leave this note for you. Please come to Class 1, Grade 3 on time. You?ll receive a warm welcome.

Yours,

Wang Kai

第五节 贺卡

圣诞节就要来临,新年的钟声即将敲响,节日的气氛越来越浓,相信大家都已经收到了不少节日的礼物,当然有不少的贺卡,那麽大家知道如何用英语来写贺卡吗?我们今天就学习如何用英语写贺卡。

一、贺卡的格式

贺卡的格式一般有三部分组成:称呼、贺词、祝贺人签名

1. 称呼:指祝贺人对受贺人的称呼,如To dear teacher, To my dearest father and mother ,To my dear friend 等。也有前面不加to的,如Mr and Mrs Green.称呼一般写在贺卡的左上方。

2. 贺词:通常写一些固定的贺节用语,如Merry Christmas. Many happiness returns of the day.(恭贺圣诞,岁岁似今朝。);With best wishes for a happy New Year! (祝新年快乐,并致以良好的祝福。),这一部分也可根据实际情况写一些简短的表示感谢和良好祝愿 的话。

3. 祝贺人签名:写在贺卡的右下方。姓名的前面通常要加from,如

From your student Lily, From Mr and Mrs Green,但前面也b有不加from的。

4. 格式

二、固定的贺节用语

A. 圣诞节的贺词

1. May the Christmas candle bring you peace and happiness. 愿圣诞之夜的烛光,带给你温馨和芬芳。

2. Best wishes at Christmas. I miss you. 圣诞的祝福,真诚的思念。

3. Mountains and rivers cannot separate us. Merry Christmas. 远隔千山万水,也隔不断我对你的思念。祝你圣诞快乐。

4. Let?s share the happiness of Christmas. 让我们一同分享这快乐的圣诞

5. At this happy moment. I miss you very much. 在这幸福的时刻,我更加的怀念你。

6. May peace and happiness be your every moment of the Christmas tide. 在这特别的日子里,愿这小小的圣诞贺卡,带去我对你特别的思念

7. Stars are shining. May Santa Claus come to you with joys and happiness. 星光闪烁,圣诞老人来到你的床前,将欢乐与祝福,洒满你的房间。

8. May the spirit of Christmas bring you joys and happiness all through the New Year. 圣诞老人的祝福,陪伴着你,保佑着你,地久天长。

9. With music, candle and bell may peace and happiness be with you. 乐声环绕,烛光闪烁,钟声飘向远方,让幸福、

安康、快乐,降临到你和家人的旁边。

10. Red candle, pine tree and Christmas are greeting you, wishing youth and happiness be yours. 红烛、松树、圣辰,祝福你,我的友人,青春永驻,幸福长在。

11. Three hundred and sixty-five miles, everywhere be filled with my season greeting. Three hundred and sixty-five days, everywhere be touched with my warmest blessing. 365里路,每一步都有我的圣诞祝福;365个日夜,每一天都有我温馨的问候。

12. More friendship-and friendship-closer and closer to our hearts. 圣诞快乐,好友,我们的情谊,更加深厚;我们的心灵,愈加相印。

13. My wishes come to you with the flying snow. May you be happy at Christmas and always. 我的心和雪花一起,飘落到你的门前,祝福,等待着你;快乐,每一个圣诞。

14. Merry Christmas. Many happiness returns of the day. 恭贺圣诞,岁岁似今朝。

15. May the angel bring you peace, happiness, joys and fortunes. 愿可爱的小天使带给你平安,幸福,快乐和如意。

B. 新年祝福用语

1. Best Wishes For You! Good luck, good health, good cheer. I wish you a happy New Year. 祝好运、健康、佳肴伴你度过一个快乐新年。

2. With best wishes for a happy New Year! 祝新年快乐,并致以良好的祝福。

3. I hope you have a most happy and prosperous New Year. 谨祝新年快乐幸福,大吉大利。

4. With the compliments of the season. 祝贺佳节。

5. May the season?s joy fill you all the year round. 愿节日的愉快伴你一生。

6. Season?s greetings and best wishes for the New Year. 祝福您,新年快乐。

7. Please accept my season?s greetings. 请接受我节日的祝贺。

8. To wish you joy at this holy season. Wishing every happiness will always be with you. 恭祝新年吉祥,幸福和欢乐与你同在。

9. Good health, good luck and much happiness throughout the year. 恭祝健康、幸运,新年快乐。

10. May the joy and happiness around you today and always. 愿快乐幸福永伴你左右。

11. Please accept my sincere wishes for the New Year. I hope you will continue to enjoy good health. 请接受我诚挚的新年祝福,顺祝身体健康。

12. Allow me to congratulate you on the arrival of the New Year and to extend to you all my best wishes for your perfect health and lasting prosperity. 恭贺新禧,祝身体健康、事业发达。

13. Best wishes for the holidays and happiness throughout the New Year. 恭贺新禧,万事如意。

14. With very best wishes for your happiness in the New Year. 致以最良好的祝福,原你新年快乐幸福。

15. Please accept our wishes for you and yours for a happy New Year. 请接受我们对你及你全家的美好祝福,祝你们新年快乐。

May the coming New Year bring you joy, love and peace. 愿新年为你带来快乐,友爱和宁静。

16. Wishing you happiness during the holidays and throughout the New Year. 祝节日快乐,新年幸福。

17. A happy New Year to you. 恭贺新年。

18. Season?s greetings and sincere wishes for a bright and happy New Year! 献上节日的问候与祝福,愿你拥有一个充满生机和欢乐的新年。

19. I give you endless brand-new good wishes. Please accept them as a new remembrance of our lasting friendship. 给你我无尽的新的祝福,让它们成为我们永恒友谊的新的纪念。

20. Good luck and great success in the coming New Year. 祝来年好运,并取得更大的成就。

21. On the occasion of the New Year, may my wife and I extend to you and yours our warmest greetings, wishing you a happy New Year, your career greater success and your family happiness. 在此新年之际,我同夫人向你及你的家人致以节日的问候,并祝你们新年快乐、事业有成、家庭幸福。

22. May everything beautiful and best be condensed into this card. I sincerely wish you happiness, cheerfulness and success. 愿一切最美好的祝福都能用这张贺卡表达,真诚地祝你幸福、快乐、成功!

C. 新春赠言

1. Best wishes for the year to come! 恭贺新禧!

2. Good luck in the year ahead! 祝吉星高照!

3. May you come into a good fortune! 恭喜发财!

4. Live long and proper! 多福多寿!

5. May many fortunes find their way to you! 祝财运亨通!

6. I want to wish you longevity and health! 愿你健康长寿!

7. Take good care of yourself in the year ahead. 请多保重!

8. Wishing you many future successes. 祝你今后获得更大成就。

9. On this special day I send you New Year?s greetings and hope that some day soon we shall be together. 在这特殊的日子,向你致以新年的祝福,希望不久我们能相聚在一起。

10. I would like to wish you a joyous new year and express my hope for your happiness and good future. 祝新年快乐,并愿你幸福吉祥,前程似锦。

11. May the New Year bring many good things and rich blessings to you and all those you love! 愿新年带给你和你所爱的人许多美好的事物和无尽的祝福!

12. Rich blessings for health and longevity is my special wish for you in the coming year. 祝你在新的一年里身体健康,多福多寿。

[实例点评]

在教师节到来之际,请你以杨蓓的名义给教师写一张贺卡。

[写作指导] 从题目的要求看,这是写给教师的贺卡,祝贺教师节。因是写给长辈的,所以用词要有分寸。

[参考范文]

To my dear teacher,

Happy Teachers? Day!

I hope you?ll have a very happy year in our class.

Best wishes!

From (your student) Yang Bei

[强化训练]

1. 你班英语老师生病住院,时逢教师节,同学们去看望他。请按以下提示写一张贺卡。内容如下:

1) 祝教师节快乐。

2) 送上鲜花及祝愿。

3) 希望早日康复。

2. 9月10日(September 10th)是我国的教师节。在教师节这一天,请你用英语给辛勤培育你们的老师们写张贺卡,祝他们节日快乐。

[参考范文]

1. To our English teacher,

Happy Teachers? Day!

Some flowers for you, with our best wishes! Hope you?ll get well soon!

From your students

2. 范文1

Dear Sir,

You are like a third parent. We all love you.

From all your students

范文2

To My Dearest Mr Wang,

With Best Wishes for Teachers? Day!

Your student, Kate

范文3

To Mr Hu,

We all like having you as our teacher. We are grateful for all that you have done for us.

From your students

第六节 启事

启事是为了公开声明某事而登在报刊上或张贴在布告栏上的文字。启事的格式一般由四部分组成,即启事的名称、正文、写启事的单位或个人的名字以及启事的日期。正文的内容要写得简明扼要,姓名通常写在右下方,日期写在单位及姓名的下面。有些启事还详细写出自己的通讯地址、邮政编码或电话号码等,便于有关单位或个人前来联系。

[实例点评]

假如你是周兰,是初三(2)班的学生。9月15日晚上,你把一只黑色书包遗失在学校的阅览室,包内有一只铅笔盒和几本书。请根据以上内容写一篇寻物启事。你的联系电话是0514-6482456。

[写作指导] 这是一篇寻物启事,首先在第一行的中间写上Lost,然后写明丢失何物以及何时何地丢失,最后写希望拾到者与你联系,同时写上你所在的班级和电话号码。

[参考范文]

Lost

A black bag with a pencil-box and some books was left in the school reading room on the evening of September 15. Will the finder please come to Class 2, Grade 3 or ring 0514-6482456?

Zhou Lan

Sept.16

[强化训练]

1. 世界大学生运动会期间,假设你是志愿者,为运动会服务。8月27日上午你在体育馆(gymnasium)捡到眼镜一副。请你用英语写一则失物招领,让失主打电话010-50843215,与你联系。

2. 你是王萌,今天(7月15日)上午在图书馆读书时把手表弄丢了,请你写一则寻物启事。时间为上午10:00。

3. 图书管理员马鑫玉在打扫卫生时突然发现地上有块手表。请你写一则失物招领。时间为7月15日下午2:00。

[参考范文]

1. Found

A pair of glasses was found in the gymnasium on the morning of August 27th. Will the owner please ring 010-50843215 to contact me?

2. Lost

Dear teachers and friends,

I lost my watch when reading in the library at about 10:00 this morning.

If you find it, please give it back to me with my thanks.

Wang Meng

July 15

3. Found

Dear teachers and students,

I found a watch lying on the ground when cleaning the library at about 2:00 this afternoon.

Please the owner come here and get it.

Ma Xinyu

July 15

第七节 讨论稿

讨论稿是以议论为主要表达方式并对客观事理进行分析评论,表达作者的见解和主张的一种文体。讨论稿在语言运用上突出的特点是说理性。由于讨论稿是直接表达作者的看法和主张的,它在写法上要举出正确而典型的事例,证明这些看法和主张是正确的。在做题时允许有记叙和描述,但这些记叙和描述都只能是说理的辅助手段,不能喧宾夺主。

讨论稿要有讨论的中心论点,如你的讨论稿可以“You must be more careful.”为论点。为了论证这一中心论点,可提出自己的主张:

1) You mustn?t cross the road. It?s dangerous.2) There is a lot of traffic on the street. You must wait.3) You mustn?t cross the road when the traffic light is red.4) Before you cross the road,you must look carefully.等。以日常见到的确凿事实作论据,具有一定代表性,从而显得有力。在表达用词上尽量婉转、朴实无华、浅显易懂。由于讨论稿是以说理为主的,所以句中动词时态多用一般现在时。

讨论稿是在活泼、轻松的气氛中进行的,开头与结尾没有严格的格式规定,可以灵活、婉转些。如开头Good morning/Good afternoon, everyone.或Hello!Boys and girls.结尾以That?s all. Thank you.等结束话题。

[实例点评]

本班有位同学发生了车祸,英语老师在班上组织了一次有关交通安全注意事项的讨论。你联系生活实际参与了讨论。请你把你的意见整理一下,形成一段80词左右的短文。

1. 内容要求:

1) 行走时的安全事项;

2) 骑车(自行车)时的安全事项;

3) 乘车(公交汽车)时的安全事项。

2. 参考词汇:pavement人行道;handle bar自行车把手;look ahead向前看;

walk; ride; take a bus; should; don?t; traffic; while; until; before; line up; play; carry; get on (off)

[写作指导]

1. 要能运用恰当的语言表达出哪些行为安全,哪些行为不安全。

2. 所给参考词汇一般都要用上,并不是可有可无的。

[参考范文]

Good afternoon, everyone. Today we talk about the traffic. When we are walking, we should walk on the pavement (sidewalk). At the crossing, we shouldn?t cross the road until the traffic stops. Don?t play basketball, read books or listen to music while walking. When we are riding a bike, we should look ahead and keep both hands on the handle bars. Don?t carry anyone on your bike, it is not safe. When we are taking a bus, we should line up and get on (off) one by one. Don?t try to get on (off) before the bus stops.

[强化训练]

1. 现在学生进网吧上网(get on-line)成风,你班班主任在下周班会上,将谈论有关问题。假设你是班主任,请你根据表格中提供的内容用英语写一篇80词左右的讨论稿,要点必须齐全。

益处 1) 学会使用现代设备---电脑。2) 学习更多知识。3) 玩游戏,使人更加聪明。

弊端 1) 过于沉迷游戏。2) 网上交友,通信频繁,学习越来越差。

建议 1) 在校学习时,不上网。2) 暑假、寒假时可以去。

2. 以“Smoking is a bad habit”为题写一篇讨论稿,说明吸烟的危害。

提示:1) 吸烟的原因 2) 吸烟的危害(害人、害己) 3) 80字左右

3. 根据沈阳和武汉二市一年四季气候情况,写一则短文,题目为 Different cities, different weather,字数100-150。

4. 某校决定让学生轮流打扫厕所,以此作为教育学生的一种方式。这件事在学生中引起了强烈的反响。请你把下列不同意见整理成一篇讨论稿。

同意:1) 多数学生是独生子女,不会做事。该活动可以教会同学做艰苦的工作。

2) 可以学会理解和尊重清洁工人的劳动。

不同意:1) 很脏,容易使学生生病。

2) 不是学生应做的事情。

3) 打扫教室就够了。

5. 以“How Do We Protect the Environment in Our School?”为题写一篇讨论稿。要求首先描述一下本校的环境状况,再谈谈我们该如何保护校园环境。词数不少于80词。

[参考范文]

1. Good afternoon, class. Today let?s talk about getting online. Many students like getting online very much. They can learn how to use the modern machine-computer. They can get more information. It can make them clever to play different kinds of games. But some students spend too much time in playing games. Some even make friends online. They write too many letters to each other. It takes them too much time. So they do worse and worse in their lessons. I think they mustn?t get online when they are studying at school. They can do it in summer or winter holidays.

2. Many people smoke because they think smoking is an enjoyment. In fact, smoking is a bad habit. First, doctors and scientists have found that it?s harmful to the smokers? health. It may cause some serious diseases. Smoke will pollute the air and it?s also harmful to others? health. Second, many big fires were caused by careless smokers. And smokers have to spend a lot of money on cigarettes. That?s why we say smoking is a bad habit.

3. Different cities, different weather

Good afternoon, everyone. Today I?ll talk about the weather in Shenyang and Wuhan. In Shenyang, spring is usually very short. It usually comes in February and March. The weather here is getting warmer and warmer. There?s seldom heavy rain. Summer comes from May to July. It?s very hot, and there?s often some rain, sometimes very heavy. Autumn is from August to October. The weather is quite warm and there?s often strong wind and it seldom rains. From November to January is winter. It?s very cold. There?s ice and snow everywhere.

Unlike Shenyang, the coldest season in Wuhan is in January and February. It?s often wet and snow. The hottest season is in July, August and September. There?s no strong wind. The hottest hours are at night. In June and July it?s often very dry but in April, May and August, there?s a lot of rain.

Shenyang and Wuhan are both in China, but the weather is different.

4. Some students say many of us are the only child in the family. We have been given too much love. We are not able to do hard work. To clean the toilet is good to teach us how to do difficult jobs. By cleaning toilets, we?ll learn to understand and respect the cleaning workers.

On the other hand, some students think toilets are dirty. It?s easy for us to get sick. They don?t think it?s the students? job. We have more important things to do. Cleaning the classroom is enough.

