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英语作文扩写

发布时间:2013-12-27 12:41:07  

英语 作文 托福——第一课:托福作文的基本情况

第一课 托福作文的基本情况

主讲:庄重

一、托福作文的评分系统

1、global scoring;

2、按照分数的档次来对分数进行微调的模式(微调范围:±1分);

3、作文给评卷老师的基本印象决定档次分;

4、“不能在关键的地方犯恶心的错误”

(1)关键的地方:各段句首、文章末句

(2)恶心的错误:主谓不一致、时态问题(16种时态)、名词单复数问题

5、得0分的条件:不写、写中文、偏题很夸张(―评卷老师喜欢被轻微调戏的感觉‖)

6、“紧扣提纲、紧扣要求”:怎么问就怎么答(基本能得3+)

二、如何取悦评卷人:主观题

1、射中阅卷老师的―Achilles' Heel‖

2、满分作文的基本特征:

(1)清晰的整体脉络——结构

(2)自然的段间衔接——逻辑关系

(3)经典的用词造句

3、如何使用经典的用词造句

(1)动词的使用最能体现水平:n不能升级,v有时态变化,不可或缺

E.g. 吃:eat× consume√ 先consume后eat是可以的(动词的重复是最可悲的)

E.g.展示:demonstrate ! show

“英语写作的表达之美在于用不同的单词表达相同的含义。”

(2)方法:注意近义词的积累(辨析、记录、造句能力)

E.g. 好的:fantastic /terrific /glorious/ perfect/ superb

(3)好的用句(只在英语中有的,汉语中没有的句式)最地道的句子

①It作形式主语/宾语:It is easy to learn English.

至少在文章中要写出这样一句话!!

②There be 句型:真正的大厨能将―白菜‖炒出―肉味‖

③倒装、强调、虚拟等句型

(4)名人名言的使用

①不准使用chinglish

②千万不能乱编(―锦上添花‖而已,能写就写)

③死穴:xxx said ×:直接引语

xxx believed √:观点、思想(但写特别出名的人,如林肯,的观点和思想的时候要谨慎)④可用于道德、爱心等高端话题时能引用的两个人:康德(Kant)和尼采(Nietzsche) e.g. Kant believed that……

三、文化差异对托福应试写作的影响

1、必须要有清晰的结构

(1)观点鲜明的开头:美、中、俄三种思维方式(e.g.借橡皮上的直线思维、螺旋状和曲线)

(2)紧扣主题的结尾:点题

(3)有主题句引导的衔接自然的中间段落:每段的第一句必须是核心句

2、必须要有统一的中心:美国人的思维是―A或非A‖,中国人是太极——白中有黑、黑中有白E.g. Can Money Buy Happiness?

有了钱,就能买10辆BMW,不同颜色的;

有了钱,就能在北京买1000平米的别墅;

有了钱,就能娶个像孙燕姿一样的老婆;

3、必须要有自然的衔接

(1)中文:意合语言——用意义的方式组合的语言,重意不重形;

1

英文:形合语言——重形不重意——类似―八股文‖

(2)―逻辑关系显性化‖:不能省略逻辑关系词

E.g.你走吧,because我不爱你了

外国人永远也不能理解中国的唐诗宋词的原因:例如李清照的《如梦令》

(3)衔接的技巧:

①使用重复词:概括重复、直接重复和齐头重复

A、概括重复

E.g. 第一段写北京的环境的变化

第二段开头:B、直接重复:例如文章都以Money开头

C、齐头重复:E.g. I have a dream……

②使用序数词:firstly, secondly……

③使用关联词:并联关系(and/or)、因果关系(because, since)、递进关系(what is more/ in addition/further/more)、转折关系(but/ however)和让步关系(although/ though)

E.g. Because of the heavy rain, he developed a high fever, and thus had to sleep at home. His absence resulted in the reduction of his pay.

*让步关系与转折关系的区别:转折是对某一个结论的否定,让步是对某一个正常推理的结果的否定;让步要比转折好,因为它体现一种民主(I don’t like her, but that is her life.)

