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中考书面表达及其解题方法

发布时间:2013-12-13 14:33:34  

中考书面表达及其解题方法

【考点扫描】

书面表达是每年中考必考题型,是考查学生交际能力的一个重要组成部分。书面表达通常有三种形式:

1、书信、日记、通知、留言、假条;

2、看图作文;

3、根据汉语提示作文。

无论是那一种书面表达形式,考生所写的短文都要紧扣主题、文理通顺,要素完整,语言准确、得当、格式正确、无大、小写和拼写错误,标点符号正确,能达到交际目的。

【名师解难】

一. 训练方法

1. 记。认真系统复习和背诵基础知识和优美的句子、句型。中国有句古话,叫“熟读唐诗三百首,不会吟诗也会作”。同样,要使自己具有较强的写作能力,首先应该熟读和背诵一些句型和短文。许多同学写出来的语言根本不符合英语的语言习惯,相当一部分人有对照中文逐字翻译的不良习惯,不去理会中英文的差异。大量的背诵和阅读是提高写作能力的有效办法,同学们若有大量的现成语言积累在脑海里,自己写起文段来,就可以做到脱口而出,或是模仿、套用,甚至发挥。

2. 练。每练一篇书面表达题,都要真正学到一点东西,不可贪多而边学边忘。平时可以采用循序渐进、灵活多样的练习方式。从根据提示词写单句开始,到写单句,然后到写几句话,最后到写流利的文段。尽量尝试多种形式的写作,如短信、说明、通知、便条、明信片、看图写作、根据表格或记录写短文等。

3. 写。要进行实战写作。要求自己在20分钟内写出100个词的短文,并且质量高、内容全、形式正确。这样形成习惯,考试时就能得心应手。

二. 应试策略

1. 审题目:要切中题意。《中考考试说明》指出,书面表达要切中题意。怎样才能切中题意?就是要认真审题,看到考题后,先不要急于动笔,要仔细看清题目要求的内容。在自己的头脑中构思出一个框架或画面,确定短文的中心思想,不要匆匆下笔,看懂题意,根据图画、图表、提纲或短文提供的资料和信息来审题。审题要审格式、体裁、人物关系、故事情节、主体时态、活动时间、地点等。

2. 圈要点:防止遗漏要点。要点是给分的一个重要因素。为了防止写作过程中遗漏要点,同学们要充分发挥自己的观察力,把情景中给出的各个要点逐条列出。

3. 列提纲:为写作做好准备。根据文章要点短文的中心思想将主要句型、关键词语记下,形成提纲。

4. 定基调:定出时态、人称、顺序、开头、结尾。

5. 写全文:写短文时要做到以下六个方面:

(1)避免使用汉语式英语,尽量使用自己熟悉的句型。几种句型可交替使用,以避免重复和呆板。

1

(2)多用简单句型,记事、写人一般都不需要复杂的句型。可适当多使用陈述句、一般疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。不用或少用非谓语或情态动词等较复杂的句型。

(3)注意语法、句法知识的灵活运用。

1)语态、时态要准确无误。

2)主谓语要一致,主语的人称和数要和谓语一致。

3)注意人称代词的宾格形式。

4)注意冠词用法,例如: He is an honest student.中的an不能写成a。

5)注意拼写、标点符号和大小写,例如:receive, believe, fourteen, forty, ninth, restaurant等。

(4)描写人物时,要生动具体,例如:

1)外表特征:tall, short, fat, thin, strong, weak, ordinary-looking 等。

2)服饰颜色:red, yellow, blue, white, green, brown, black 等。

3)内心境界:glad, happy, sad, excited, anxious, interested 等。

4)感情描写:love, like, hate, feel, laugh, cry, smile, shout 等。

5)动作描写:come, go, get, have, take, bring, fetch 等。

(5)上下文要连贯。上下文的连贯性也是评分的一条原则,因此同学们应把写好的句子,根据故事情节,事情发生的先后次序(时间或空间),使用一些表示并列、递进等过渡词进行加工整理,使文章连贯、自然、流畅。同学们应注意下面过渡的用法:

1)表示并列关系的:and, as well as, or… 2)表示转折关系的:but, yet, however… 3)表示时间关系的:when, while, after, before, then, after that…

4)表示因果关系的:so, therefore ,as a result… 5)表示目的的:in order to, in order that , so as to, so that… 6)表示列举的:for example , such as… 7)表示总结性的:in general, in all, in a word, generally speaking…

(6)不会表达,另辟蹊径。中考作文给分是以要点和语言准确度而定,不以文采打分。造句越简单准确越好,造复合句容易出错,容易被扣分,阅卷场上有句话:“错误面前人人平等,文采好不加分”。如遇到个别要点表达不出来或难以表达,可采用变通的办法,化难为易,化繁为简。总之,所造句子要正确、得体、符合英语表达习惯。

(6)改病句:认真检查,改正错误。中考作文时,由于时间紧、内容多,同学们出错在所难免。因此,改错这一环节必不可少。中考作文评卷是根据要点、语言准确性、上下文的连贯性来给分,根据错误多少来扣分。因此,中考时花几分钟时间用来检查错误显得尤为重要。检查错误应从以下几个方面入手:

1)格式是否有错。

2)拼写有无错误。

3)语言是否用错。

4)时态、语态错误。

5)标点错误。

6)人称是否用错。

三. 注意事项

书面表达要特别注意书写工整,卷面整洁。每年阅卷老师在十来天的时间里要看十几万考生的作文,工作量之大,时间之紧,可想而知。书写是否工整,卷 2

面是否整洁与得分高低直接有关。

【中考范例】

(2004年陕西省中考试题)

VII. 书面表达(共1题,计10分)

假如你叫张强。请根据下面美国朋友Bob的来信内容,结合你自己的情况写一篇语言连惯、符合逻辑的英文回信。

要求:1. 认真阅读来信的内容,从中获得你需要的信息。

2. 词数:80左右。回信的开头、结尾已给出,但不计入总词数。

注意:回信中不得出现你的真实地址和所在学校的名称。

Dear friend,

Hello!I’m your new friend. My name is Bob. I’m fifteen. I’m American. I live in New York.

I am a middle school student. I’m good at maths. It is very interesting. My favourite sport is basketball. And I am not only a basketball fan but also a good player. I like pop music. My friends and I often sing pop songs together.

After school, I am interested in getting on-line. I have known a lot about China from the Internet. Now I’m learning Chinese. I hope I will visit your country one day.

Please write to me and tell me something about your life. I’m looking forward to hearing from you.

Yours,

Bob

Dear Bob,

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Yours, Zhang Qiang

【解析】根据前面提到第六个步骤,我们来写一下这篇书面表达。

1.审题目:通过审题目我们可以知道:本篇书面表达应是写一封回信,写信人是张强,收信人是Bob,信的内容应是介绍张强自己的情况。

2. 圈要点:根据来信判断,写回信必须包括以下要点:1、收到对方的来信;2、愿意和对方交朋友;3、自己的姓名、年龄和住址;4、自己的身份、特长和爱好; 5、自己的希望。

3、列提纲:1. got your letter 2. glad to be your friend 3. name, zhang Qiang, fifteen, live in Shaanxi 4. a middle school student, like English, like sports, good at drawing, 5. hope we’ll meet in China

4、定基调:1. 时态:收到来信用一般过去时,介绍情况用一般现在时,希望用一般将来时。2. 人称用第一人称。3.可按提纲的顺序来写。4. 开头和结尾题目已经给出。

5、写全文:

Dear Bob,

3

I got your letter yesterday. I’m very glad to be your pen friend. My name is Zhang Qiang. I’m fifteen years old, too. I live in Shaanxi.

I’m a middle school student, too. I like English and physics very much. I also like sports, but I’m good at drawing. I know a little about America. Could you tell me something more about your country in your next letter?