We hope our school will think about this problem.

5. Our school is a very beautiful school, but unfortunately, the school environment is getting worse. Some students don?t take care of the environment surrounding them. They like to throw waste things on the ground, so we can see rubbish on the playground, on the stairs, in the classroom and so on. As students, we should try our best to keep our school clean and tidy. It is not a good idea to throw things on the ground. We should pick them up and put them into the dustbin, and we should also stop other students from throwing litter. If everyone in our school can help protect the environment, our school environment will become better.

第八节 值日生报告

值日报告常以布告形式张贴或写在黑板上,有时也可口头表达。写值日报告的时候,注意内容要单一,要实事求是。篇幅要简短,文字要精练。

值日生在陈述报告时,可点明当天的日期和天气情况。值日报告的开头语可灵活选择,如

I?m on duty today./Hi, everyone. It?s time for me to do a duty report today./It?s my turn to be on duty today.等。

[实例点评]

假定今天英语课轮到你做值日报告,请根据以下内容要点,用英语写份值日报告。词数60-80。(用第一人称,不得写出自己的真实姓名)

1. 今天是6月19日,星期五,阴天;

2. 李雷缺席(病假);

3. 介绍昨天下午参观科学博物馆的情况(展出的各种现代化机器,多数是中国制造,自己受益匪浅);

4. 告诉大家,学校将从下学期起每周开设1节计算机课。

[写作指导]

1. 一定要以第一人称来写,但不可以写出自己的真实姓名。

2. 所给要点必须全部写进去,缺一不可。

[参考范文]

I?m on duty today. It?s June 19th, Friday. It?s cloudy. All my classmates are here except Li Lei. He?s ill at home. Yesterday afternoon we visited the Science museum. There are all kinds of modern machines on show. Most of them are made in China. We have learnt a lot there. We?ll study hard from now on.

Here is good news for you. We?ll have a computer lesson once a week next term. I?m sure you?ll enjoy the lesson. That?s all. Thank you.

[强化训练]

假如今天你是值日生,请根据下表的提示,写一篇80个词左右的值日生报告。开头语已为你写好。

开头语:It?s my turn to be on duty today... [参考范文]

It?s my turn to be on duty today. It?s Friday, June 22nd. It?s fine (nice, sunny). Everyone is here except Tom. He went back to England for a holiday last week. He won?t be back until September.

Yesterday Meimei picked up my lost library book on her way home and returned it to the school library. As soon as I knew this, I hurried to the library and thanked Meimei. Miss Wang told me to be more careful. From now on I should be more careful with everything.

第九节 报道

报道一般指通过报纸、广播或其他形式把新闻告诉群众。报道要求真实,言简意赅,以事实说话,还必须交代清楚事件的来龙去脉,特别是人物、时间、地点、事件四大要素。

报道可以按事件发生的时间先后依次叙述,也可以先将重要内容提前叙述,以引起读者的注意。

记叙事件发生的过程一般用过去时态。有时对事件现场情景的描述也可以用现在时态,这样会使读者有身临其境的感觉。

[实例点评]

请你为学校“英语之声”广播台写一篇英语短文,报道以下体育新闻。

初二(3)班赢了今年联赛的最后一场比赛。在这场于昨天下午在足球场举行的决赛中,初二(3)班足球队2:1击败了初三(7)班队。所有的球都是在下半场踢进的。大约600名师生观看了比赛。

[写作指导] 1. 这是一篇新闻报道,内容要真实。 2. 比赛已经结束,因此应该运用一般过去时。 [参考范文]

Yesterday afternoon Class 3, Grade 2 won the last match in the league. The football team from Class 3, Grade 2 defeated the team from Class 7, Grade 3 two to one in the league final. All the goals were scored in the second half of the match. About six hundred teachers and students watched the match yesterday.

[强化训练]

1. 请根据以下图表和提示写一篇关于我国手机拥有量变化的报道,并说明手机给人们带来的利与弊。 内容包括:

1) 方便(convenient); 2) 随时随地联系;

3) 许多功能(function)满足不同要求,如发短信、上网等; 4) 接到错打电话为之付费;

5) 电磁辐射(radiation)有害身体。

要求:1. 80-100词 2. 开头已给出,不计词数。

2. 根据某中学三年级四个班的运动会成绩表,报道一下每个班的运动成绩 (包括名次、参加项目情况等)。词数:60-80。

参考词汇:mark分数,place名次,win 赢,long-distance run长跑,short-distance run 短跑 [参考范文]

1. As can be seen in the chart, great changes have been taking place in the ownership of mobile phones in China. At the end of 2002, there were 20 million mobile users….

As can be seen in the chart, great changes have been taking place in the ownership of mobile phones in China. At the end of 2002, there were 20 million mobile users. By the year 2005, the number will reach up to 35 million. People have found mobile phones very convenient. They can get in touch with each other whenever and wherever they like. There are many different functions for different needs, such as sending short messages and surfing the Internet. However, it may also bring us some trouble. For example, you will have to pay for a wrong number, and the radiation from the phone may do harm to our health. In spite of this, the number of people having mobile phones is still growing.

2. In this sports meeting, Class Four won the first place. Their mark is 27. Class One and Class Two got the same mark. Class One did better in the relay than Class Two did. But Class Two won the first place in the long-distance race. And Class One?s result of the high jump is better than Class Two?s. Class Three?s mark is 8. Their results are the worst of the four.

3. The Chinese people have been dreaming of going into space for a long time. In the years 1999 to 2002 China launched three spaceships without people successfully. On December 31st, 2002, we launched the fourth spaceship, Shenzhou IV, and it returned to the earth safely on January 5th, 2003. During its flight, seven scientific experiments were carried out. The purpose of the flight was to make preparations for the launch of a spaceship with people next time. The successful launch and return shows that China is able to send a person into space. On October 15th, 2003, the first spaceship with people, Shenzhou V, was sent up into space successfully. The Chinese dream finally came true.

第十节 对话组织

对话是在特定情景中进行的口头交际活动,在日常生活中的应用非常广泛。例如打电话、问路、购物、看病、谈天气、在图书馆借书等,都需要通过对话来沟通。

对话组织要按照所提供的情景,选用符合英语口语习惯的表达法,切忌用汉语式的英语生搬硬套。同时应根据已给出的说明和提示,抓住对话的中心意思,设计出合理的问题。

对话的布局要前后呼应,意思连贯。对话的句子要言简意赅,自然地道。 [实例点评]

一天上午,Mr Green去商店买运动鞋。营业员先给他看价格158元的,Mr Green嫌太贵。后来营业员拿出价格86元的,Mr Green试穿后决定买这一双,并拿出一张票面100元的人民币让营业员找。请根据以上情景,组织一段Mr Green与营业员的对话。

[写作指导] 这是一段关于“购物”的对话,所给句子要符合口语的习惯。 [参考范文]

Salesgirl: Good morning, sir. May I help you?

Mr Green: Yes, please. Have you got any sport shoes?

Salesgirl: Yes. We have quite a few here. Well, how about this pair?

Mr Green: Good. How much is it?

Salesgirl: One hundred and fifty-eight yuan.

Mr Green: That?s a bit too expensive. Have you got any cheaper ones?

Salesgirl: Yes, of course. This pair costs only eighty-six yuan.

Mr Green: Could I try them on?

Salesgirl: Certainly.

Mr Green: All right. I?ll take this pair. Here?s a one-hundred-yuan note.

Salesgirl: Here?s your change. Thank you. Goodbye.

Mr Green: Goodbye!

[强化训练]

1. 假如你的名字叫Mike,今天早晨你感到不舒服,头疼得厉害。你去离家不远的医院看病。金医生给你作了检查,发现你得了重感冒。他给你开了一些药并嘱咐你每天吃三次,还建议你在家休息一两天。

根据以上情景,写一段你与医生的对话。

2. 根据下列情景和要求写一段对话。

Kate(K)接到David(D)打来找Jim(J)的电话。David告诉Jim明天上午有一场精彩的足球赛,他已搞到两张票,特来邀请Jim同去观看。Jim高兴地接受邀请并约定见面的时间和地点。

要求:1) 每人说话次数2次以上。2) 词数100词左右。3) 对话的开始语已给出。

3. 假设你是赵琴,今天你和你的朋友正去公园玩,路上遇见一位农村来的老大娘,她想去女儿家,手里拿着地址(address)却又不识字。你们送她上了车,见到了她女儿,她们娘俩十分感激你们。根据此情此景,编一段70-100字的对话。

4. 假设你是赵雪,明天是星期日,你想跟你的好朋友李维维一同去医院看望生病住院的王老师。于是你给李维维打电话,可是不巧她刚刚去祖父家,李维维的妹妹李玲接电话。李玲问你有什么事,可否由李玲给李维维捎个信,你接着把这件事告诉了李玲,并留下了你的姓名和电话号码,并说李维维回来时最好跟你通个话。根据以上情形,请你写出你给李维维打电话的对话内容,字数60—80。

5. 写篇对话,与你的朋友谈你喜爱的……,双方对话各不少于5句。

[参考范文]

1. Dr King: What can I do for you?

Mike: Well, I don?t feel well this morning.

Dr King: What?s wrong with you?

Mike: I have a bad headache.

Dr King: Let me examine you. Well, you have a fever. I think you have got a bad cold. It?s nothing serious. You?d better stay at home for one or two days. Please take this medicine three times a day. You will feel well soon.

Mike: All right. Thank you. Bye!

Dr King: Bye!

2. K: Hello! 8226931.

D: Hello! May I speak to Jim, please?

K: Certainly. Please hold on for a moment.

J: This is Jim speaking. Who?s that?

D: Hello, Jim! This is David. There is going to be a football match tomorrow morning. I?ve got two tickets here. Would you like to go with me?

J: Oh, that?s great! I?d love to. But when and where shall we meet?

D: Shall we meet at 7:30 at the bus stop near your house?

J: All right. I?ll be there on time.

D: OK. See you then.

J: See you. Bye!

3. (An old woman from the country looks worried, she doesn?t know what to do.)

Zhao: Excuse me, Grandma. What?s the matter? Can we help you?

Grandma: I?m here to my daughter?s home. But I don?t know where to go.

Z: Do you know the address?

G: It?s here. But I don?t know even a word.

Z: Don?t worry, Grandma. Let us help you. Let me see. Oh, it?s easy. Let?s get on the bus. It will take us right there. (Grandma meets her daughter.)

G and D: It?s very kind of you.

Z: It?s a pleasure.

4. Zhao: Hello! Could I speak to Li Weiwei?

Li: Sorry, she?s just gone to our grandpa?s and this is her sister. Can I help you?

Zhao: Thanks. Tomorrow?s Sunday. I?d like to go to see Mr Wang with her, he?s ill in hospital.

Li: OK, I?ll tell her. Anything else?

Zhao: Please ask her to ring me back. My phone number is 6122646.

Li: I?ll do that. Bye!

Zhao: Thanks. Bye!

5. A: Hi, Li Lei. What do you like to do in your free time?

B: Well, I like listening to music, especially pop songs .What about you?

A: Oh, playing football is my favourite.

B: How often do you play it?

A: Not so often. Just once a week, usually on Sundays.

B: Do you have any time to watch football games on TV?

A: Yes .I try to find some time to watch games on TV.

B: Which team do you like best?

A: Yunnan Hongta Team.

B: Why do you like it so much?

A: Because of their teamwork and their spirit.

第二部分 命题作文

第一节 策略指导

全日制义务教育《英语课程标准》指出:“基础教育阶段英语课程的总体目标是培养学生的综合语言运用能力。综合语言运用能力的形成建立在学生语言技能、语言知识、情感态度、学习策略和文化意识等素养整体发展的基础上。”语言技能包括听、说、读、写四个方面。

对于初中阶段应该达到的综合语言运用能力目标,《英语课程标准》明确指出:初中毕业时应该达到五级,总体目标为“有较明确的英语学习动机和积极主动的学习态度。能听懂教师有关熟悉话题的陈述并参与讨论。能就日常生活的各种话题与他人交换信息并陈述自己的意见。能读懂供7~9年级学生阅读的简单读物和报刊、杂志,克服生词障碍,理解大意。能根据阅读目的运用适当的阅读策略。能根据提示起草和修改小作文。” 语言技能中“写”的具体目标为“1、能根据写作要求,收集、准备素材;2、能独立起草短文、短信等,并在教师的指导下进行修改;能使用常见的连词表示顺序和逻辑关系;4、能够简单描述人物或事件;5、能够根据所给图示或表格写出简单的段落或操作说明。”

根据全日制义务教育《英语课程标准》总体目标和要求,近几年来各地英语中考试卷中均设置了“书面表达”题型,此题型旨在考查学生语言技能中“写”的能力,看其是否能够运用所学的英语知识和综合英语技能,能就日常生活的各种话题以文字的形式与他人交换信息并表达思想。“书面表达”题型体现在平时的英语学习中,也就是我们常说的英语作文或命题作文。命题作文是学习英语中的最难点,它是包括词汇、语法等各种知识的综合体。

一、命题作文的基本要求

1.习作者要有扎实的英语基本功底,要牢固掌握英语基础知识,文章中的大小写、标点符号、词法、句法及语法等都要表达正确。

2.要按照命题要求正确采用相应的行文格式撰写习作,层次分明,结构严谨,句式排列整齐,段落过渡自然,富有条理性。

3.文章内容前后照应,词语运用准确到位,语言流畅,言简意赅,内容充实,叙事完整,深化主题。

4.要根据文章规定的单词数组织安排文章的结构,不要忽上忽下。

二、命题作文的写作技巧

很多同学都喜爱写作文,可总是写不好。你练习写作文时是否遇到过困难呢?

一般说来,英语作文与汉语作文的写法是一样的,即:首先是词→然后过渡到句→最后达到文。

我们要写好英语作文,在平时就应该努力写好英语句子。一篇文章是由若干个句子组成的,句子是组成文章的基本要素。因此,我们在写英语句子的时候,一定要抓住句子的中心思想。句子中的词、短语应当紧紧围绕中心思想服务,要保持句子的整体一致性,切忌东拼西凑,不知所云。如:

I have a good friend, and his name is Liu Wei, and he is good at English.

上句在语法和词汇上没有什么错误,但我们读了之后感觉很不通顺,不明白到底在讲什么。其实我们可以将上面句子改为三个简短的简单句,使每句都有一个中心意思,那么读起来就会觉得条理清楚,意义明确。上句可改为:

I have a good friend. His name is Liu Wei. He is good at English.

在写作时,最容易出错的是动词的使用。在句子中,动词是和时态、语态、动词不定式等密切相关的。因此,平时掌握了时态、语态、动词不定式等英语知识,对于英语写作大有帮助。时态是英语写作的基础,我们无论是写一句话还是写一段文章,首先要定出时态的基调。比如:

刘建喜欢踢足球,他同样也喜欢看足球赛。由于他没有足够的钱去买票,因此,如果他空闲时只得在家里通过电视看球赛。不过,他从周一到周五总是去上学,因而错过了许多重要的比赛。

一天下午,在中国将要举行一年中最大的一场比赛。刘建很想通过电视观看,但却不能(实现)。第二天上午他们将进行一场数学测试,他得为测试做准备。

首先,我们先来对上面两段文字进行分析:第一节是叙述刘建的爱好、平时看球赛及上学情况,是属于一般性的情况,所以应该采用一般现在时进行表述;第二节则是追述过去发生或即将发生的事情,因此应该采用一般过去时或过去将来时来进行表达。上面两段文字的译文如下:

Liujian likes playing football. And he also likes watching football matches. As he hasn't enough money to buy tickets, he has to watch them on TV at home if he is free. But he always goes to school from Monday to Friday and misses a lot of important matches.

One afternoon there would be the biggest match of the year in China. Liujian wanted to watch it on TV very much, but he couldn't. They would have a maths test the next morning and he had to get ready for it.

英语作文同样要讲究语言流畅、语句通顺,也就是我们常说的连贯。所谓连贯,一是体现在意思上的连贯;二是体现在结构上的连贯。也就是说,一个句子不仅要做到思想内容的和谐,还要做到谴词造句的和谐。如:Ben Franklin was only a boy, when he always wanted to know about things. 该句语法上没有错误,问题出在语序上,结果使意思不明确,因此说该句子缺少连贯性,可以将其修改为:

When Ben Franklin was only a boy, he always wanted to know about things.