E.g. It is true that…, but…

(4)左右:遣词造句能力的提升(把单词变成短语;不要写简单句)

E.g. They are poor. They are hungry.

They suffer from poverty. They struggle against starvation.

They suffer from poverty, struggling against starvation.

(5)右手:思维方式的改变(写作不是翻译,是思维的产物)

―你脑海中浮现的第一句话必然是最烂的。‖

E.g. We don’t tell others all the secrets.

We don’t let others know all the secrets.

We hide some secret from others.

Everyone has privacy.

四、平时训练写作水平的方法

1、写作的三个层次

(1)手中有文章,心中无文章;

(2)手中无文章,心中有文章;

(3)手中无文章,心中无文章;

2、只有先Input才能Output

(1)Reading:报纸、杂志(China daily、21st Century、《新东方英语》中学版 )

E.g. ―没戏‖:I will think about it.

―如慈母般的关怀着我‖:She mothers me.(黛安娜王妃的弟弟在葬礼上的悼词)

―时光飞逝‖:My sands sneak swiftly.(借喻、拟人、押头韵的修辞格)

(2)Reciting:单词、短语、文章

①背单词:很重要,但要注意技巧,―多背多记,少背少得‖;

②背课文:新概念英语第三册:60篇→新概念英语第四册→俞敏洪托福100句(特难)

“成功的方法很简单,简单到好象每个人都能找到;但成功又很难,难在很少有人能坚持下来。” ③看电影:20遍《阿甘正传》、20遍《狮子王》、2遍《老友记》

E.g. a person is valued for what he is ,not for what he has.

No是绝对没有,Not yet是现在还没有,但就快有了;

Go to it, find yourself and be yourself.

(3)观察生活,勤于记录

E.g. 《美是主观的》:美感的刺激

Love is playing every game as if it were the last one.

2

Love is spending every day with you as if it were the last day.

To the world, maybe you are just one person, but someone who loves you, you are the whole world. 英语 作文 托福——第二课:作文的结构

第二课 托福作文的结构

*《新托福考试官方指南》P267—281

一、四类题型(前两类合称观点类,后两类合称阐释类)

1、Agree or disagree:同意 e.g. 孙燕姿很美丽。同意还是不同意?

2、A or B:二选一 e.g. 科学家对人类的贡献大还是艺术家的贡献大?

3、Compare and contrast:比较

4、Persuasive:阐释

二、观点类作文的写作

(1)第一段:存在分歧

①There is no consensus(一致的观点)among people as to(对于)such an argument[注意不要写成arguement]: …

②Some people 认为 (第一个档次think/ believe /consider/ argue)

[更高档次 claim/hold/ emphasize/ …]真正用的时候倒过来用!!

(对于第一人称I,最好的搭配是I believe …)

③ ,while others may not agree。

e.g.:对于是住在城市还是农村,第一段是这样的:

There is no consensus among people as to such an argument:where to live-in the city or in the country. Some people maintain that …, while others may not agree.

(2)第二段:加上我的观点

①―我认为‖——From my personal angle alone,

②―同意‖的几种说法:Agree with :客观同意

Side with :主观偏袒

E.g. I had to side with him, but I agree with you.

③The former/latter point coincides with mine (与我不谋而合)

④列举reasons:3个

For one thing,……(句子). For another,……. What is more,…….

On one hand,……. On the other hand,……. Moreover,…….

⑤Therefore, I can take it for granted (不言而喻)that…

总结起来说,第二段是这样的:

From my personal angle alone, the former/latter point coincides with mine.

For one thing,……. On one hand,…….

For another,……. 或者 On the other hand,…….

What is more,……. Moreover,…….

Therefore, I can take it for granted that….

(3)第三段:总结,综上所诉

第三段要这样写:

From what has been discussed above, we may reasonably draw a conclusion that…

当然可以举出几点原因,但一定要简单。字数够了的话就不要举了。

(4)第四段:喊口号结尾

① 倒装句喊口号法:Only…, can we….

E.g.: Only in this way, can we have a bright future.

② 虚拟语气喊口号法:It is high time that + 一般过去时 (这真是到了现在该做……的时候了) E.g.: It is high time that we should protect the environment.