I hope we’ll meet in China some day. I’m sure we’ll have a good time together. Please write (to) me soon.

Yours,

Zhang Qiang

6、改病句:认真复查一边,如有错误,加以改正。

【满分演练】

(1)

华山是中国名山之一。假设外国友人到你校参观后,准备去旅游。请根据以下 要点向外国友人简单介绍华山(the Hua Mountain)

1.位于陕西东部,是中国著名的旅游胜地,每年有大批中外游客前去旅游观光。

2.乘汽车去大约要花1个小时;也可以乘火车去。

3.登山便可领略其云海(the sea of clouds)、奇松(wondrous pines)、怪石(unique rocks)等秀丽的风景及清晨美丽的日出。

注意:

1.字数:80词左右。2.请不要逐字

(2)

根据中文意思和英文提示词语,写出意思连贯、符合逻辑的英文文段。所给英文提示词语必须都用上,中文提示内容不必逐句翻译,每组英文提示所写出的句数不限。

今天是6月23日星期日,天气晴朗。你和你的同学张宏参观了西安市动物园。那里的动物十分有趣,人见人爱。当你看到有位游客在向猴子投喂食物时,就上前阻止并说……

请你用英文写一篇日记,记述今天的经历。(请注意日记格式)

1.fine day, sun, bright

2.visit, Beijing Zoo

3.animal, so interesting, people, love

4.see, visitor, throw…to, stop, say

4

(3)

根据中文设置的情景、英文提示词语以及表格所提供的信息,写出语法正确、意思连贯、符合逻辑的英文文段。

注意1. 字数60~80。

2. 所给的英文提示词语及表格所提供的信息必须都用上。(可适当发挥)

3. 发言稿的开头和结尾已给出。

假设你是张斌,今年暑假你将参加学校组织的赴加拿大“绿色之旅”夏令营活动。请你准备一篇在开营式上的自我介绍发言稿。

I’m very glad to introduce myself to you.That’s all. Thank you for listening.

 (4)

请你参考图文提示,写一篇60~80词的短文。

注意:1. 语言规范,语意完整,内容丰富。

2. 表达符合图意,书写规范。

3. 给出自己的观点。

4. 文章的开头已给出。

参考词:pollute, turn off the tap(水龙头),dry, save(节约 vt.), water resources(水资源)

From the pictures we know that _______________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5

(5)

看图写话。

要求:1. 根据图画所提供的语境,写出意思连贯、语言流畅、语法准确、符合逻辑的短文。 2. 至少使用两种时态,70词以上。不得使用真实姓名、地名、学校名。

3. 标题和第一句已给出,但不计入70词之内。

TAKING CARE OF TREES

One day Lin Tao and Mei Mei were playing in the garden.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(6)

根据所给图画用英语写一篇约80词的短文。

注意:1. 短文内容要包括所有图画中的主要内容

2. 词数:70~90

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6

(7)

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(8)

假如你叫小明。下面的图画讲述了你和一位男孩在上周发生的事情。请根据图画写出一篇日记。日记的开头已经给出(不计人字数)。

要求:1

.日记应包括图画中所有内容。 2.词数:70-90词。

Friday June 2, 2003 Fine

Last Monday, I went to school in the morning______________________________________ 7

_____________________________________________________________________________ .________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(9)

假如你叫王林,是动物保护协会的一名成员。你经常利用节假日在动物园作义务导游员。你将为来自澳大利亚的中学生作导游,请你根据图示及英文提示词语写一个参观计划。

I , Wang Lin , a middle-school students , let ... tell , the plan for today , first , visit , the Lion Park , the Monkey Park , clever and lovely monkeys , walk to the Bird World , all kinds of birds , go to the Panda Park , not feed the animals ...

注意:1. 词数80左右;

2. 所给的英文提示词语及图示所提供的信息必须都用上(可适当发挥);

3. 参观计划的开头和结尾已为你写好.