句子在内容上一致了,句子中的意义紧密相连的单词也就紧挨在了一起。但句子的结构若不按照逻辑顺序排列,句子也会显得不连贯。如:谚语“眼见为实。”既可以翻译成“To see is to believe.”,也可以翻译成

“Seeing is believing.”,若将其翻译为“To see is believing.”或“Seeing is to believe.”,则显然破坏了它的连贯性。又如:She likes singing and to dance. 该句中的谓语动词like既可以跟动名词也可以跟动词不定式作宾语,但在同一句中用了这两种结构则显得不伦不类了,因而破坏了句子的连贯性。

写好一个个句子,可以为写好一篇文章打好了基础。将句子合并起来,就可以组成段落。段落是由一组共同表达一个中心思想的许多句子组成的,段落也和句子一样要有完整性,也就是说思想内容的一致性和各句之间的前后连贯性。请看下面一段文字:

Every child likes festivals. On festivals they can have a lot of presents. Little Jeffrey likes Christmas best. He is eight years old this year. Because every year on Christmas Day his grandfather will send him a lot of interesting toys and delicious food. This year, his grandfather came over to spend Christmas with them. But Jeffrey's mother didn't want him to ask his grandfather for presents.

这段文章内容没有语法错误,连词用得也比较恰当,但它却缺乏完整性。它的中心内容是讲

Every child likes festivals,并Jeffrey进行例证,但我们可以发现,其中的一句“He is eight years old this year.”偏离了中心内容,从而破坏了段落本身的思想内容的一致性和前后结构的连贯性。

我们知道,在我们的日常生活中,经常与人交流,告诉某人某件事或解释某个事情的理由,我们都得就事论事,切不可罗列与主题无关紧要的东西,否则就会使对方听得莫名其妙,不知所云。就一个段落而言,也必须有一个主题,即中心思想。段落中那个能够表达中心思想的句子就是主题句,段落中其它的句子均要围绕主题句进行表达,为主题句服务,对主题句进行展开说明的句子就叫做支持句(又称支撑句)。有时一个段落的结尾部分是对全段内容一个浓缩的说明,表示一种肯定或否定的结论,叫做结尾句。

段落中的主题句一般位于段首,支持句位于段中,结尾句位于段尾。但有时候也置于段中或段尾,位于段尾就与结尾句重合,也就是说结尾句就是主题句,其主要目的是强调中心思想。例如:

Food is very important. Everyone needs to eat well if he or she wants to have a strong body. Our minds also need a kind of food. This kind of food is knowledge.

When we are young, we start getting knowledge. Young children like watching and listening. Colour pictures especially interests them. When children are older, they enjoy reading. When something interests them, they love asking questions.

Our minds, like our bodies, always need the best food. Studying on our own brings the most knowledge. If someone is always telling us answers, we will never learn well. When we study correctly and get knowledge on our own, we learn more and understand better.

我们来分析一下上面的短文,第一小节由4个简单句组成,其中的结尾句This kind of food is knowledge.就是主题句,它点明下文要讲述的内容就是knowledge这个“食物”,其它3个句子是支持句,都是为最后一句主题句服务的。第二小节分析小孩子的听、看、读都是获取“知识”的方式,第三节则采用类比推理的形式阐述获取“知识”的方式。由此可见,第二、三两节都是围绕主题句来写的,是为支撑主题句服务的。

那么,我们在具体写英语命题作文时,该掌握什么技巧呢?下面我们来举例说明。

请你以An interesting field Trip为题目,写一篇你参加野外旅游的短文。要求:叙事完整,富有条理,突出“趣”事,150词左右。

你知道该如何写好这篇文章吗?其实英语的写作也像汉语写作一样要解决写作步骤的问题。就像一个人的思路,如果思路清晰、有条理,做起事来才能有条不紊。掌握了科学的写作步骤,是写出高质量的英语习作的必要条件。

第一步,审题。

无论写什么样的文章都不能离开文章的主题。主题是文章所要表达的中心,是文章的灵魂主宰。如果审不清主题,就有可能出现“下笔千言,离题万里”的情况。

例如:“An interesting field Trip"这篇文章,中心字眼是interesting (有趣的)。首先圈定大范围是

field Trip (野外旅游),关键还在于interesting (有趣的)。如果只把所有的旅游罗列一遍,就不能说是“有趣的”,当然就不切题了。因此,我们初步确定,应该写一篇“一次的、有趣的野外旅游”的小短文。(习作例文附后)

在审清主题的基础上,同学们还需注意要审清文体。初中阶段要求写作的文体并不复杂,一般有两种:①陈述体。即叙述、记叙一件事,或描述一件物体。②对话体。即通过一定的情景,模拟二者(通常是两人)对话的内容。只有把文体审清,才能保证写作的大方向不会错。由此推断, “An interesting field Trip"这篇文章应该写成陈述体的记叙文。

有时,我们会遇到只给材料、自己命题的题型,这种情况千万不要掉以轻心,随意定个题目。我们做任何事情都不能没有目的,一篇文章应该准备告诉读者什么,要反映一个什么内容和主题,提出一个什么观点或解决一个什么问题等等,均要做到心中有数,否则只能东拼西凑,不知所云。同是一件事,题目稍偏一点,写作内容困难大不一样,好的文章题目一般是文章内容的高度概括。

如果是自己命题,作文题目应该尽量短一些,以名词或短语为主,单词数在1-5个之间,一般不要超过10个,尽量不用句子做文章题目;题目要求新颖、活泼、有趣,能够吸引读者的眼球。

第二步,选材。

审完题之后,就应该着手选材了。主题是文章的宗旨,材料必须为主题服务:主题必须统领材料,二者是密不可分、相辅相成的关系。既然要选材,就必须有充足的备选材料。只有平时多观察、多学习、多积累,才能保证材料充分、详实。在具备充足的材料的基础上,要学会去粗取精,去伪存真。还要分清材料的主次与详略,做到详略得当。

要选好材料,具体地说就是要选取自己很熟悉的题材;选取自己日常生活中的事情;写自己的学校生活;写自己学习方面的事情;写师生之间的事情;写熟悉的亲朋好友的事情,等等,切忌选取与自己不熟悉的事情,否则就会漏洞百出,不能自圆其说。

第三步,列提纲。

写文章之前列个提纲是个非常好的写作习惯。列提纲可以使杂乱无章的材料变得井然有序;列提纲可以使你紧扣主题不跑题;列提纲还可以节约你的时间,提高写作效率。

列提纲时不必过于详细,可以根据题目要求,考虑你的文章分几段,或考分几个层次,每段的大意是什么,计划好文章的整体结构;提纲有时可以是短语或词组,做到自己明白即可。

列好提纲是写好一篇文章成败的关键。把要撰写的内容梳理好,就像盖房子的结构设计,结构设计合理,房子就美观稳固;文章提纲主题突出,层次清楚,安排合理,写出的文章段落才能过渡自然,全篇内容才能浑然一体,读者才会感到文章的美感和强大的说服力。

第四步,动笔。

写作时一定要切题,抓住要点。题目要求的内容一定要写进去,以保证内容的完整。对于与要求无关的内容切忌任意发挥,画蛇添足。写作时要注意语法正确、用词得当、语言地道。在写不同题材和体裁的文章时,所用的句式、时态及用词均不同。写作时要多从交流的角度考虑以上几个方面。

写作时切忌用汉译英的方式进行。不要把题目中的汉语直接译成英语,尽量用简练的、地道的英语来写。 要用英语去思考,平时要多阅读英语文章,多练习摹写、改写、扩写或缩写等,多背一些特殊句式,逐渐熟悉英语表达法,增强语感。

写作时应注意连贯、流畅。尽量使用最熟悉的词句,少用复合句和长句,多用简单句、短句和主动句。 应注意句中词的搭配用法,没有掌握其用法,就等于不会,就不可能写出语句连贯、流畅的句子。

写作时应一边写一边注意人称、数、大小写、标点符号等,还要考虑用什么词语将内容连贯起来,用什么词起承上启下的作用,等等。

第五步,检查修改。

鲁迅先生说过:“好文章是改出来的。”的确,要提高英语写作水平,除了准确遣词造句、严谨布局外,文章的修改也是很重要的一步。文章写好后,要经过反复修改润色,才能措辞准确,句子流畅,因此修改文章是提高写作水平的有效方法。

要仔细检查所写文章,用做改错的眼光去挑文中的毛病,可以从时态、单复数、主谓一致、动词形式、拼写错误等角度去寻找。拼写错误至关重要,一篇文章若有3处以上的错误就会使人阅读兴趣大大减弱,就很难获得高分。另外,要检查要点是否全,字数是否够。多数同学经常会不自觉地犯这类错误,要特别注意。

附:写作训练参考答案

An interesting field Trip

Yesterday afternoon we all couldn?t help jumping when the teacher told us there would be a friend trip the next day. For us students, going on a friend trip is much more interesting than having classes. Last night we were too excited not to sleep. At this moment, we are very tired, and we have to carry the heavy bags. It?s time for us to go to the mountain now, so we start with our teacher together. Though we have to go hiking to the mountain, but we still feel happy. We all sing and jump while walking. Soon we get to the mountain. There are so many beautiful flowers there that we all lose ourselves in them. We study the flowers together… After having a picnic at the top of the mountain, we go back home all together.

This is an interesting field trip. It can give us not only much fun but also lots of knowledge about the flowers.

总评:

第二节 实例点评

一、记叙文实例点评

【例1】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

请以My cousin为题,通过一件事件的记叙,充分反映my cousin的性格特征。语言流畅,单词数掌握在120个左右。

Ⅱ. 学生习作:

My cousin

My cousin, Li Jun, is a 1ten-years-old boy. He is not a good pupil. Frequently he does not do his homework, and when he 2lways makes a lot of mistakes.

One day, his maths teacher looked at his homework and saw that he had got all his sums right. He was very pleased and rather 3. He called Li Jun to his desk and said to him, "You got all your homework right this time, Tom. 4 help you?"

Usually Li Jun?s father 5 because he had not been at home, so Li Jun answered, "No, sir. He was busy last night, 6 Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1改为ten-year-old。由连字符“-”构成的合成词相当于形容词,词与词之间互不修饰。

2此处的does是助动词,修饰谓语动词do,起加强语气的作用。此处用does恰到好处,充分表达了表弟怕做作业的性格特征。

3改为surprised。由pleased可知,此处应该用形容词surprised作其并列表语。

4改为What happened。happen用作不及物动词,表示事物本身“发生”,不能用于被动语态。

5a.第一个did用法同2;

b.第二个did改为do,to do或with。表示“帮助??做??”可以用三种方式表达:

help…do…=help…to do…=help…with…。

6该句中的had to用词准确,不仅说明了表弟的性格特征----怕做作业,而且暗示了表弟的算术其实比他爸爸更好。

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

我的表弟

我的表弟李军是一个10岁的男孩。他不是一位好学生,他经常不做家庭作业,当他确实做作业时,他总是犯许多的错误。

有一天,他的数学教师看了他的家庭作业并看见他的全部算术题都正确,他很高兴并相当惊讶。他把李军叫到他的办公桌旁对他说:“汤姆,这次你的算术题都正确。怎么回事?你的父亲帮助你了吗?”

通常李军的父亲确实帮他做家庭作业, 但是昨天晚上他没能(帮他),因为他不在家, 因此李军回答道:“没有,先生。他昨晚忙,因此我不得不亲自做了它。”

【例2】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

根据亲身经历,写一篇关于某个野生动物的外表及生活习性的短文。要求:语言叙述生动、得体,单词数100个左右。

Ⅱ. 学生习作:

The Lovely Hare

On a hot summer morning, my uncle brought me a hare after he finished 1to do farm work. I jumped up 2happy.

I hurried to put her into a cage. 3As soon as I loosed(释放)4warily(警惕地). After a while, she stopped 5to run. I passed her some fresh grasses carefully. She smelt them with her nose and then began to eat them. Little by little, she was friendly to me.

She 6covered with grey hair all over. Her eyes were big and round. 7She was lovely. I love her very much.

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1to do改为doing。finish后面应跟v-ing形式。

2happy改为happily。修饰动词时须用副词。

3此处用as soon as短语很准确,表明hare的动作敏捷。

4look at改为looking at。分词短语looking at…作动词ran的状语,表示“伴随”状况。

5to run改为running。stop to do sth.意思是“停止去做另一事”;stop doing sth.意思是“停止做某事”。 6covered with改为was covered with。be covered with是固定短语,意思是“被??覆盖”。

7此句与题目照应,恰倒好处。

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

可爱的野兔

在一个炎热的夏天早晨,在做完农活后,我的叔叔为我带来一只野兔。 我高兴得跳了起来。

我匆匆忙忙去把她放进一只笼子里。我一放开她,她就迅速地跳进了笼子中。起初,它在里面跑来跑去,警惕地看着我。一会儿之后,她停止跑了。我小心地递给她一些新鲜的草,她用她的鼻子闻闻他们然后开始吃了。渐渐地,她对我友好了。

她的全身长着灰白的毛,她的眼睛是大而圆。她可爱,我非常喜爱她。

【例3】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

请根据亲身体验,写一篇关于“寒假生活”的记叙文。要求:叙事完整,富有条理,100词左右。

Ⅱ. 学生习作:

Terrible Telephones

After 1have a final exam meeting, I 2went to home happily. My parents visited my uncle in the city at dusk, 3so I had to cook supper myself. After supper I watched TV for a while, and then felt fast asleep.

It was midnight. Suddenly my telephone rang. It 4woke up me. It stopped ringing when I got it. I felt 5a few afraid. A moment later, my telephone rang again. It stopped ringing when I got it again. At that time I felt even afraid, and I was all of a sweat. I couldn?t fall asleep any more.

67es! Ah, a telephone can not only give me my good but also make trouble for me.

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1have改为having。介词后面一般跟名词或代词作宾语,但如果介词后面跟动词作宾语时,则动词应该用v-ing形式(即“动名词”形式)。

2went to home改为went home。go home是固定短语,意思是“回家”,其中的home是副词,不是名词,前面不能用介词。

3此处的had to用得恰到好处,说明现在的父母过分疼爱子女,平时不让孩子做家务。

4 woke up me改为 woke me up。由“动词+副词”构成的动词短语,人称动词作宾语时应置于中间。 5a few改为a little。此处的a little相当于副词作用,修饰形容词afraid,表示“程度”。

6Next morning改为The next morning。特指某一天后的第二天,应该加the。

7此句用的恰倒好处,水到渠成,照应题目,前呼后应。

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

可怕的电话

在开了期末考试会议后,我愉快地回家了。在黄昏时分,我的父母去拜访我的城里的叔叔了,因此我得自己煮晚饭。晚饭后,我看电视一会儿,然后很快就入睡了。

午夜时分,突然我的电话响了起来,把我弄醒了。 当我去接它时,铃声停止了。我感到有点儿害怕。一会儿之后,我的电话再次响起。当我再次去接它时,铃声又停止了。当时,我感到更加地害怕,浑身是汗,我不能再入睡了。

第二天早晨,我感到十分疲倦。我对(昨晚的)电话感到十分的愤怒。多么可怕的电话!哎,电话不仅能够给我益处,而且能够给我制造麻烦。

【例4】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

以“the first time to…”为题,记述自己所做的第一件事情。要求:叙事简洁完整,富有条理性,180词左右。 Ⅱ. 学生习作:

The First Time to Visit a Train

It isn?t an easy thing for us country children to see a real train. Only on TV or in the movie, 1like 2st, 2004 — the day before the Spring Festival — my dream came true.

In the early morning, Dad and I got up earlier. After a quick breakfast, Dad rode a motorbike with me to the train station, a small town about eight kilometres 3far away from my home. When we got there, we found a big crowd of people waiting for the train. It was seven o'clock sharp, a train was coming up to us with a long whistle and came to a stop. The people there cheered at once and I couldn’

t help jumping. When the train stopped completely, I couldn’

t wait 4going over and touched her with my own hands. She looked like a big and long worm. She had less than twenty cars and she was about over four metres tall… After about ten minutes, she went away.

Soon, we went back home with gladness. Though I spent only two hours 5irst trip to visit her for long.