③ 名人名言喊口号法:

E.g. As an old saying goes, “….”

*改变是必要的:“所谓万能的东西一般不是最好的。”

其他几种开头:

3

E.g. ①For most of the time, we are always on the arduous journey in seeking for the answer of this question:….

②My answer is yes/no, simple yet candid.

其他几种结尾:

E.g. ①环境类 The environment should be of the people, by the people and for the people. (环境应该是名有,名有治,名享的)

②父母子女关系 Love your parents in time, for we can never reply from paradise.

Love your parents in time, there is a fault called miss. (有一种过错叫错过)这句话可以在国内考试里用。 ③爱心话题 Maybe the individual influence of any effort of belief would not be any output(影响)

because of its inborn limit, but the society can be and should be more mutually considerate among every single soul.

三、阐释类作文写作

①提纲比较随意;结构没有观点类文章那么固定,观点类可以准备的八九不离十

②与前一种文体有千丝万缕的联系;

*五种分类:举(现象)、说(原因)、谈(感受)、论(影响)、提(建议)

*谈感受与观点类作文没有区别;

1、举现象

(1)注意举例词

单举:For example, …

For instance…

A case in point… 【……is a case in point; A case in point is……】

连举:For example… and… also… even

E.g.在广州街上,钱包被人抢了,掏出手机报警手机也被抢了,他还回头冲我笑,说有种你来追我→广州治安很不好

(2)把握逻辑关系

E.g. 贝多芬的母亲

How I finance my college education?

问家里要;贷款;打工

2、说原因

There are many reasons for such a phenomenon. [注意衔接]

升级之后这句话变为:A number of factors give rise to such a phenomenon.这就是托福史上说原因最精彩的一句话。但是要注意,give rise to带有贬义,对于举不好的现象非常合适;如果是好现象,建议改为 contribute to .

说完之后呢,就要展开来举这些原因了:

For one thing, …For another, … What’s more,…

当然展开之后不要忘记总结:

Therefore, all these reasons lead to the phenomenon.注意,前面是用give rise to,现在就要换成其他的啦

3、谈感受(与―观点类‖同)

4、论影响

展开来讲的部分都差不多,都是For one thing…For another…What’s more…,差异就在第一句话! 第一句话The influence of … has become more obvious at the moment.

接着展开For one thing…For another…What’s more…

5、提建议

一句特别好的开头:

There is no immediate solution to such a problem, but the following suggestions might be helpful.

*Might体现一种谦虚、客观、缓和的语气语调。

接着展开一样For one thing…For another…What’s more…

*总结:阐释类文章的万能开头的锻造

(1)with the rapid developments of modern society, …has been brought into focus recently.这句话用烂了,所以别再用了改一下吧。

4

(2)Because of/ Thanks to the rapid developments of modern society, …has been brought into focus recently.

四、记叙性段落的写作

1、记叙事件的五个因素

(1)必须要有深刻的中心内涵:思想和深度

E.g. Spring out→登山:Teamwork sprite

Team: Together Everyone Achieve More

*延伸:Family→Team→…

(2)副词的恰当使用

E.g. 骑马登玉龙雪山→Conquer

Unfortunately Leisurely(怡然自得地) Suddenly

(3)记叙文的六大要素:时间、地点、人物、事件的起因、经过、结果

(4)时态问题:通常采用一般过去时,若用到插叙,则采用过去完成时

(5)详略把握得当:与中心相关则详写,反之则略

整体轮廓上来说没有什么可以研究的,我们研究几个细节。

记叙片段的第一句话 曾几何时:There was a time when……

e.g. There was a time when we knew nothing about the world

拓展一下

现在某个时候:There is a time when…

王菲的《红豆》的托福作文版翻译:There are times when I can take it for granted that everything will come to the end.

往事如烟:The past has turned into ash.

尘归尘,土归土:Dust to dust, ash to ash.

2、记叙事物

(1)抓住被描述事物的本质特征

E.g. Air conditioner is a kind of machine which can cool the air.