Welcome to the zoo , everyone ! I’m glad to show you around the zoo . ________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Thank you ! I’m sure you’ll have a good time .

(10)

假如你陪你校的外籍教师Smith 先生去某音乐厅听音乐,在门口的布告栏里看见一张观众须知,内容如下:

观众须知

1.一人一票,凭票入场;

2. 场内严禁吸烟;

3. 食品和饮料请勿带进场内;

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4. 演出时请勿照相;

5. 演出时请勿使用传呼机和移动电话;

6.提前30分钟入场。

Smith 先生不懂中文,他很想知道布告栏里写着什么。现在,请你把观众须知的内容用英文告诉Smith 先生,并把要讲的话写下来。

注意:1. 开头部分已写好,只需接着写。但可增加适当的细节,使所写语言连贯。

2. 内容要点次序可根据你行文需要排列。

3.词数:70个左右。

4.提示词语,供你写作时参考:

allow , beeper , keep , be kept off , hall ,a mobile phone , smoke food , drink , ticket 。 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(11)

从下列物品中选择三、四件,结合以上所给问题,编写一个故事。(60—80词)

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(12)

根据三年级四个班的运动会成绩表,描述每个班的运动成绩(包括名次,项目等),要求字数60-80,参考生词和短语:mark分数;place名次;long-distance run长跑;short-distance run短跑。

9

In this sports meeting

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(13)

根据要求完成作文,词数60-80。必须用上所给的提示词。

虽然现在学习很忙,大家都在为即将到来的考试做准备,但你的好朋友王强仍然花很多的时间玩电脑,你劝他,他不听,这令你很烦恼,你不知道怎么办才好。

1. busy with the final exam 2. spend, play computer games 3. make, upset 4. ask , give up

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(14)

书面表达 10%

10

假如你是班长,因为有冷空气来临,你用英语向全班同学作预报,提醒他们要注意保暖。具体内容如下:(词数60词左右。)

1. 冷空气今夜到达本市;

2. 气温下降到零下7摄氏度;

3. 有强劲的大风,北部有大雪;

4. 多穿衣服;路滑,骑车要小心。 (第一句已经给出)

零下7摄氏度minus seven, 路滑slippery

May I have your attention, please?

(15)

假如你是一名导游,负责陪同外宾游览苏州。车子开到虎丘山(The Tiger Hill)门口时,你在车子上用英语向他们讲几点说明。内容如下,开头语已写好。

1. 在虎丘山逗留给小时,11点开车,请记住车号。

2. 下车时带好贵重物品(Valuable things),不要忘记关窗。

3. 要求大家跟你一起参观。

4. 祝大家玩得愉快。

Ladies and gentlemen,we are now at the gate of The Tiger Hill.__________________________

(16)

根据提示的内容写短文。

多年前,村后山上的树木被大量砍伐,林中的白鹭飞走了。近年来,人们不再砍树,相反积极植树造林。山变绿,人变富,提示又飞回来了。

提示词:village,mountain,cut,egret(白鹭),fly away,plant,cover…with,instead,rich

(17)

学校要举办一个讲座(lecture),请根据以下内容写一个通知(announcement)。

1. 时间:4月报16日,星期二,下午4:10。

2. 地点:c幢3楼会议室。

11

3. 演讲者:来自英国的中学英语老师格林夫人。

4. 内容:英国学生的学习和生活。

5. 可准备些问题,格林夫人在讲座后将回答学生提问。

(18)

假如你是Dick Smith,请根据海报内容,发一个E—mail给John Brown,邀请他与你一起去观看比赛。要求:语句准确,流畅。内容要点完整。邮件首句已给出。

A MATCH

Time:Feb.20 3:30p.m.