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1改为can we。当句首状语由“only +副词”,“only +介词词组”,“only +状语从句”构成时,句子须倒装。

2改为visiting。feel like doing sth.是固定短语,意思是“想要, 愿意做某事”。

3改为away。far前面不能和确切数目连用。

4改为to go。can?t wait to do sth.是固定短语,意思是“迫不及待做某事”。

5改为in或去掉on。spend…on sth.意思是“在某事上花费??”;spend…(in)doing sth.意思是“做某事花费??”,其中的in可以省略。

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

第一次看火车

对于我们农村的孩子来说,看见真正的火车不是一件容易的事。仅仅电视上或电影里,我们(才)能够看见它们。我很想有一天去看他们。令我感到快乐的是,在2004年1月21日----春节前一天----我的梦想实现了。

一大早,我和爸爸早早地起床了。快速吃了早餐后,爸爸骑着一辆摩托车带着我给驶向火车站,一个大约离我家8 公里的小镇。当我们到达那里时,我们发现一群人正在等候火车。7点整,一辆火车正带着一阵长笛声向我们驶来,渐渐停了下来。在场的人立即欢呼起来,我禁不住跳了起来。当火车完全停下来时,我迫不及待走过去并亲手摸了摸她。她看起来像一条大而长的蠕虫,有不到20节车厢,大约有4米多高?? 大约10 分钟之后,她离开了。

不久,我们欢快地回到了家。虽然我只花了两个小时看火车,但是我将长久地记得第一个看火车的旅行。

【例5】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

通过一件事情的记述,从一个侧面描绘某景物的变化。要求:叙事简洁完整,富有条理性,100词左右。 Ⅱ. 学生习作:

Walking along the Street

My cousin has 1come to Nanjing for three years. Last Sunday he got married 2with a pretty girl. My family all went to congratulated him.

A big dinner was over. After playing 3the cards for a while, I walked alone in the street, but I didn?t feel 4alone. The lights on both sides of the street were colourful. They changed colours quickly. I had never seen such a beauty in the countryside 5ago. I fully lost myself in it. I felt that the flashing lights were like our more and more beautiful motherland…

I didn?t go to bed until it was very late. 6I couldn?t fall asleep and still enjoyed to walk along the street…

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1改为been in。在带有一段时间状语(或从句)的现在完成时的肯定句中,谓语必须使用延续性动词或表示状态的动词短语。

2with改为to。表示“与??结婚”应用get / be married to sb.,不能和介词with连用;也可以用marry sb.表示“和??结婚”。

3去掉the。表示“打牌/下棋”等纸牌、棋类名词前不加the。

4alone改为lonely。alone意思是“单独地”,指数量,可作状语或表语;lonely意思是“孤独的”,指心情,可作定语或表语。

5ago改为before。ago前面须和一段时间连用,用于过去时态;before可以单独用于完成时态,泛指“以前”。 6a. to walk改为walking。Enjoy后面只能跟名词、动名词或代词,不能跟动词不定式。

b.该句点题,与题目照应,深化主题。

根据习作要求,小作者通过自己参加表哥的婚礼晚宴后,独自一人逛大街的事情的记述,从一个侧面描绘了街市两旁闪烁的路灯这一景物的变化。值得欣赏的是,习作者并不是为了写景而写景,而是通过景物描写以遐想的方式从一个侧面反映了祖国日新月异的变化。在句子表达上,语言流畅,语义连贯,首尾呼应。在遣词造句方面,能够灵活运用but,not...until…等连词,从而使句子可以有机地连贯在一起。毋庸讳言,在一些词法和语法上仍存有模糊现象,但纵观整体,该文章仍然是一篇较好的习作。

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

逛大街

我的表哥在南京已经3年了。上周星期日,他和一个漂亮的女孩结婚了,我的家庭都

去祝贺他。

一次盛大的宴会结束了。在打了一会儿纸牌后,我独自一人在街上散步,但我并不感到孤单。街道两侧的灯五颜六色,它们快速地改变着颜色。 以前,我在农村从未看见过这样的一个美景,我完全沉浸在这美景之中。我感到闪烁的灯看起来就像我们越来越美丽的祖国一样??

等到我睡觉时已经很晚了。我(久久)不能入睡,仍然享受着逛大街的乐趣??

【例6】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

下周五下午,你校将有一场马戏表演(circus show)。请你以Ricky的名义,给你的朋友Kitty发送一则电子邮件,邀请她前来观看。单词数在120个左右。

Ⅱ. 学生习作:

An Email to Kitty

Dear Kitty,

I?m very glad that 1there is going to have a great circus show in our school next Friday afternoon. 2It says that it is quite a good show. 3Would you like to come to the circus next Friday?

4and it is famous for nice and good shows. Anybody 5needn?t to pay for it this time, so there must be many more people to come to the circus. I don?t think you can get here too late next Friday. I 6

7

Yours

Ricky

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1改为there will be或there is going to be。there be的将来时结构应在there be之间加上will或is/are going to。 2It says改为It is said。It is said that…是固定句型,意思是“据说??”。

3Would you like to…?是一种表示客气的询问对方“是否愿意做???”的口语句型,此处用来向Kitty发出邀请,用句得体,表意自然。

4Every改为Each。every只能用作形容词,不能和of连用;each则可以用作代词,能够和of连用,意思为“??中的每一个”,作主语时看成单数形式。

5needn?t to改为needn?t或doesn?t need to。在否定句中,need既可以用作情态动词即“needn?t do”,也可以用作实义动词即“don?t need to do”。

6hope改为wish(也可将hope后面成分改成句子)。wish后面可以跟双宾语或复合宾语,但hope则不能。 7a. 将write改为writing。look forward to意思为“盼望;期待”,其后只能跟名词或动名词,不能跟动词不定式。b. 正确运用结尾语,水到渠成,恰倒好处。

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

基蒂的电子邮件

亲爱的基蒂:

我很高兴,下星期五下午我们学校将有一场大的马戏表演。据说它是相当好的演出。 你愿意下星期五来看马戏吗?

我们每个人都有一张关于马戏表演的海报。 上面介绍说,马戏团来自于上海,它因非常好的演出而著名。这次,大家不需要买票,因此一定有更多的人来看马戏。我认为你下星期五不能到这里太迟,我希望你在那天早点来这里。

期待不久给我写信。

你的朋友

基蒂

【例7】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

通过某件事情的记述,反映出某些事物的具体变化,要求单词数掌握在130词左右。

Ⅱ. 学生习作:

Visiting my grandpa

It is my grandpa?s 1the seventieth birthday today. Mum and I go to his home early in the afternoon.

2 seen great changes in my grandpa?s family. 3 now he has become better and better because of giving up 4to smoke. There used to be a pool with nothing in it in front of his house. But now it is used to build a rearing pond. The pond is nice and deep and fish can be used to 5live in it. Behind his house there used to be some old trees but they 6are cut down, and they?re used for making fitment…

What great changes! 7I feel as if Grandpa were not himself. I?m proud of these changes.

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1去掉the。序数词前有物主代词或名词所有格修饰时,应省略the。

2将me改为my。to one?s surprise是固定短语,意为“使某人惊奇的是”。

3used to do只表示过去的习惯动作和存在的状态,此处运用该短语与下句意思相呼应。

4改为smoking。give up是固定短语,意为“放弃;停止”,其后只能跟名词、代词或动名词,不能跟动词不定式。

5改为living。be used to doing sth.意为“习惯于/适应于做某事”;be used to do sth.意为“用于做某事”。 6改为were。be cut down 虽发生在there used to be之后,但由于那些树现已不存在,故应用过去时。 7运用虚拟语气,从侧面反映外公的精神面貌随生活条件变化而变化, 深化主题,具有“画龙点睛”的效果。

从文章的题目来看,习作内容应该写自己见到外公后与外公之间发生的事情。然而

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

拜访外公

今天是外公70岁的生日。我和妈妈下午早早地去了他家。

使我感到惊奇的是,我已看到了我外公的家庭中的巨大变化。外公过去常常感到身体虚弱,但由于戒了烟,现在他(身体)已经变得越来越好了。在他的房子的前面曾经有一个空水池,但现在它用来建造成一个鱼苗养殖池。池塘很深,鱼能习惯于生存在那儿。在他的房子后面曾经有一些古树,但是它们被砍掉了,被用于制做了家具??

多么大的变化呀!我觉得外公已经不是原来的他了,我为这些变化而感到骄傲。

【例8】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

用简洁明快的语言,描述某一事物的发展(或制作)过程。要求:a. 文章不少于五句被动语态;b. 单词数掌握在120词左右。

Ⅱ. 学生习作:

A Computer Made in My Home

I have a new computer. 1It was made in my home.

My dad is a computer fan. He 2returned back from Nanjing with two big boxes yesterday afternoon. I 3couldn?t wait opening them. There were all kinds of computer parts in them. Quickly, the parts were put together by Dad. And then the keyboard was connected to the computer. After the computer was turned on, some information 4was appeared on the screen. I was so happy that more information 5was searched by me for a long time...

6A homemade computer is had in none of my classmates. My Dad is very great! I must learn from Dad. 7Last night, I had a sweet dream and dreamed my home had been changed into a big computer factory…

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1此句点题,开门见山,能引起读者阅读兴趣。

2去掉back。return = come/give back,意思是“回来/归还”,其后若带有back则重复。

3opening改为to open。can?t wait to do…是固定短语,意思是“迫不及待做??”。

4去掉was。appear用在句中时,它的主语往往是一个人或一件事,但它表示“人或事”本身“出现”,因此不能误用于被动语态。

5改为was searched for。有些短语动词相当于及物动词,可以用于被动语态。但它们是不可分割的整体,在被动语态中不可丢掉短语动词后的介词或副词。

6改为There is a homemade computer。表状态的动词,如have, last, fit, hold, own, become等作谓语时,不能用于被动结构。

7该句与题目相照应,进一步深化主题。

纵观该习作可以看出,该文描写了爸爸购置了电脑配件并组装了电脑的简单过程,想象丰富,首尾呼应,语言流畅、简洁、精炼。文中能够灵活运用所学的

all kinds of…, turn on, connect…to…, none of…, have a dream, on the screen等短语,从而使句子可以有机地连贯在一起。在语法方面,运用了八句被动语态结构,但是由于小作者对被动语态知识模糊,出现了一些被动语态的误用现象,今后应该多加强被动语态这个方面的训练。

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

自家产的电脑

我有一台新电脑,它是我家里制造的。

我爸爸是一个电脑迷。昨天下午,他从南京回来时带着两个大的箱子。我迫不及待地打开了它们。在里面有各种电脑零件。很快地,这些零件就被爸爸组装在一起了。接着,将键盘与电脑连接了起来。在计算机被打开之后,一些信息在屏幕上出现了。我是如此地高兴,以致于我用很长的时间寻找更多的信息??

在我的同学中,没有一个人有自制的电脑。我的爸爸真了不起!我必须向爸爸学习。昨晚,我做了一个美梦,梦见我的家已经被变成一家大的计算机工厂??

【例9】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

通过一件事情的记述,突出这一事情所产生的意义和影响,要求单词数掌握在100个左右。

Ⅱ. 学生习作:

Sweeping Tombs

Yesterday was Tomb-sweeping Day. It was time for us 1to pay respects to a martyr at his tomb.

After lunch, we all got to the school a little earlier than we 2do usually. Each of us made a while flower. We set out at 1:30 p.m. It was bright and sunny. It was 3so warm weather that we were sweating as we reached the graveyard. In the graveyard was a martyr. He 4ife 5because the burst of a bomb in a fight in 1935...

6While we talk to the happy lives today, 7

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1此处对题目作了进一步解释,开篇点题,开门见山,简洁明快。

2改为usually do。时间频率副词usually,often等在句中应置于行为动词前面,be 动词后面。

3将so改为such。在such…that…结构中,such后面所修饰的中心词应为名词。

4改为was named。由句意可知,此处应为被动结构,意思为“(他)被叫做??”。

5改为because of。because和because of均表示“原因”,但前者后接句子,后者后接词或短语。

6改为when。when和while均可表示“当??时候”,但while后面只能跟延续性动词。

7该句是点睛之笔,深化了主题,突出了“扫墓”的教育意义及效果。

进行时、被动语态、比较级和it is + adj. + for sb. + to do…等句型和语法知识。但毋庸讳言,小作者在一些词语运用方面仍存在模糊现象,今后应该多加强词语用法方面的训练。

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

扫墓

昨天是清明节,该是我们在烈士墓前扫墓的时候了。

午餐之后,我们全部比往常更早一点到达了学校。我们每个人制作了一朵白花。下午一点三十分,我们出发了。天气晴朗,阳光明媚。天气太暖了,当我们到达墓地时,以致于我们出汗了。墓地里躺着一为烈士,他的名字叫丁余堂。1935年,在一场战斗中,由于一枚炸弹的爆炸,他牺牲了??

当我们谈到今天的幸福生活时,对于我们来说,有不要了解革命烈士们所做的一切。

【例10】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

通过一件事情的记述,从一个侧面反映出家乡近几年发生的巨大变化。要求:叙事简洁完整,富有条理性,150词左右。

Ⅱ. 学生习作:

Going Home to Visit His Family

1re all feeling quite happy.

A car comes to a stop near my village at about 3 p.m. A tall young man with green clothes and a cap comes out of the car. It is my 2very uncle! I run to him in a hurry, calling, “Uncle! Welcome back!” Uncle 3pats my head and says to me with a smile, “Oh, dear! My niece Linlin has been growing taller and taller. I can 4almost not know you!” Then we walk home together along the new, wide road, visiting the new building on both sides of the road and talking with one another…

A week later, before Uncle says goodbye to us, he 5points at many rows of buildings far away and says to us, “What many changes I have seen in the village! I hope our village will become more and more beautiful soon!” With these words, he gets into the car and goes away.

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1该句运用了定语从句,句子紧凑,语意简洁。

2运用very恰到好处。very与the/this/that/one?s等连用,置于名词前,意思是“正是(那个)”,用来加强语气。 3改为pats me on the head。表示“接触某人身体部位”应用“动词+某人+on/in/by+the+部位”结构。

4almost not改为hardly。almost不能和not连用,但可以和no,never,nothing等词连用。

5 改为points to。point at后面跟小地点;point to后面跟大范围。

从习作的内容可以看出,作者在选材上是经过了一番思考的。习作者选取了三年前参军的叔叔回家“探亲”这件事,很自然地就能让“家乡的变化”这一主题通过叔叔的眼睛里流露出来。在句子表达上,行文流畅,意思连贯,能够灵活运用多种表达形式,如文中的calling…和visiting…等现在分词短语作状语、in a hurry 和

with a smile 等介词短语作状语以及who joined up…定语从句的使用,显露了习作者具有较扎实的基本功。虽然文中出现了一些词语用法错误,但该文章仍不失为是一篇成功的习作。

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

探亲

3年以前参军的我的叔叔今天将从军队回来,我和我的家人都感到十分高兴。

大约下午3点,一辆汽车在我村庄附近停了下来,身穿绿色衣服、戴着一顶帽子的一个高的年轻人从汽车里出来了。正是我的叔叔!我匆忙跑向他,叫道:“叔叔!欢迎你回来!”叔叔轻拍我的头,微笑着对我说:“哎呀! 我的侄女林林已经长得越来越高了,我几乎不能认识你了!”接着,我们沿着新而宽的大路一同回家了,边走边谈,看着道路两侧的新大楼??

一周以后, 在叔叔对我们说再见之前, 他远方指向许多排大楼对我们说:“我已经看到了村庄的多么多的变化了!我希望我们的村庄不久将变得越来越美丽!”说完这些话,他上了汽车离开了。

【例11】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

请根据亲身体验,用英语写一篇日记。要求符合英语日记格式,语言流畅,单词数在140个左右。 Ⅱ. 学生习作:

Visiting the Waterfall

thSaturday March 6, 2004 Fine

There is a waterfall about 20 kilometres away from our town. 1I and some of my classmates went to visit the waterfall today.

First we took a bus. Second we had to take a boat to cross a lake. Then we began 2saw many interesting plants and some wild animals. It took us about two hours to climb the mountains before we 3he waterfall.

Oh! How great the waterfall was! How beautiful the water was! It was very big and very high and made big noises. The water was very clean and we could see some fish swimming in it. When we saw the waterfall, we all felt very excited. We 4 We took out our camera and took many photos.

After we had our picnic lunch, we picked some wild fruits. Then we 5

We were all very tired but we felt very happy.