Love is a kind of feeling that…

Roommate is a person who lives with you and shares everything with you.

Friendship is a kind of relation which involves sincerity, mutual trust, and self-sacrifice.

*You go your way and I go mine.

If you love somebody badly, let her goes freely.

(2)抓住描写顺序:时间顺序、空间顺序、逻辑顺序

3、记叙人物

(1)选材是记叙人物的核心

E.g.103题:Starting from failure

爱迪生 与 勾践

(2)人物要能引起共鸣

(3)要能说明问题

五、今日美句推荐

1、The environment should be of the people, by the people, and for the people.

环境应当是民有、民治、民享的。

2、Maybe the individual influence of any effort or belief would not be any output because of its inborn limit, but the society can be and should be more mutually considerate among every single soul.

也许每个人的努力和信仰由于与生俱来的局限性,将不会对社会造成任何的影响,然而社会能够并且应当在每一个灵魂之间构筑更多的相互关怀。

英语 作文 托福——第三课:升级句子的技巧和方式

第三讲(第三讲与第四讲主要是升级句子的一些技巧和方式!!)

1 定语从句与同位语从句的两大差别:

一:定语从句对名词起修饰和限定的作用

同位语从句对名词起解释说明的作用

二:定语从句去掉引导词必缺少一部分

同位语是完整的部分

5

什么样的名词在后面容易加上同位语的词:

Report ,idea , new , belief , fact , dream 即抽象名词易出现同位语

重组句子:

1 主句:they were not taken seriously

2 reports came into London zoo

3 a wild tiger had been spotted forty-five mlies south of London

每天寻找三个长难句拆开,七天后组合(新概念三册、新TOFEL真题阅读)

2 句子的拆分联系

3 feel obliged to 感到不得不做sth

用have to 标志 ----最熟悉的陌生人(用熟悉的英文标注生词)

4 ―,for ‖的使用方法 :表达因果关系最经典的方法

5 分词做后置定语:把定语从句变为现在分词作后置定语

注:不要通篇都是定语从句,要时不时用分词形式来做后置定语,显示你的句子结构的多样性 主动---现在分时,被动---过去分时

Prove 代替 am ,is ,are

A trail of 一串串 a trail of beautiful story

6 情诗:(五种让步)

无论你去哪里 wherever you go

无论你做什么 whatever you do

无论你爱的是谁 whoever you love

无论你何时归来 whenever you come back

无论那时你多老多丑 however old and ugly you are

我都会在此等待 I will be right here waiting for you

7 a number of = many =a lot of

Sb be fully convinced that = be sure

锻炼:set out to =start to离开某地去做某事

e.g : 记者们听说孙燕姿要去北京了,他们出发去获取这个新闻(两句话要能合并成一句话,用什么方法呢?)

Journalists hear that sun will come to BJ

They set out to obtain the new 你会发现这两句话的主语是同样的,那么前面我们说过:They suffer from poverty, struggling against starvation.这里也可以这样用。分词作伴随状语。

保留作者意图的句子作为主句

Hearing that sun will come to BJ, journalists set out to obtain the news

Hearing the news that sun will come to BJ, journalists set out to obtain it .(同位语)

以后见到news这样的抽象名词,要立刻反应过来要用同位语从句。

通过上面的例子,我们发现只有两句话的主语一致时我们才用到那种ing形式作伴随。那么如果前后两句话不是同一个主语,而你又想用伴随,那怎么办呢?

更深层次的应对方法:

我的boss 要求我去会客户,我立刻出发去做这件事情了

1 My boss asked me to visit a customer. I immediately left my office to do that.

2 My boss instructed me to visit a customer. I immediately set out to do that.

可以改成I was instructed to do something by my boss. ……由于是被动语态,所以用分词做伴随状语要用过去分词形式。

3 Instructed to visit a customer; I immediately set out to do that.

The editor was getting impatient , for the magazine ……

lost his patience

was running out of his patience

could not wait a second

Fail to:

英文中的否定很少.用not ,一般采用

1 no + 名词e.g. We have no chance……一般不用We do not have any chance.