Place:the second soccer field

Item:a football match

Teams:Class 1,Grade 2

Vs

Class5,Grade 3

NO.19 Middle School

Hi,John Brown,

(19)

你校计划组织一次社会实践活动(a social practice activity),请你根据下面表格中所提供的内容写一份英语通知。

12

(20)

我国已获得2008年奥运会举办权,为了让全校师生对奥运会有更多的了解,苏州第一中学

【练习答案】

(1)

参考答案:

The Hua Mountain is one of the most famous mountains in China. It lies in the east of Shaanxi. Every year thousands of Chinese and foreigners pay a visit there. It’s not far from here. It takes you about one hour to get there by bus. You can also go there by train. When you are at the top of the mountain, you’ll find clouds, wondrous pines and unique rocks around you. In the early morning when the sun rises, the sky looks very beautiful. It’s really a nice place to visit.

(2)

Sunday June 23rd

It was a fine day today and the sun was bright. I visited Xi’an Zoo with my classmate, Zhang Hong. The animals there were so interesting that all the people loved them. When I saw a visitor throwing food to the monkeys, I went/ran to stop him/her and said, “Animals are our friends and we must take good care of them.”

(3)

Dear friends,

I’m very glad to introduce myself to you. My name is Zhang Bin. I’m fifteen years old. I live in Beijing. One of my favorite subjects is biology. I’m interested in drawing. In my free time, I often go camping, draw some pictures of plants, and enjoy the singing of birds in nature. I want to be a biologist when I grow up.

I feel lucky to join you. I hope we can be good friends and do our best to make That’s all. Thank you for listening.

(4)

From the pictures we know that much water has been polluted. Some factories are pouring waste water into rivers and lakes. The water becomes dirty and lots of fish have died. Many people often waste water. For example, they often forget to turn off the taps. If we don’t have enough water, land will be dry and crops will die. We can’t 13

live without water. So we should try our best and encourage everyone to protect water resources. We must save water and stop polluting it. If we do that, Things will be much better.

(5)

TAKING CARE OF TREES

One day Lin Tao and Mei Mei were playing in the garden. They found that a young tree there was dying. They thought they must save the young tree. Then they put a rope around the tree and watered it. Some days later the tree came back to life again. Their mother saw this and praised them, “You are good children!”

(6)

Yesterday afternoon Li Ping and I were going to school. On the way we saw an old woman crossing the street. Suddenly a car passed by very fast. The old woman was frightened and fell down to the ground. The apples in her basket were all out on the street. Immediately, we ran to the old woman, helped her get up and picked up all the apples. Li Ping helped her carry the basket and I helped her cross the street. The old woman thanked us very much.

(7)

.要点及分数:

1 when your best birthday was (2分)

2 what activities you had and where (3分)

3 describing one of the presents you got (5分)

4 why you thought it was the best birthday (5分)

(8)

Friday June 2, 2003 Fine Last Monday, I went to school in the morning. When I was at the school gate, I saw a boy fell off his bike and lay on the road. He was badly hurt and couldn't move, so I carried him to the hospital. When he was in hospital, I visited him with some flowers and he was very happy. After he was fine, he came to the school and said to me, "Thank you very much , Xiao Ming." But I said, "Not at all. I just did something that I should do".

(9)

Welcome to the zoo , everyone ! I’m glad to show you around the zoo . I’m Wang Lin . I’m a middle-school student . Let me tell you our plan for today . First , we will visit the Lion Park . Next is the Monkey Park . There are clever and lovely monkeys . Then we will walk to the Bird World where all kinds of beautiful birds are waiting for us . You can see all kinds of birds there . After that , we’ll go to the Panda Park (which is world-famous ) . Remember , don’t feed the animals . As animals are our friends , we should protect them and take care of them . (或:We should not only protect animals but also have them as friends .)

Thank you . I’m sure you’ll have a good time .

(10)

Mr Smith, it is a notice to the audience. It says that we should enter

the concert hall 30 minutes earlier before the concert starts. Entrance

to the hall is by ticket only, each one each ticket. As a rule, food

or drink should not be taken into the hall. Of course, smoking is not

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allowed in the hall, too. Please don't bring your digital camera with

you because no photos can be taken during the concert. And what is

more, beepers and mobile phones must be kept off during the concert.