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1此处应改为Some of my classmates and I . I与别的词一起作主语时一般要放在最后。

2)此处应改为climbing或to climb .

3get应改为got。日记叙述的是当天发生了的事情,因此整篇文章应用一般过去时。

4happily一词应放到句末。

5此处的had to用得妙,把那种依依不舍的心情表达出来了。

小作者以日记的形式叙述了一次与同学一起参观瀑布的经过。日记格式正确、内容充实、层次分明、语言流畅、事情叙述完整且详略得当。虽然文中有几处错误,但仍然是一篇难得的佳作。

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

There is a waterfall about 20 kilometres away from our town. Some of my classmates and I went to visit the waterfall today.

First we took a bus. Second we had to take a boat to cross a lake. Then we began to climb the mountains. On the way we saw many interesting plants and some wild animals. It took us about two hours to climb the mountains before we got to the waterfall.

Oh! How great the waterfall was! How beautiful the water was! It was very big and very high and made big noises. The water was very clean and we could see some fish swimming in it. When we saw the waterfall, we all felt very excited. We jumped and shouted happily. We took out our camera and took many photos.

After we had our picnic lunch, we picked some wild fruits. Then we had to get back.

We were all very tired but we felt very happy.

参观瀑布

距离我们镇d大约20 公里有一个瀑布。 我和我的几个同学今天去参观了瀑布。

首先我们乘坐了公共汽车,接着我们得乘船过一个湖,然后我们开始爬山。途中,我们看见很多有趣的植物和一些野生动物。在我们到达瀑布之前,我们花了大约两个小时爬山。啊!瀑布是多么的大啊!水是多么美的啊!它非常大而高,并且发出大的噪音。水非常干净,我们能看见一些鱼在里面游泳。当我们看见瀑布时,我们都感到非常激动。我们高兴地跳呀叫呀。我们取出我们的照相机拍了很多照片。

在我们吃了野餐午餐之后,我们摘了一些野生的水果。然后我们得回来。

虽然我们都非常疲倦,但是我们感到非常愉快。

二、说明文实例点评

【例12】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

由于学习时间紧,学习任务重,目前绝大多数初三的学生都出现了视力不同程度的下降趋势。请你以

How to Protect Eyes为题,写一篇说明保护视力的重要性及其主要措施的文章,要求语言简洁,说明有条理,单词数掌握在100个左右。

Ⅱ. 学生习作:

How to Protect Eyes

1The eyes are the windows of the mind. It?s different to do something without good eyes. So it is important 2of us to protect eyes.

First our eyes shouldn?t be used too long. 3Use them too long, our eyes will be tired.

Secondly, our eyes should be allowed to keep one foot 4far away from the books during reading.

Thirdly, we shouldn?t be allowed to read in poor or strong 5lights, and we can?t read in a moving bus or in bed, either.

Finally, It is necessary for us to 6do eye exercise every day. Then we?ll have good eyes.

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1以“谚语”开篇点题,总领全文,匠心独具。

2改为for us。 for sb. to do sth.是动词不定式的复合结构形式,sb.与do之间有逻辑主谓关系。

3改为Using them。现在分词短语作状语,表示原因。

4改为away from。far away from意为“远离”,若前面有确切数量时,则应省略far。

5改为light。此处的light用作不可数名词,意思为“光;光线”。

6改为do eye exercises。do eye exercises是固定短语,意思为“做眼保健操”。

should/shouldn?t be allowed to…, it + adj. + to do…句型以及谚语等知识。虽然小作者在一些词语运用方面仍存在模糊现象,但该文仍然是一篇难得的习作。

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

如何保护眼睛

眼睛是心灵的窗户。有好的眼睛做事是很困难的,因此对于我们来说,保护眼睛是重要的。

首先,我们不应该长时间的使用。使用太长,我们的眼睛将会疲倦。

第二,阅读期间,我们的眼睛应该被允许与书保持一英尺的距离。

第三,我们不应该在弱和强的光线下看书,同时也不能在移动的公共汽车里或在床上看书。

最后,我们有必要每天做眼保健操。这样我们将会拥有好的眼睛。

【例13】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

通过自己的亲身经历,介绍学习英语的一些做法。要求内容贴切、完整,语言规范,格式正确,单词数掌握在90个左右。

Ⅱ. 学生习作:

How to Study English

English is the most widely 1speak in the world today. So it is important for us to study it. First, we should 2do more speak every morning. Reading English loudly can not only improve ourselves in spoken English, but also help us learn some fixed sentences 3with heart.

Secondly, we ought to take notes in class. 4Take notes can help us keep English knowledge in mind for ever.

Finally, 5it is necessary for us to keep diaries in English. We must make the most of it in our spare time. It is very good 6to English study.

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1改为spoken。被动语态的谓语结构为“助动词be + 及物动词的过去分词”。

2改为do more speaking。do some/more speaking是固定短语,意思为“多做些说的练习”。

3改为by heart。learn…by heart是固定短语,意思为“背诵??”。

4改为Taking notes或To take notes。在英语中,动词不能直接作主语,必须采用doing sth.或to do sth.形式。 5为避免与should和ought to在语义的重复,此处运用句型it is necessary for sb. to…,意思为“某人有必要??”,恰到好处。

6改为for。be good for是固定短语,意思为“对??有益”。

not only…but also…, ought to, take notes, make the most of等短语,但小作者在一些词语运用方面仍存在模糊现象,今后应该多加强词语用法方面的训练。

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

怎样学习英语

英语今天在世界上被最广泛地讲,因此我们学习它是很重要的。

首先,我们应该每天早晨多说(英语)。大声读英语不仅能提高自己的用英语口语,而且能帮助我们记住一些固定的句子。

第二,我们在课上应该记笔记。记笔记能帮助我们永远记住英语知识。

最后,我们有必要写英语日记。我们必须在我们的余暇时间里充分利用它,这非常有益于英语学习。

三、议论文实例点评

【例14】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

以抽烟有害健康为题写一篇议论文。要求体现以下几点:

1.一些学生抽烟,他们认为这是一种享乐;

2.抽烟有害,科学家发现吸烟会对人体产生疾病,如心脏病、癌症;

3.很多人戒烟或要戒烟。

根据以上要求,可以加以发挥,词数为120左右。

Ⅱ. 学生习作:

Smoking Is Harmful

Now some middle school students enjoy smoking because they think 1kind of enjoyment. It?s wrong.

It is reported that lots of patients 2die from heart trouble or cancer. Smoking is one of the causes of these diseases. Smoking 3, and it does more harm to the young people. Doctors and scientists have found that it may cause serious illness, such as heart trouble or cancer.

More and more people in the world have given up or have decided to get rid of smoking. We young people should stop doing 4

5 From now on we should make our minds to break away from the bad habit and form a good one.

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

1改为smoking。动词不能直接作主语,必须使用动名词或动词不定式形式。

2改为die of。die from意为“因??而死”,多指死于负伤、工作或饮食过度等;die of 意为“由??而死”,多指死于某种疾病、饥饿或衰老。

3改为do harm to。do harm to sb./sth.是固定短语,意为“对??有害”。

4改为such。So修饰的中心词为形容词或副词,such修饰的中心词为名词。

5该句运用恰到好处,表达了小作者作为未来国家的建设者的决心。

该篇议论文习作论点明确,论证有力,结论深刻地揭示了主题。写作思路清晰,行文自然流畅,层次清晰透明,是一篇较好的议论文。但文中出现了几处词语用法错误,今后应该多加强词语基础知识方面的训练。 Ⅳ. 参考译文:

吸烟是有害的

现在一些中学生喜爱吸烟,因为他们认为吸烟是一种享受。这是错误的。

据报道许多病人死于心脏病或者癌症,吸烟是这些疾病的原因之一。吸烟对健康有害, 并且它对年轻人产生更多危害。 医生和科学家已经发现它可能引起重病,例如心脏病或者癌症。 世界上越来越多的人已经放弃或者已经决定戒烟,我们年轻人也应该停止做这样的傻事。

作为我们的国家的未来的建设者,我们必须充分利用时间努力工作,做对我们的国家、人民和我们自己有益的事。从现在开始,我们应该下定决心,改掉这个坏的习惯,养成好的习惯。

【例15】

Ⅰ. 习作要求:

王老师在了解到魏华昨天发生车祸后,准备今天下午组织一次有关交通安全注意事项的主题班会。你打算联系生活实际谈谈自己的看法。请根据以下要求,把你的意思整理一下,写一篇不少于80词左右的发言稿。

内容要求:1.)行走时的安全事项;2.)骑车(自行车)时的安全事项;3.)乘车(公共汽车)时的安全事项

参考词汇:

sidewalk, handle bar, watch ahead, walk, ride, take a bus, should, don?t, traffic, while, until, before, line up, play, carry, get on (off)

Ⅱ. 学生习作:

Good afternoon, everyone!

It?s important for us to obey traffic regulations, I think. If the traffic is very heavy, we should be more ②carefully. When we are walking, we should walk on the sidewalk. At the crossing, we shouldn?t ③across the road until the traffic stops. Don?t play football, read books or listen to music while walking. When we ④ride bikes, we should watch ahead and keep ⑤all hands on the handle bars. Don?t carry ⑥someone on your bike. It is not safe. When we are taking a bus, we should line up and get on(off) one ⑦after one. Don?t try to get on (off) before the bus stops. ⑧That?s all. Thank you!

Ⅲ. 专家点评:

① 开头两句表达了作者对同学的关切和祝福,得体且富有人文精神。

② 这里应用形容词careful,它和前面的be 动词一起构成系表结构。carefully是用于修饰行为动词的副词。 ③ 把across改为cross,across是介词不能作谓语,cross才是作谓语的行为动词。

④ 这里最好把ride改为are riding,一是意思表达得更为准确,另一方面也和整个文章在

时态上保持了一致,行文也显得更加流畅。

⑤ all 指的范围是“三者或三者以上”,“两者都”用both。

⑥someone 一般用于肯定句,在否定句中常用anyone表示“任何人”。此处应把someone改为anyone。 ⑦ 把after改为by,“一个一个地、逐个地”用one by one,这是一个固定词组。

⑧ 此句和开头遥相呼应,格式正确,简洁明快。

这篇发言稿围绕“交通安全”这一中心展开,格式正确,行文自然,语言流畅,层次清晰,符合要求,是一篇优秀的学生习作,体现了小作者较为扎实的语言基本功。尤其是小作者对时间状语从句和条件状语从句运用得熟练自然,不可多得。当然,从这篇发言稿来看,小作者对某些常用词语的把握还欠“火候”,今后可得多注意哟!

Ⅳ. 参考译文:

各位同学,下午好!

听到魏华昨天发生了意外事故我很难受,我希望她现在能够更好些。我认为,对于我们来说遵守交通规则是很重要的。如果交通非常拥挤,我们应该更加小心。当我们行走时,我们应该在人行道上走。在十字路口,我们应该等到那些交通停止后才能穿越马路。行走时不能踢足球、读书或者听音乐。当我们骑自行车时,我们应该向前看并保持两只手在把手上。自行车上不能带人,它不安全。当我们坐公共汽车时,我们应该排列成行并一个接一个上(下)车。在汽车停止之前(离开)不能上(下)车。我的发言到此结束,谢谢!

第三节 强化训练

1. 请选取典型事例,描写自己所熟悉的一位老师,反映老师所具有的良好品质。要求:叙事完整,语言简洁,层次清楚,富有条理性,单词数160个左右。

2. 在英语中,uncle有“伯父;叔父;舅父;姑父;姨父”等意思,在口语中表示对长者的亲切称呼,意为“大叔,大伯,老伯”等。请以“My Uncle”为题,写一篇简单介绍uncle的文章,要求单词掌握在120~150个之间。

3. 你最熟悉的人是谁?是爸爸、妈妈还是同学?都不是。你最熟悉的人应该就是你自己了。请以“This is me”为题,通过一件事介绍自己的性格特征,要求语言生动、活泼、流畅,单词数200个左右。

4. 请用简洁明快的语言,描述自己所喜欢的宠物,要求单词数在160个左右。

5. 请用简洁明快的语言,描写自己的家的有关情况。要求:叙事完整,富有条理性,单词数200个左右。

6. 请用简洁流畅的语言,勾画出自己所在城镇的概貌,要求单词数在200个左右。

7. 请联系实际,以My Favourite为题,写一篇关于你最喜欢的业余爱好。要求单词数在150个左右。

8. Jim是你的笔友。今天他给你发来了email,告诉你他接受你的邀请,将在下周来你校参观;并请你给他回个email,告诉他来你校的详细路线。请你用简洁的语言,写一封指明你所在学校的路线的电子邮件,要求单词数在200个左右。

9. 你曾经有过捕捉老鼠或其它动物的经历吗?请写一篇你曾经经历过的捕捉动物的场面,要求内容精彩有趣,语言叙述流畅自然,单词数在150个左右。

10. 请用对比的手法,介绍自己在初一阶段与初三阶段学校生活的变化,要求单词数在170个左右。

11. 每个人都有自己的业余爱好,你的业余爱好是什么呢?请以“My Hobby”为题,用活泼明快的语言叙述自己的业余爱好,单词数不少于100个。

12. 请以“骄者必败”(Pride Will Have a Fall)为题,写一篇介绍自己因骄傲而失败的短文,单词数不能少于120个。

13. 请以What would you do if you had a million dollars?为题,写一篇语言流畅、立意深刻的短文,要求单词数在150个左右。

14. 请你用简洁明快的语言,描绘一下自己将来所从事的职业(个人理想),要求单词数在180个左右。

15. 为了提高英语口语表达那里,假定你班明天下午将召开一次以“Keep Our School Clean”为主题的班会,请根据以下要点用英语写一篇简短的发言稿。

1)不随地吐痰、不乱扔垃圾。

2)不在墙上乱涂乱画。

3)坚持每天认真打扫室内外卫生。

注意:

1)单词数80个左右。

2)请不要逐字翻译。

3)发言稿的开头和结尾已为你写好(不记入总词数)。

Good afternoon, everyone!

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

That?s all. Thank you!

【答案解析】

1.

Our Maths Teacher

This term we have a new maths teacher. He is an ordinary-looking man with a pair of thick glasses. He works hard and is very strict with us. He seldom smiles to us in class, so we are all a little afraid of him.

One day, the bell rang. It was time for us to have a maths class. We were all talking with one another cheerfully when the maths teacher came into the classroom. We thought that he must become very angry with us, but to our surprise, he said nothing. A moment later, he said to us in a loud voice with a smile, “I won?t have this maths class until you stop talking.” When we heard this, we all felt sorry and stopped talking immediately. Then the new class started and we listened to him very carefully. After that we all kept quiet before class and waited for the teacher coming. From then on, we all loved our maths teacher little by little.

Oh, I almost forget to tell you our maths teacher?s name. His name is Deng Changbin.

总评:

2.

My Uncle

My dad has no brothers and my mum has no brothers either. But I have an uncle now. Do you know why?

My uncle?s name is Li Jiaming. He used to live in the city, but now he is used to living in the country. He said he had worked in a factory long before. He had to leave the factory and move to the country before long because of cutting the workers. He is as old as my dad, and he is friendly to me, so I call him my uncle. He has a lot of knowledge and I enjoy talking with him. He often tel

ls me that he misses the factory which he worked in very much. And now it is used to build a train station. The train station is used for connecting Yangzhou to Shanghai. It is useful to the people there.

Uncle Li is a successful man. I?m proud of him.

总评:纵观短文可以看出,该习作的最大特色是能够正确运用

used to, be used to do, be used to doing, be used for,并能够正确区分before long与long before的用法。在谋篇布局方面,开篇设置悬念,引起读者阅读兴趣;中间就此进行解析说明;结尾总结,深化主题,整篇文章浑然一体。在遣词造句方面,灵活运用have to, enjoy doing,call sb. sth.,connect…to…,be proud of等词语。总之,文章内容前后照应,词语运用准确到位,句式排列整齐精炼,段落之间过渡自然,可以说该文是一篇较好的学生习作。 3.

This Is Me

I?m a little girl. I?m thirteen this year. I have two big eyes, short hair and a round face. I study at Yongfeng No.2 Middle School. I?m very good at talking. I?m an interesting hoyden (顽皮女孩).