6

2 nothing

3 fail to

女人常常被美丽的衣服所吸引

e.g.: women are usually attracted by beautiful clothes [美国人常用物来做主语,中国人常用人作主语] Beautiful clothes always catch women’s eyes [catch 不够正式]

Beautiful clothes fascinate women

Beautiful clothes never fail to fascinate women

Sth never fail to fascinate human beings 可作为开头

Affectionate 柔情似水

Passionate 激情的

Reasonable 理性的

我们对猫的生活不是很了解

e.g. :To cat’s life ,we have nothing

we don’t know much about a cat’s life

we know little about a cat’s life

Little do we know about a cat [当little seldom 等在句首时要倒装]

A cat’s life to us is a mystery

Learn to = get used to 习惯于

We have learned to …

Remain suspicious of… 对…保持怀疑每篇文章都能用上

Never remain suspicious of … 坚信

E.g. Some people never remain suspicious of the point that there is true love in the world(抽象名词+同位语从句)

One of the things that fascinate us most about cats is the popular belief that they have nine lives that1 为定语从句 that2 为同位语

网络是很重要的

遣词:People never remain suspicious of that point that the internet never fails to be important

造句:Internet, a way of communication, plays an important role in society[插入语的方式作为同位语,同位语未必是个句子]

思维方式的改变:People without internet are like flowers without sunshine.

英语 作文 托福——第四课:升级句子的技巧和方式

第四讲(第三讲与第四讲主要是升级句子的一些技巧和方式!!)

1 形式主语 & 形式宾语

2 方法:

虚拟语气

If I am you, I will stay here.

If I was you, I would stay here.

If I were you, I would stay here.

If I could have a dinner with him I would.

If you told me earlier, I would not do that.

If you had told we earlier, I would not have done that

虚拟语气的词汇:

Wish

e.g. Mr. Zhuang wishes his GF were beauty

gonna = going to wanna = want to

a glass of water

互文现象

The days would all be empty. The nights would seem so long.

―白天晚上都那么无聊空虚‖

The sky is blue and my heart is clam.

― 天空与我的心一样湛蓝而宁静‖

I have a dream that one day + 从句 我有这样的梦想有朝一日

7

情态动词

Must –may—might might 最好

I might have been in love before but it never felt this strong

―此情可待成追忆,只是当时已惘然‖

Hold me now, touch me now.

Touch 的用法

We should read this book and never touch bad book.

比较级的用法

1 否定 + 比较级 = 最高级

No one is more beautiful than you.

2 It is more than I could afford.

3 I love you more than I can say.

万能句式

**will lead a way for us like a guiding star

带着职业的敏感去观察生活

被动句:

1 喧宾夺主

2 分 be 得

分---寻找谓语动词的过去分词

Be – 所有时态的变化均体现在be 动词上

得--- 得到被动句

E.g. I am eating an apple.àAn apple is being eaten by me. [be 动词的现在进行时]

I had eaten an apple. An apple had been eaten by me. [be 动词的过去完成时]

经典:

Love for the sake of being loved is human. Love for the sake of loving is angelic.

―因为被爱而去爱是人性的彰显,因为爱所以爱是神性的光辉‖

倒装句:

1 强调

① Only

② 否定词开头little ,seldom

③ So, such, So unreasonable is the price.

2 承上启下

3 制造悬念 (托福里面别用)

e.g.任何广告都不使我们感到惊讶

The advertisement cannot surprise us anymore.

Rarely can the advertisement surprise us anymore.

E.g. A small city does not fascinate people as much as a big city ---hardly

E.g. A new factory would contaminate our community

Seldom can a new factory be established without contaminating our community.

E.g. We sat on the cliffs by the sea, watching the sunset.

On the cliffs by the sea we sat, watching the sunset.

I came to Beijing for the simple reason that I love you

新概念三Lesson4里有这样一句经典的话:

Such is human nature, that a great many people are often willing to sacrifice higher pay for the privilege of becoming white-collar workers.【倒装+同位语从句】

这句话适用范围太广了。

托福里面常考一个话题——健康。

E.g.1 Such is human nature, that a great many people are often willing to sacrifice health for the privilege of becoming rich man.