(11)

A Trip

I went hiking to a mountain with my friends last summer. It was a good trip at the beginning but something unexpected happened on the half way. One of my friends suddenly felt a terrible pain in his stomach and he couldn’t move any further. Nobody knew what to do. One girl tried to call her mum with her mobile phone but there was no signal in the mountain area. Luckily we brought a tent with us. We put it up and let him rest in it . He took some medicine. Then he drank some water, and ate some food. After a while, he felt much better and we walked on . We all enjoyed ourselves on the top of the mountain.

(12)

In the sports meeting , Class Four won the first place. Their mark is 27.Class One and Class Two got the same mark , 21.Class One did better in the short-distance race than Class Two did .But Class Two won the first place in the long -distance race .And Class One’s results of the relay race and high jump are better than Class Two’s .Class Three’s mark is 8.Their results are the worst of the four.

(13)

The final exam is coming. Everyone is busy with it. We are studying hard. But my close friend, Wang Qiang, spends most of his time playing computer games. I talked to him about it for several times, but he didn’t listen to me. I am very upset and worried. Can I talk about it to our teacher or his parents? I’m not sure if it will work. (Or: I don’t know if it is the best way to help him.

(14)

May I have your attention, please?

According to the weather report on TV, a terrible cold storm will hit our city tonight. The temperature will drop to minus seven. There will be strong wind. It will snow heavily in the north of our city. Please wear more warm clothes tomorrow. The road will be slippery with thick snow on it. So be careful when you ride bikes.

That’s all. Thank you.

(15)

Ladies and Gentlemen, we are now at the gate of the Tiger Hill. Before we got off the bus, I’ll have something to tell you. We will stay at the Tiger Hill for 3 hours, then we will leave here at 11 o’clock in the morning. When you get off the bus, please take your valuable things with you and don’t forget to close the windows.

Please follow me to visit the hill. I’ll tell you some interesting stories about the hill.

I wish you to have a good time. That’s all. Thank you.

(16)

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Many years ago, there are lot’s of trees in the mountain behind the village. But most of the trees were cut down by the villagers. Things became worse. The egrets had nothing to eat and flew away. These years the villages don’t cut trees any longer. Instead they plant many trees. The mountain is covered with trees. People is becoming richer and richer, and egrets fly back again.

(17)

Announcement

Mrs Green , a teacher of English from a middle school in England ,will give us a lecture about the life and study of English students. The lecture will begin at 4:10 on the afternoon of April 16 , Tuesday. It will be given in the meeting room on the third floor o f Building C. After the lecture , Mrs Green will be glad to answer some questions made by us students. Those who are interested in the topic(话题)can get your questions ready for her to answer

(18)

Hi,John Brown,

I have a piece of good news for you, There is going to be a football match

thon the school soccer field on Feb 20 . It will start at half past three in the

afternoon. The match is between Class1, Grade2 of our school and Class5, Grade3 of No.19 Middle School. The football team of Class1 is the strongest in our school. I think it will be an exciting match. Would you like to go and watch it with me? I hope you will.

Please write to me soon.

Yours,

Dick Smith

(19)

Attention please everyone!

I have something important to tell you. Our school is going to have a social

thpractice activity on Wednesday, September 20. We will go to No.1 Car Factory. In

the morning we will visit the workshops in it. In the afternoon we will work together with the workers. We are going to meet at the school gate at 7:00 in the morning, then we will take a school bus to go there. Pleasetake your lunches and drinks with you and don’t be late.

(20)

There is going to be a talk in No.1 Middle School for both teachers and students. Mr.Johnson will give the talk. It is mainly about the history of Olympics. The talk

stwill be given from 7:00 to 9:00on the night of June 1,2003 in the Multi_media

Teaching Classroom. We really hope that all the teachers and students will go and listen to the talk in order to know more about Olympics.

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