One day during the last winter holidays, my cousin came to my home. I was very happy to talk with her for long. And then we quarreled over a little thing. When Grandma heard it, she came up in a hurry to keep us from quarrelling with each other. She said to us, “It will be time to spend the Spring Festival. You shouldn?t have a quarrel. Or you will not have good luck next year.” My cousin and I both agreed with Grandma and we didn?t quarrel any more. After a while, my uncle quarreled with my aunt over something, too. I went over at once and said to them, “It will be time for the Spring Festival. You mustn?t have a quarrel. Or you will not have good luck next year.” When Dad heard what I said, he laughed and said to me, “My little hoyden, you have become a young fetish (物神, 迷

信).” I answered immediately, “Well then my grandma has become an old one! ” Everyone laughed loudly.

This is me, an interesting hoyden, an optimistic (乐观的) girl, a middle school student named Shen Chao.

总评:读了这篇小习作后,一个活泼有趣、乐观开朗、俏皮可爱、口齿伶俐的小女孩跃然纸上。文章主体部分所述事情虽小,但却能以小见大,透过此事,我们分明看到了一个活生生的小女孩就在眼前。文章结构严谨,叙述富有条理,语言活泼流畅,是一篇较好的学生习作。

4.

A Crocodile Tortoise

There is a tortoise in my home. She has an ugly looking. She is different from other tortoises. I love her very much.

Last spring, my dad spent less than one thousand yuan buying six baby tortoises. They each were ten grams or so. They were almost as big as a matchbox. But in a month, five of them died because of cold, leaving only one tortoise. Dad and I were quite sorry for them In order to look after the only tortoise well, Dad put his heart into her in his free time. Meat is her favourite and she eats too much every day. Under the care of my dad, that little tortoise grew up well and healthily. Up to now, the tortoise?s weight is about half a kilo. She is fancy and she looks like a crocodile. So we call her a crocodile tortoise.

I have made friends with the crocodile tortoise. I get a lot of enjoyment from her every day. She can have me study in a good humor every day. She is my best friend.

总评:在这篇习作中,小作者用简洁流畅的语言向我们介绍了自己最好的“朋友”——鳄龟。在文章的字里行间里,充分流露了作者对鳄龟的喜爱,这一喜爱之情通过贯穿全文的she可以看出。在遣词造句方面,灵活运用了be different from,spend…doing…,as…as…,because of,in order to,under the care of…,make friends with等词语;在文章结构方面,首段点题,中段叙述鳄龟的成长过程,末段与开头呼应,进一步深化主题。综观全文,该文可以说是一篇较为成功的习作。

5.

Welcome to My Home

I live in a small village in the country. There are less than thousand people in it. It is a very beautiful village. My home lies in the east of the village. I enjoy living there.

I live in a nice and bright house of two storeys. There are lots of trees around my house. There is a small river in front of it. The water is very clean. In summer I enjoy swimming and fishing i

n it. Usually I like washing clothes there. There are some birds in the trees all the year round. I enjoy listening to them sing.

There are four people in my family. They are my grandmother, father, mother and I. My grandmother lives with us. She always gets up first in the morning. She likes to chat with me and we always share fun with each other. My parents are both teachers. They work hard and are friendly, so the students all love them. And I?m a middle school student at No. 2 Middle School which is two kilometers away from my home. I do well in my study.

Next Sunday is my fifteenth birthday. Would you like to come to my birthday party? I really hope you can come to my home that day! Please give me a call when you arrive at my village. I?ll meet you then. My home phone number is 0523-3568998.

My family are very friendly. We shall give you some good food to eat while you are here. Welcome to my home!

总评:这是一篇具有说明性的记叙文,作者通过对自家的周围景色以及家庭成员的描写,表达了作者对自家生活环境的热爱。从文章的整体来看,文章中心明确,语言简练,内容丰富,描写细致。从文章的结构来看,分别描写了自家的地理位置、地处环境状况、家庭成员概况等,所有这些都是围绕主题服务的。在遣词造句方面,能够灵活运用live in/with,chat with,share…with…,arrive at,enjoy, Would you like to…?等词语或句型,同时正确运用了when与while。在语法使用方面,能够将in,in front of等表示位置关系的介词以及first,fifteenth等序数词有机的溶进到文章中。文章的最后一段与题目照应,从而达到了首尾呼应的效果。纵观整个文章,可以看出小作者具有一定的英语基础,所写该文是一篇较好的习作。

6.

An Beautiful Town

I live in an old town with a long history. She is close to the city of Yangzhou. I love her and enjoy living here.

My town is nice and beautiful. There?s a new train station to the east. It connects (连

接) my town to Shanghai. In the south is a long river. We can drink clean water from it. A cinema is in the west. We often go to cinema at the weekend. In the north is a supermarket. There are all kinds of things in it. We can go shopping at any time. There is a square with trees and grass in it in the centre of the city. In it is a sports field. We often go walking there.

Do you know how many people there?re in my town? There?re about over fifty thousand people living here. The people get on well with one another. None of them have words with each other. They?re very friendly to each other.

How much do you know about my town? What else would you like to know about her? I?m afraid no words can describe her. To see is to believe. I hope you can come here some day. I?m sure you?ll have a good time while you?re in such a town.

总评:纵观短文可以看出,

have a good time, what else等词语;在语法运用方面,能够正确运用how many与how much、no与none以及定冠词the。总之,文章内容前后照应,词语运用准确到位,句式排列整齐精炼,段落之间过渡自然,这些写作特色可以说明该文是一篇较好的学生习作。

7.

My Favourite

What do you like? Different people like different things. Some people like sports. Some people like books. Some people like computer games. But I like music.

I can?t read music, but I like listening to music. I prefer listening to soft music which speaks directly to the emotions. I think music is character-building (陶冶情

操). Of all the songs that I have ever listened to, I like the theme music which was called My Heart Will Go On in the film the Titanic best. The song My Heart Will Go On is a piece of pretty music. It can not only give me lots of knowledge, but also have me enjoy myself. I often sing this song in a weak voice in my free time.

Music is my favourite. I like music very much. It has become a part of my life. Boys and girls, do you also like music like me?

总评:

An Email in Reply

Dear Jim,

Thanks four your email. I?m very glad you are invited out to my school by me. Now let me tell you the way to my school.

I live in a town named Yongfeng. My school lies in the northeast of my town. There is a train station on the south of the town. A river is between the train station and the town. It runs from the west to the east. There is a bridge over the river. After you get out of the gate of the train station, you can walk straight on to the bridge. Go across the bridge, and then turn right. Go up the Guangming Road and take the fourth turning on the right. Walk along the Yucai Road to the end, you will find my school on the left. I?m going to meet you there.

My school is nice and beautiful. During visiting my school, I shall invite you to see the great beauties in our school. We shall go on an outing and have a barbecue together. I?m sure you?re going to have lots of fun then. Please ask your friends to come here with you. I shall make you welcome then.

Looking forward to seeing you soon.

Shen Chao

总评:根据习作要求,小作者用简洁流畅的语言给笔友Jim回复了一封电子邮件,介绍了来自己学校的路线。在文章的主体部分(第二节)中,习作者能够运用所学的“指路”用语及表示“位置”的介词短语,如Walk/Go along…, Take the…turning on the…, walk straight on,on the right,

between…and…, from…to…等,语意表达准确到位。在遣词造句方面,灵活运用

the way to, go on an outing, have a barbecue, invite…to…, be sure, be invited out, make sb. welcome等词语;在语法运用方面,能够正确运用be going to结构以及across,along,up等表示位移介词,并能在文中区别使用shall与will。另外,小作者也能够掌握电子邮件这种应用文的行文方法和书写格式。纵观短文,应该说该文不失为是一篇较好的习作。

9.

Catching Mice

There are many mice in my house these days. They have bitten several holes in the gauze (丝网) of the cupboard. We all hate them very much.

Before I went to bed yesterday evening, I heard something moving in the cupboard. I guessed there must be mice in it. So I told my dad about it at once. Dad hurried to the cupboard as soon as he knew it. First, I covered the holes of the gauze with two pieces of hard paper. In this way, the mice would not able to fly out of the cupboard. And then Dad lapped hard the cupboard left and right. The mice jumped up and down because of fear. About twenty minutes later, the mice didn?t dare to move at all. In order to stop the mice from biting fingers, Dad put on a glove. At last, Dad opened the doors of the cupboard and easily caught the two mice in it.

总评:我们大家都知道,向来都是猫捉老鼠。然而

these days, hear…do sth., there must be, at once, as soon as, cover…with…, in this way, left and right, up and down, because of, in order to, stop…from…等。综观短文,可以说该文是一片较好的习作。 10.

My School Life

I?m a middle school student. Now I?m in Class Two, Grade Three. My school life is colourful. I enjoy myself at school.

When I was in Grade One, I had only Chinese, maths, English and some other subjects. I used to have much time to do something I liked out of class. After class, I used to play games with my classmates. After school, I used to play football, play basketball or play tennis. At home, I used to read some classics of Chinese literature (中国古典文学名

著). At present, I?m very busy. I have more subjects such as Chinese, maths, English, Physics, Chemistry and so on. I spend less time playing games, taking some exercise and reading extracurricular (课外

的) books. I must spend lots of time doing well in all of the subjects. I?m working hard and I?m trying for a good school next term.

There are no gains without pains. I think my dream must come true. My school life will be much more colourful for the future.

总评:根据习作要求,小作者用简洁流畅的语言叙述了自己在初一阶段与初三阶段学校生活的变化情况。在文章的主体部分中,习作者通过一般过去时和一般现在时两种时态,采用对比的形式说明了以前与现在的学习生活的不同。在遣词造句方面,灵活运用

enjoy oneself, used to, play football/basketball, spend…doing…, do well in, work hard, try for, come true, There are no gains without pains等词语谚语。综观全文,说该文不失为是一篇较好的习作。

11.

My Hobby

Someone likes playing basketball. Someone likes playing chess. Someone likes surfing the Internet. But my hobby is reading.

In my free time, I always enjoy reading. My ideal is to go to college after I finish middle school. So it is highly important that I should study hard now. At school, I work hard at all the subjects. At home, I read all kinds of books. I think it?s useful to read lots of books. They can give me not only a lot of delight, but also plenty of knowledge. At present, I have a habit of reading every day. Now it is necessary for me to read extracurricular (课外

的) books every day, or I?ll feel as if I had lost something.

It is my study habit for me to read every day. As a student, I think it is a good study habit to read extracurricular books. Boys and girls, do you agree with what I say?

总评:读了这篇习作,我们可以看出,小作者的课外知识肯定十分丰富,肯定能够适应当今素质教育的考试。纵观该短文,我们还可以看出,该习作的最大特色是能够正确区别运用It?s + adj. + that…,

It?s + adj. + to do…和It?s +adj. + for sb. + ?to do…等句型,并能够运用动词不定式作表语及虚拟语气等语法知识。除此之外,在文中能够灵活运用play basketball, play chess,surf the Internet.,enjoy doing sth.,all kinds of,go to college,agree with ,not only…but also…等词语。总之,文章首尾呼应,语言简洁流畅,词语运用准确,是一篇难得的习作。

12.

Pride Will Have a Fall

We had a maths exam last Thursday afternoon. I felt very happy when I came out of the classroom. The maths problems were not too difficult for me, so I said to my classmates insolently (自豪地), “I?m sure that I can get a high score in this maths exam this time!”

The next day, our maths teacher gave the papers out to us. I felt surprised and sorry when I saw the mark on my paper. To my fright, I actually failed in the exam. I thought that the score on my paper was counted by error, but it was right in fact. After I went over the paper carefully again, I found I made a lot of mistakes in the paper. Those mistakes were made by my inattention (粗心, 疏忽). I was so sorry that I couldn?t help weeping at that moment.

Now I?m trying my best to correct my careless shortcoming. I believe that I must needs (一定地,必要

地) get over my inattention soon. I?ll remember the proverb forever---- Pride will have a fall.

总评:从某种程度上来说,“粗心”其实是由“骄傲自满”滋生的。在第一、二两小段里,作者通过自己在一次数学考试后的自我感觉很好与实际的得分极低(不及格)相对比,分析了落差甚大的原因是由于自己的粗心所致。结尾一段,则说明自己现在正在尽力克服“粗心”这一缺点,最后一句点明文章的题目——

Pride will have a fall. 全文行文自然,富有真情实感,富有条理性。

13.

What Would You Do If You had a Million Dollars?

Last Friday afternoon, Chinese teacher told us to write a composition at the weekend. Its subject is called What Would You Do If You had a Million Dollars?

After supper, I kept thinking about the article and became lost in thought. It was time for news from CCTV. I was still thinking of it while watching TV news. Suddenly I was attracted by a piece of news. It was reported that in China some children in the country couldn?t go to school because their parents were too poor. Everybody was called on to help out. When I heard the news, tears came to my eyes.

I couldn?t fall asleep until it was late on that evening. What would you do if you had a million dollars? I had a good idea at last. If I had a million dollars, I would send them to Project Hope, to the children who wanted to go to school. Boys and girls, do you agree to my idea?

总评:

keep doing sth., become lost in thought, think about/of, fall asleep, at last, Project Hope, agree to, not…until…, It is reported that…等词语或句型。无论从形式或是从内容来看,应该说该文是一篇较好的学生习作。 14.

My Ideal

If someone asks me what I?m going to do after I leave school, I will tell him that my ideal is to be a farmer.

I think that it is important to be a good farmer in the future. In order to make money, these days more and more people in the country move to the rich city, leaving lots of farmland. I want to be the best and biggest farmer. And now I will do my best to study hard by myself and then go to college. In college, I will be able to learn more about farming. After I have farming down to a science, I?ll get the most corn and wheat from each field. Of course I will use a tractor to do farm work instead of using animals, for it can work faster and better than animals.

Anything can be done successfully if you try your best to do it. No matter where you work, you will make a contribution to making this country more and more beautiful if you put your heart into it. Can?t you think so?

总评:纵观该篇习作我们可以看出,小作者能够用简洁流畅的语言叙述了自己的与众不同的理想——做一位农民。但小作者所指的农民并非是我们祖辈们“面朝黄土背朝天”式的农民,而是精通科学种田的新一代农场主。

作者想象合理,文章层次结构清晰,语言叙述简洁,开篇点题,结尾生发议论,整篇文章浑然一体。在遣词造句方面,灵活运用by oneself,instead of,do/try one?s best,in order to,make a contribution to,have sth. down to a science等词语;在语法运用方面,能够正确运用can与be able to以及It is important to …,I want to…,Can?t you…?等句型和语法知识。由此可见,可以说该文是一篇较好的习作。

15.

Good afternoon, everyone!

We are studying in this school. It?s our duty to keep it clean and tidy. It?s not good to spit in public places, such as in the library, in the classroom. We should neither draw pictures on the walls nor throw any litter onto the ground. I think we must make it rule to do some cleaning every day. If everyone tries his best to do something useful for our school, I?m sure our school will be more beautiful. That?s all. Thank you!

总评:由于该篇发言稿提示内容较多,因此习作者可以比较自如地将所给内容组织起来,因而文章显得流畅自然。此文前后内容衔接自然,整篇文章浑然一体,是一篇成功的英语发言稿。

第三部分 情景作文

情景作文是书面表达的重要组成部分,它包括文字情景和图片情景(含表格情景),主要考查同学们综合运用英语的能力,特别是较好地考查同学们的观察能力、联想能力、灵活运用所学英语知识的能力和初步运用英语表达思想的能力。那么,怎样写好此类文章呢?

第一节 策略指导

一、分析题型,抓住特点。

从近几年的全国中考题型分析来看,书面表达题基本上是采用指导性写作(guided writing)的形式。这些试题对写作的目的、对象、时间、内容、体裁及字数等都有明确的规定,写作的内容则以文字、图表的形式来提供。类似这种题目的特点是:

1、不能把汉语提示对应翻译。要求同学们不能根据考题所提供的内容逐字逐句地翻译,而是把考题所提供的信息要点用英语表达出来,只要不遗漏要点、内容完整、语言连贯、表达明白通顺、恰当得体才算是基本完成了任务。其实“书面表达”比逐句翻译更灵活,考生可以扬长避短,选用自己掌握的最有把握的较复杂语言结构或较高级的词汇,并有效地使用恰当的连词,使全文结构紧凑,做到这一点,才算是完全完成了表达任务。例如:

根据汉语提示,写出短文。

提示:南京是一座美丽的现代化城市。到处是高楼大厦和干净的街道。我们应该保持周围环境的清洁??,我们不应该??。注:环境---environment

分析:

参考范文:

Nanjing is a beautiful modern city. There are many/lots of/a lot of/a number of tall buildings and clean streets here and there in Nanjing. We should keep the environment clean, plant as many flowers and trees as possible and protect them. We shouldn?t throw waste everywhere because every one of us hopes that we can live in a wonderful environment.