这就是爱,相爱容易,相处难

E.g.2 Such is love, that it is easy to fall in love, but hard to live with each other.【我自己的造句】 表达简单或困难的属性时,am is are 可以被prove替代!!

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Such is love, that falling in love proves easy, but remaining it proves difficult.

故意省略句:

Venus’ wife has never discovered that she married a dustman and she never will (discovered that she married a dustman)

将来进行时表示一定会发生:

Am I a dish?

Not only …, but … as well = and(以后用到and就改成not only…, but …as well)

―网络不仅改变生活习惯也提高了政府的工作效率‖

最土的句子:The Internet not only has changed the … but also has improved the efficiency of government. 点评:1. not only…but also…没有not only…but…as well好!

2. 两个has重复,可以把一个has提到not only 前面!

3. 在表示提升时候,improve不如enhance优秀!表示抽象的提高,如效率等的时候可以用enhance Internet has not only changed our living habit, but enhanced the efficiency of the government as well 这句话仍然不够理想。改成:

Not only has internet changed our living habit, but enhanced the efficiency of the government as well

注意一下:will always be remembered, for…

Be always doing sth 有强烈的感情,不错,可以经常用

当 always / usually 表示频度的副词与现在进行时连用时均表示作者对动作发出者反复进行的某一动作所带来的强烈的谴责或赞扬的感情

Girls are always going shopping for one cause or another, but they have never managed to get right one. 英语 作文 托福——第五课:句子的扩写

第五讲

句子的扩写:(核心为名词)

Internet is important .

途径 :定语从句

同位语从句

前两者的结合

同:Internet, the powerful means of communication, is important

同、定:Internet, a tool which offers us plenty of information, is important

句子的改写:

Internet is important

除了扩写之外,还要对句子进行改写:

单词升级:

Important --- vital, crucial, indispensable, significant, essential

短语升级:

Be + adj. == be of n.

Be of importance

Play an important role in

句式:

形式主语

万能 --- It is universally acknowledged that Internet is vital to us 万能的话哦!

倒装

Seldom can we ignore the value of internet

强调句

It is internet that makes the world go around

否定词:否定词+比较级表示最高级

Nothing is more important than Internet

Nothing can be compared with the importance of internet

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总结:

英语 作文 托福——第六课:句子的开头和结尾

第六讲:

句子的开头方式

1 引用名人名言 谚语(不推荐)

2 具体事例(不推荐)

*3 排比反问句式(强烈推荐)

4 背景介绍(特别是用于选择类:A or B,传统或现代)

排比、反问(模版)

Have you ever done …

Have you ever done …

Have you ever done …

If you have never had such experiences, you would never know …

Let life be beautiful like summer flowers and death like autumn leaves

―生如夏花之绚烂,死如秋叶之静美‖

背景介绍(模版):每篇文章都能用

Thanks to fast development of computer technology, books, as traditional medium, are more and more

challenged. Many libraries are faced with a dilemma, whether they should invest on computers or books. With every aspect taken into consideration I am fully convinced that to invest on computers would be better choice.

结尾:

I hope = I imagine paradise to be a place where …

However = the other side of the picture is quite the opposite

I feel as if I were waiting for the last bus which never would come … “失望”【表达情感用虚拟很好】 It has been said (believed /known/acknowledge) that 据传,据说……

Though it may be possible to measure the value of technology in term of…, it is extremely difficult to estimate the true value of

Paradox “悖论”

Learning the importance of the hard working, most of students have already set their own goal.

先从汉语上把主语变成一致在判断主语,再用伴随状语

说原因为TOEFL的主体

For one thing, it is no exaggerating to say that life full of material has destroyed the people’s goal life For another, there might be sth wrong with our education.

Student has no chance to /fails to think about the purpose of their student, for teachers often teach them not only but how they should. (Study)

总结段:

From my personal angle alone we should / it is better for us to refine our educational system.

It is better for us to be aware of the real purpose of study, for paradise is just a place where everyone can have a great aspiration and achieve it by their efforts.

(aspiration远大理想)

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