评注:写此作文时一定要审清文章的主题,然后再选择合适的语言材料来描写突出这个主题。

2、“书面表达”不是命题作文,因为它不允许同学们脱离题意,任意借题发挥,它要求同学们只要抓住所给信息的要求和实质,用自己熟悉的语言进行表达就行了。例如:

你校与澳大利亚某中学结为兄弟学校,澳方校刊来信了解你校的课外活动情况及你们的有关建议,请你

80字左右的短文。文章开头已给出(不计入总词数)。

I?d like to tell you something about the out-of-class activities (活动)in our school??提示与分析:这是一篇表格情景作文。一开头就提供了情景,同时也明确了写作内容,限定了所用时态。

参考范文:I?d like to tell you something about the out-of-class activities in our school.

We usually have our activities from 4:50—5:50 in the afternoon. We have different kinds of activities. Some students are interested in sports. They play basketball and football. We also have some interest groups, such as drawing, singing and dancing. And now computer is the most popular. On Wednesday afternoon we go to English corner. We like talking in English there. We hope we can spend more time on such activities and less time on homework.

评注:根据所提供的情景写作时,一定要保证文章的前后时态的一致。

二、发现问题,及时解决。

从学生平时作业和测试情况分析,情景作文中存在的问题或常见的错误可概括为以下几个方面:

1、审题不严,格式不符。

有相当一部分同学拿到题目(特别是看图表达题)后,根本不严格地审题便立即着手去写,以至于写出的短文与要求不符,或是人称的错误。例如:有一篇看图作文,要求是描述周末发生的一个小故事,女孩名叫Helen,但有部分学生不仔细审题,写出来的却是On Sunday, he …。这就与题目要求相差甚远。还有就是格式的错误,有的同学平时就不重视写作格式,像所提供的情景是日记、书信等,但到了考场上有的同学拿不准应该怎么写,或者干脆直接用叙述的形式,以至于在这一方面失分较多。

2、用词不当,时态混淆。

用词不当是同学们书面表达中经常出现的错误,由于平时大家对某些词或词组的意义理解错误或掌握不全,导致用法不对,其中有些错误严重影响思想表达。如:Do you know the ill man who is in hospital? 其中ill只能作表语,而不能做定语,我们可以用sick来代替ill。还有形容词、动词的使用不当等。例如:To my surprised(应为surprise); I was disappointing(应为disappointed) with the driver; Become(应为

Becoming) a good teacher is my dream; 特别是动词的时态,好多同学在做书面表达时,只注意意义的正确,而把时态都用错了。例如:I go to visit the Great Wall with my parents tomorrow. 应把go改为

will go. We play Class Two yesterday.应把play改为played.所以,动词的时态,一般来说,根据写作要求能够非常明确地判断出应该主要用什么时态,像上面提到的写日记、看图书面表达,讲述发生的一件事,其主要时态就是一般过去时,时态正确了,叙述才会更准确。一些常用不规则动词的正确形式也是学生平时掌握的重点。

3、习惯不同,表达各异。

很多同学已经习惯用汉语思维,对平时学过的英语表达方法与英语句式结构、句型和习语不能正确使用。例如:

“我认为他下午不来。”

误译为:“I think that he will not come this afternoon.”

“不要在阳光下看书。”

误译为:“Don?t see the book under the sun.”等都是受汉语思维影响而出现的错误,不符合英语句法结构。上面两句正确的英语译法应该是:

I don?t think that he will come this afternoon.

Don?t read in the sun.

4、文气不连,分数不高。

在书面写作过程中,同学生们往往只把短文中的要点写出来,而忽视了句与句之间的逻辑关系,并且很少使用过渡词,即连词,这就使写出来的短文结构不紧凑,层次条理不清楚,使短文缺乏连贯性、得体性。这样写出的短文即使没有漏掉要点、没有语法错误,但也无法进入最佳档次分数。例如:

以My Lovely Sister为题,并根据有关文字提示写一篇短文。文字情景提示如下:

1)我妹妹Rose7岁,每天上学;

2)她非常喜欢功课,而且很用功;

3)她妈妈每天接送她上学;

4)她在课上能认真听讲,积极回答问题;与同学也能友好相处;

5)她在家里做作业,帮助妈妈打扫卫生。

结果有的学生所写要点明确,语法也正确,就连字数也很足,就是拿不到高分,为什么呢?请看下面的一篇习作:

My sister Rose is seven. The new school year begins. She goes to school every day. Rose likes her lessons a lot. She works hard at them. My mother often takes her to school in the morning. My mother brings her home in the afternoon.

Rose is at school. She listens to the teacher carefully. She likes to answer her teachers? questions. She is friendly to her classmates. She does her homework at home. She helps Mother clean the floor. This is my lovely sister.

此文一般只能拿百分之七十的分数,因为这是Chinese English; 另外一个同学的写作就比较合符英语习惯的表达:

My Lovely Sister

My younger sister, Rose, is a girl of seven. She goes to school every day in the new school year. Rose likes her lessons a lot and works hard at them. My mother always takes her to school in the morning and brings her home in the afternoon. When she is at school, she listens to the teacher carefully and likes to answer her teachers? questions. After class, she goes out of the classroom to play games with her classmates. She is friendly to them.

When she is at home, she does her homework first. After supper, she often helps Mother clean the floor. Sometimes she will watch TV for a short time if Mother permits.

三、写好“情景作文”,牢记“五个要诀”。

1、仔细审题,抓住重点。

审题是解题的关键,情景作文的审题要抓四个字:一是“内容”;二是“形式”。所谓“内容”,即写什么;所谓“形式”及表达所需要的文体。

2、快速构思,书写提纲。

构思速度要快,因为我们在考试时,不只有情景作文,还有许多别的内容要做,所以不能允许我们苦思冥想出需要表达的内容;学会列提纲也是进行书面表达的一个重要步骤。纲举目张,表达起来就会得心应手。编拟提纲要全面、具体、明确、恰当。

3、认真选择,推敲句式。

写作过程中要灵活运用所学词汇、语法和句型来组织语言。尽量使用同学们最熟悉、最有把握的句型。遇到生疏的词句要灵活变通。例如:要表达“听到这个消息,他欣喜若狂。”我们可以用He was wild with joy at the news.也可以用更为熟悉的句型:He was glad to hear the news.或When he heard the news, he was very glad.或

He was glad at the news.

4、注意顺序,连贯文气。

情景作文不象单个翻译句子,要组织好文章表达的层次顺序,注意表达的准确性、连贯性,还要符合英语习惯。

5、检查核对,书写正规。

重视文字的校验工作。书写要规范,并掌握长度。一篇短文写完后,一定要认真检查,看其内容是否完成,要点是否有遗漏,主体是否符合要求,并且要检查单词的拼写及大小写、短语的运用,语法、句型结构的准确性,以及标点符号使用的规范性,避免不必要的失分。再就是书写一定要认真、规范、整洁、漂亮。一篇书写漂亮、文字流畅、卷面整洁的作文能够给阅卷老师带来愉快的心情,这样就提高判分的档次和增加得分的可能性。

总之,同学们只有在平时多下功夫,努力掌握基础知识,并且会灵活运用,多读多练,持之以恒,情景作文能力才能提高,同时注意上述的问题及要诀,才能在中考中扬长避短,发挥自己的优势与能力,取得更好的成绩。

第二节 实例点评

一、文字情景作文

文字情景作文,可以用中文提示,也可以用汉语提示,还可以用汉语和英语提示。

例1:江苏某地农村杨庄是对外开放单位,请用英语为来访外宾写一篇60字以上的短文,介绍该村的情况。 情景要点提示如下:

1)杨庄离浪山约80公里,有3,000多人口;

2)过去这里既没有工厂、学校,村民们生活艰苦;

3)1985年以来该村发生了巨大变化;

4)现在村里有两家工厂和一所学校;

5)村民们都住进了新居,生活越来越好。

点评: 本题交际情景合理,要点清楚;同学们在解题时:

1)要吃透交际情景,把握交际的场合、对象、语气和体裁;

2)把握时态(可以有四种时态)、人称等;

3)方法灵活、形式多样。如“过去没有学校和工厂”可以

说 “In the past, there was no factory or school there”也可以

说 “They used to have no school or factory there”还可以

说 “In the past, they had no school or factory there”等。

4)要通读全文,前后照应。

例文:

Yangzhuang is about 80 kilometres away from Langshan. It has a population of over 3,000. In the past there was no factory or school there. The villagers lived a hard life. Since 1985 there have been great changes in the village. Now there are two factories and a school there. All the villagers live in new houses. Their life is getting better and better.

例2:以My Mother为题,写一篇60词以上的短文。

情景要点提示如下:

1.我妈妈是护士,工作努力;

2.去年到云南支边,帮助患者看病;

3.到现在还没有回家;

4.我爱妈妈,为妈妈感到自豪。

点评:

1)审题要审清、审全要点并考虑文字的组织;

2)行文要通顺、连贯,需要衔接的地方可以适当发挥;

3)语言要规范,合乎英语表达习惯,要多用学过的表达方式;

4)要求用平时关注到的生活和时事等。

例文:

My mother is a nurse. She works very hard at her job. Last year she went to Yunnan to work for the sick people. She has been there for more than one year. I miss her very much now, but I know that she is trying her best to help everyone who is ill. I love my mother and I am proud of my mother.

例3:假如你是Nancy,最近从报纸上获悉某外资公司需要一名懂英语的销售员(saleswoman),你愿任此职(apply for the post)。请用英语给招聘单位写一 篇60字左右的介绍。

内容要点如下:

1)我的名字叫Nancy;

2)在中学时代,我非常喜欢英语;

3)中学毕业以来,我坚持自学英语,讲练口语;

4)经过几年的努力学习,我现在已能很好地用英语与外国人交谈;

5)若能成为公司的一名销售员,我一定会把工作做好。

点评:

例文:

I?ve learned from the newspapers that your company needs a salesgirl who knows English. I?d like to apply for the post.

My name is Nancy. When I was a middle school student, I liked English very much.

Since I graduated from middle school. I?ve kept on teaching myself English and practising spoken English. After several years of hard study, I?m now good at talking with foreigners in English. I?m sure I?ll do my work well if I can be a salesgirl in your company.

例4:根据提示,写一篇60—80 词的英语短文。要求:意思 连贯、语句通顺、符合情理。

1)音乐的种类很多。如: pop, jazz, rock, classical, light music and so on.

2)年轻人喜欢??,学生喜欢??,还有人喜欢歌星( pop stars)??

3)听音乐是一种放松(relax)的好方法,享受音乐,可以忘却烦恼,提高学习效率。

点评:

1)整个文章应用一般现在时;

2)常用习惯用语要搭配得当,如:keep doing; enjoy oneself; be busy with; go on with; make …+ 形容词; something else;and so on等;

3)语法结构要用的准确,如:时间状语从句;介词+分词结构+主句等。

例文:

When we are tired, one of the best ways to relax is listening to music. There are many kinds of music, like pop, jazz, rock, classical, light music and so on. Pop and light music are my favourite. Most teenagers like music very much. So do I. I also like many pop music stars, and sometimes I even follow them. As a student, I am busy with my homework. I often feel tired and unhappy. When I listen to the light music, I keep enjoying myself in it. I can forget everything else at the same time. After listening to it, I can go on with my lessons and make it better.

例5:

Brown 是我的一位好朋友,他是六中的一名体育教师,非常喜欢足球。上个月他回英国看世界杯了,要到比赛结束后他才回来。请根据文字情景提示写一篇短文。

Friend, P.E. teacher, like football, go to England, watch, the World Cup Football Match, not…until, be over

点评:

例文:

Mr Brown is my good friend. He is from England. He is a P.E.teacher at No. 6 Middle School. He likes football very much. Last month he went back to his home to watch the World Cup Football Match. He won?t be back to the school until the match is over.

二、表格情景作文

表格情景作文就是要求同学们根据表格所提供的内容写出合乎要求的书面表达或回答有关问题。

例1:同学们在春游中看到目前有些地方水资源的污染情况比较严重,很有感触。请你根据以下表格情景提

那感想部分可以根据实际情况自由发挥,写出感谢认识的余地。

例文:

Of all the things we eat and drink, water is the most important. We can live without food for many days, but two or three days without water usually makes people die. However, some people don?t understand this. They keep throwing rubbish into rivers or lakes. Some factories even pour waste water into rivers. As a result many rivers and lakes have become so dirty that the water there is no longer safe for people to drink. Let?s do our best to keep the water clean to save ourselves.

例2:假如你叫王海,是个中学生,想应聘《英语育才报》初中版的业余小记者。对方要求你用英语写一篇60

文还体现了现实生活中用英语进行互动交际的特点。同学们在做此题时要:

1)将要点翻译成英语;

2)将已经译成的要点扩展成句;

3)根据要求重新排序;

4)将句子连成短文,使用适当的连词和过渡语;

5)检查错误;

6)答题并检查自数和卷面情况。

例文:

My name is Wang Hai. I was born in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province in February 1991. I have worked for our school newspaper for two years. I like English writing and computer best and I am very good at them. Last year, I won the first prize in the school English competition. I enjoy reading English novels and collecting stamps. My favourite sport is soccer. My E-mail address is wanghai@sina.com

例3:John 打算来苏州工业园区工作,他正在向他的朋友Tom了解园区的环境及生活情况。Tom对园区的情况

John: Is SIP very far from Suzhou city?

Tom: __________________________________________________

John: Nice. What do you think of the place? Is it beautiful?

Tom: __________________________________________________

John: That?s great! But where can I buy food and clothes?

Tom: __________________________________________________

John: Oh, I think I will be fond of Chinese food. One more question. You know, I can only speak Englis

h…

Tom: Don?t worry.

John: Wonderful! I am sure I will learn to speak some Chinese soon.

点评:

例文:

John: Is SIP very far from Suzhou city?

Tom: Not really. It is only 15 minutes ride by bus from the center of the city.

John: Nice. What do you think of the place? Is it beautiful?

Tom: Yes, very beautiful! It has little air pollution, and you can see trees and flowers everywhe

re. It has a nice park, Jinji Lake Park. Many people like to have a walk there.

John: That?s great! But where can I buy food and clothes?

Tom: There are several super markets in SIP. There you can buy all kinds of things. There are a

lso both western restaurants and Chinese restaurants.

John: Oh, I think I will be fond of Chinese food. One more question. You know, I can only speak Englis

h…

Tom: Don?t worry.

John: Wonderful! I am sure I will learn to speak some Chinese soon.

例4:Bob班以“告别陋习,走向文明”为主题进行了一次综合实践活动。通过活动,同学们收获很大,尤其是Bob同学进步最快。请根据表格内容写一篇关于Bob的60字的短文。

点评:同学们在做此题时应用下列短语:

quarrel with, throw litter about, lose oneself in doing sth, get on well with, take care of , take an active part in等;通过准确的语句和连接成分,使短文内容连贯,语言得体。

例文:

We?re very glad that Bob has made great progress. But he used to be impolite and even often quarreled with others. He threw litter about and made our classroom dirty. After class, he usually lost himself in playing computer games. After this activity, Bob has changed a lot. He gets on well with others and is ready to help them. He also takes good care of the environment. He takes an active part in all kinds of activities, too. We are all glad of his progress.

例5:在同学们争分夺秒努力学习的同时,也有少数同学不珍惜时间,甚至浪费宝贵的时间。为此,请你根据以下提示,写一小段80字的英文在班会上发言,谈谈你的看法、认识。

点评:这篇情景作文主要考查同学们的语言综合运用能力和创新能力。在写的时候要注意:不能逐字翻译;根据自己所见所闻及认识自由发挥,但必须有两个例子;为增添适当的词语。

例文:

People say that time is money, but I think time?s more important than money. Time is just like one?s life. When it is gone, it will never come back.

However, some students don?t know that. They spend too much time watching TV or waste a lot of time playing computer games.

As students, we must treasure every minute and make full use of our time. We should study hard so that we can do better for our country in the future.

三、图片情景作文

图片情景作文,是以文字(中文或英文)和画面两种形式向同学们提供信息, 有的是要同学们写,有的要填空或补全对话。同学们在审题时,不仅要审“文”,而且要审“图”。同学们只有根据题目的文字和画面内容提供的信息,进行综合考虑,立意选材,才能写出切合题意、主题鲜明的短文来。

例1:仔细观察下图,并通过下面的英语提示,写一篇80字左右的短文。

提示:1)Han Mei ,a school girl; study hard; be liked by , classmates and teachers

2)yesterday, not to go school, mother ,ill in bed

3)do lots of housework, buy her mother some fruit

4)do lessons in the evening until 10

点评:同学们首先要看懂图,第1幅图是妈妈病在床上,第6幅图是Han Mei晚10点才睡觉。第2、3幅图是做家务活----洗衣服和做饭,第4幅图上街为妈妈买水果。第5幅图说明她没有上学,但在家里也没有闲着,也在做作业。

在这个基础上,同学们还要结合所给的英语提示,打草稿,反复修改,然后定稿。

例文:

Han Mei is a schoolgirl. Every day she goes to Scholl on time. She does well in every subject and her teachers and classmates like her very much.

Yesterday she didn?t go to school because her mother was ill in bed. She had to look after her. She had a lot of housework to do----washing and cooking, for example. In the afternoon she went to the market and bought some fruit for her mother. In the evening she did her lessons and she didn?t go to bed until ten o?clock.

例2: 请按照六幅图的提示,写一篇题为 “Changes in Our Hometown” 的80字以上的短文。要点提示:1)过去:房屋矮小,河水肮脏,步行、骑车去上学

2)现在:高楼大厦,河水清澈,乘公交、小汽车上学

3)短文开头:Changes in Our hometown

Over the past ten years, great changes have taken place in our hometown. In the past,… 不记入其数。

点评:这三组、六幅图,很清楚,把现在和过去做了鲜明的对比,开头虽然给出,但同学们的结果肯定不一样。在写的过程中要注意:所写内容要符合图片提示和要点提示,表述要清楚,语言要流畅,语法结构要正确,书写格式要规范。

例文:

(1) Over the past ten years, great changes have taken place in our hometown. In the past, the houses in our hometown were very poor, but now many people have moved into tall buildings (there are many tall buildings here and there). The water in the rivers was very dirty, but now the rivers are clean and people can swim in them. People used to walk or ride bikes, but now they can take bused or drive their own card to go to work.

(2) Over the past ten years, great changes have taken place in our hometown. In the past, the houses in our hometown were very poor. The water in the rivers was very dirty. People used to walk or ride bicycles to go to work. But now, many people in our hometown have moved into tall buildings (there are many tall buildings here and there). The rivers are clean and people can swim in them. People can take buses or drive their own cars to go to work.

例3:下列图表是对初三(1)班50名同学零花钱 (pocket money)支出最多项目的调查结果统计,请用英语写一篇80字以上的短文,简要说明图表内容,发表个人看法,并提出建议。

点评:本题只有图表,没有任何英语和汉语提示,对同学们来说,挑战很大,但只要大家认真看图,分析信息,就会发现问题,然后就会解决问题,也就能用得体的语言表达出来。其实本图有两个提示:

1)零用钱花在

buying books, buying clothes, buying computer games, eating fast food, seeing films, buying presents…;

2)人数从几个到25之间。

例文:

The chart shows that nearly half of the students in Class 1, Junior 3 spend most of their pocket money on fast food. About a quarter of them on computer games. A few of them in seeing films, buying clothes or presents. Those who like buying books most cover about 15%. I think playing computer games is a waste of time. Eating too much fast food is bad for our health. We?d better spend the money on what is good for us.

例4:

根据图和汉语提示,以Why don?t we have a little rest? 为题,用第一人称和英语写一篇70词以上的短文,内容必须包括下列要点:

1)上学两头“黑”,既早上去上学,天黑,晚上回家天也黑了。

2)课余时间少,作业多----书法、数学、英语、语文等,没有假期。

3)在努力学习,但同时也想??

点评:这是一幅图“松松绑”的图,同学们不但看懂,而且都有很多话要说。为了应付中考,过重的学习负担压得同学们喘不过气来,这是对社会的强烈呼吁:大家都要来真正关注我们学生的健康成长。在写的时候注意:

1)要用课本中所学的词、词组和句型,不能凭自己的想象和猜测去写,否则,写出来的作文就是Chinese-English 了;

2)注意动词、习愈、词语的搭配,时态、语法、主谓一致,大小写、标点的正确使用。

例文:

Why don?t we have a little rest?

I study in a middle school in countryside. Every day I get to school very early and go home very, very late. I have many lessons at school. I have many Chinese, English, and maths every day, but I have no music or art lessons now. I have many hobbies and I like sports very much, but I have too much homework after school. I even have no spare time to rest at weekends. I know it?s important for me to study hard but I really feel tired. I want to say, “Why don?t we have a little rest?” 例5:根据所给汉语提示和示意图,用英语写一篇80字以上的短文(邀请信)。提示如下:

假如你是李华,你和几个朋友约定星期天在人民公园野餐。你们英国朋友Pete应邀参加。

点评:本题是写应用文,但也属图示情景作文。首先要看懂图,找出所给的信息:公园正门在哪儿,经过哪条路,翻越哪座山,然后到什么地方。要注意用连接词;还要注意书写格式。

例文: March 19, 2006

Dear Pete,

Some friends and I decide to have a picnic in the People?s Park on Sunday. We are very happy to invite you to join us. You can take a bus there first. From the gate, go along the road, cross the bridge and turn right, then go on walking, you can get to a hill, but you should walk around the hill, and then you will get to the small forest. We will have our picnic there. I hope you will come.

第三节 强化训练

一、文字情景作文

1. 根据中文提示和英文提示词语,写一篇意思连贯、符合逻辑的短文。所给英文提示词语必须全部用上。词数60个左右。

1)昨天晚上我和妈妈出去散步。

2)在路上我们遇见一个外国人。

3)他向我们询问去温泉饭店(the Hot Spring Hotel)的路。

4)我告诉他沿着此路往前走,在第三个十字路口向左拐就能看见饭店。

5)他非常感谢我,我也为能帮助他而感到高兴。

提示词语:go out for a walk, on the road, the way to, walk along, on the left, thank for, be happy that

2. 请以“How to Protect Eyes”为题,写一篇80个词左右的短文,说明保护视力的重要性及主要措施。

要求包括下列内容:

1)用眼时间不宜过长。

2)读书时,眼睛与书保持一英尺左右的距离为宜。

3)不要在昏暗或强烈的光线下看书,也不要在车上或床上看书。

4)坚持每天做眼保健操。

3. 根据中文意思和英文提示词语,写出意思连贯、符合逻辑的英文句子,所给的英文提示词语必须都用上,所写的句数不限。

几年前我家只有一间小屋,我父母和我同住一间屋里真是艰难。现在我们已经搬进了一套两室一厅的单元房,我有自己的小房间,我非常高兴,我爱我的新家。

提示:

1) several years ago, family, have, one small room

2)it, three people, in the same room

3)now, a new flat (单元房), one living room, two bedrooms

4)be happy, my homework, quietly, my own room, my parents

4. 张楠的父亲有位美国同事,他的孩子约翰·史密斯即将来华。约翰写信向张楠询问一些有关他所在城市的问题。张楠回信,内容如下:

得知约翰要来非常高兴。告诉他可能遇到一些不同于美国的情况。

气候:冬天冷,有时下雪。夏天几乎不下雨,但一下起来就很大。提醒约翰带雨衣、棉衣。

饮食:饮食与美国很不同,他应尽力适应中国饮食,并要学会如何使用筷子。

最后,请他带一张美国地图,希望早日能见面。

字数:100—120个词。

5. 根据下列内容和提示,写一篇口头通知稿。

提示:

1) 事由:欢迎日本学生来校参观。

2) 参观日期:9月15日。

3) 参观时间:上午9:00至12:00。

4) 参观人数:约20人。

具体安排:

1) 9月15日上午8:45在校门口集合,欢迎来校参观的日本学生。

2) 带客人到接待室(reception room)开联欢会(get-together)。

3) 带客人参观图书馆、实验室和校办厂。

4) 11:30和日本学生在食堂共进午餐,并互赠小礼物。

5) 客人在12:00左右离开学校.

注意:

1) 通知稿须包括所给要点,但不要逐条翻译。

2) 字数:80—100个词。

6. 根据下列内容和提示,写出短文。 翰林汇提示:

李明在光明路一家中外合资公司买了一台电冰箱,使用半年后出现了问题。即向公司写信要求来人修理。内容如下:

1)去年我在你们商店买了一台电冰箱,外形和颜色我都很满意。

2)但是,最近发现电冰箱时常发出噪音,从低到高,有时甚至停止工作。

3)我们对此深感失望。希望能尽快派人来修理。来时请打电话联系。电话:6606.5531

我们将在家恭候。

7. 根据下列内容和提示,写一篇口头作文。翰林汇

提示:

几位外国旅游者到公园的“英语角”参观。假定你是“英语角”的负责人,请用英语准备一段介绍,内容如下:

1)简况:“英语角”三年前成立,许多中学生和外国友参加,至今已有几百人。

2)活动内容:练习英语会话,谈论有兴趣的话题,交流学习英语的经验。

3)活动时间:每周日上午。

4)效果:通过参加活动学习了许多东西,对英语课堂学习是一个补充。学生、家长、老

师都非常欢迎,认为对学英语很有帮助。如果还想了解更多,可问在场的学生。

参考词汇:

对??补充:a supplement to?

8.翰林汇 假设由你接待一组加拿大中学生代表团。该团经广州、成都等地在北京只逗留两天。团长向你征求意见在北京先参观何处,请按以下提示提出你的口头建议:

1)首先建议去长城。长城是世界是最长的墙,是世界八大奇观之一,有20个世纪的悠

久历史,全部由手工建成,令人惊叹不已。

2)其次是故宫,它建于1406年,曾有24位皇帝在那儿居住过。皇帝在那儿发号施令。

参观它,可以更多地了解中国历史。

3)对其逗留时间短暂深感遗憾,否则,可以参观许多具有历史意义的地方和景区,如

颐和园、北海公园等。

参考词汇:

发号施令:issue orders

令人惊奇:amazing翰林汇

9. 假设你是你校京剧爱好者协会的成员,在一次同英国中学生代表团的联欢活动中,你协会将出一个京剧节目。在演出前,由你向外国朋友介绍京剧的由来,按以下提示介绍:

1) 京剧在中国很受欢迎,历史悠久,有200年历史,在清朝乾隆年间,乾隆对地方剧

有兴趣。

2) 1790年,为庆祝乾隆80岁生日,他召集各地方剧团来京为他演出,4个来自安徽

的剧团在庆典后留在北京。

3) 1828年,一个湖北剧团来京,在京常与安徽剧团一起演出,两种唱派合在一起,逐

渐形成了一种新剧种,被称为京剧。

4) 下面演出开始,希望朋友们喜欢。

参考词汇:

地方剧:local opera

乾隆年间:the reign of Qianlong

表演:perform

剧团:troupe

10. 李华父亲的朋友陈伟是在美国居住多年的华裔。因陈伟的儿子陈小明明年要来大陆李华学校学汉语,陈小明来信询问学校情况,以下是小华回信的内容。

1) 听说你明年来我校学习,我们很高兴。

2) 我校是一所具有80年历史的老学校。

3) 学校很美,有许多花草树木,两座教学大楼,一座宿舍楼。

4) 学校设备优良,有体育馆、计算机室和大图书馆等。学生除正式课程外,还有许多

选修课,如:油画、打字、烹调等。

5) 最重要的是,学校有许多优秀教师,课程有趣,老师既有知识又和蔼,非常愿意帮

助我们,我爱我们的学校,我真希望你也能喜欢我们的学校。

参考词汇:

选修课:elective

体育馆:gym

宿舍楼:dormitory building

11. 写信向友人介绍作家鲁迅。

魏明的美国朋友杰克开始学习中国文学,来信询问鲁迅其人及作品。魏明回信介绍鲁迅:

1) 鲁迅是著名的中国作家。他不仅是作家,思想家,而且还是中国现代文学的开创者。

2) 他的小说被译成多种文字,并被制成电影,如《阿Q正传》、《祝福》这两部影片

深刻地揭露了旧社会。毛主席对他有高度评价。他的一些作品还被选入了中学和大

学课本。

3) 认为读鲁迅作品对他很有益处。

参考词汇:

创始人:Founder

中国文学:Chinese Literature

阿Q正传:The True Story of AH Q

祝福:The New Year?s Sacrifice

12. 提示:为引进外资,进一步加快你家乡A城改革开放。你向一位外商介绍你家乡A城。

1) A城是一新开发的经济特区。它是一座具有三十万人口的临海小城。

2) 解放前是一个小渔村,以渔业为主,没有工业,只有几所小学。

3) 改革开放以来,许多外商到这里投资,经济增长很快,建立了许多大工厂、一个大

港口。港口与国内外许多城市连接。

4) 教育有很大的发展,建立了该城第一所大学。已有三千人从该校毕业。我相信,A

城在不久的将来将更加现代化。

参考词汇:

投资:invest

经济开发区:an economic-zone

港口:port

二、表格情景作文

1. 你班班委会决定将于6月18日上午举行初三离校前的最后一次班级活动。假如你是班长,请你根据表格中

说明:

1) 请自行设计表格中“其它”的内容,所设计的内容必须具体、合理;

2) 要求语言连贯,条理清楚;

3) 词数:70左右(不包括已给出的短文的开头和结尾)。

Our class is going to have a farewell party on the morning of June 18. ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. At 11:30, the party will be over.

2. 以Different Cities, Different Weather 为题,根据下列表格写一篇英语短文,比较一下北京和上海的四季气候特点。

3. 请根据表格所提示的内容,写一篇短文,记述暑假中的一次郊游(outing)活动。

生词:交换exchange vt.

5. 假设你在外贸洽谈会上碰到一位来字自澳大利亚的商人Bill Smith,你从他那里了解到下列表格中的情况,请根据以下表格的信息用英语写一篇介绍他的短文。

参考词汇:start (开办), finish one?s studies, the Garden City, live a better life

6. 请根据三年级四个班的运动会成绩表,用英语写一篇小短文,描述每个班的运动成绩(包括名词,参加项目情况等)。

1)要求依次说明,按序描述;

2)不遗漏要点;

3)词数60---80。

)

7. 假如今天你到上海的一家超市购物,遇见一群英国游客,在交谈中他们谈到明天想去上海动物园参观,向你打听该园的门票价格和开放时间。请你根据下面表格中的内容向他们作简要介绍,并顺便提醒他们一些你认为参观时应注意的事项。词数不少于80,首句不计入中词数。

参考词汇:the ticket for…, children over 1.20 meters in height, for free (免费), feed (喂), get close, touch, dangerous, clean

8. 假定你叫张强,从报上看到北京招聘2008奥运会志愿者(a volunteer for the 2008 Olympics) 的广告。现写封简短的应聘信,介绍自己情况(见下表),表示愿意为奥运会做一些工作,请组委会考虑并尽早予以答复。 注意:词数70左右。信的开头和结尾已给出。

June 22, 2006

9. 你校下学期将聘请一名外籍教师,请根据下表提供的信息,用英语以日记的形式记述这事并写出你的愿望。 10. 假如你叫张明,你的美国笔友Tony 打算暑假来你市旅游,他想了解一下你市东方海滩的情况。请你根据以下信息,给他写一封80---100词的e-mail。

参考词汇:1. 东方海滩East Beach 2. (沙子)细的fine 3. 适合------be suitable for… 4. 更衣室dressing room 11. 假如昨天你们班级以“Shall we keep animals in zoos?”为题开了一次讨论会,请根据下表用英语写一篇60

12. (To be a lovely Laobagangese)”为题写一小段约80词的英文,作一分钟演讲。内容提示如下: 注意:1)短文80---100词,须包括以上所有提示内容:

2)第3点须根据自己的认识,从两个方面自由发挥,保证有足够的内容

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