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英语好作文的标准

发布时间:2014-01-15 14:58:10  

英语好作文的有哪些标准

1. 卷面是否工整整齐

高考阅卷时间紧,任务重,如果你的卷面不整洁、书写不工整,那么阅卷老师看了心情就不好,即使你的文章写得再好,也不可能得高分。试想两篇内容一模一样的文章,一篇字迹工整,一篇潦草,要你来打分,分数肯定不同,所以书写非常重要,这一点一定要切记。

2.是否使用高级结构

高考英语书面表达评分标准第五档(很好)中有这样一段话:“应用了较多的语法结构和词汇;语法结构或词汇方面有少量错误,但为尽力使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇所致。”这就是说,学生仅运用基础的词汇和基本的句型,不能体现出较强的语言运用能力,即使表达无语法错误,也不能得高分;相反即使有少量错误,目的在有意识地使用复杂结构或较高级词汇也不扣分,仍属于最高档次。高考把写作要求提到了这样一个高度,有利于反映学生的水平层次,有利于指导教学。原来“要点完整、语言无误、行文连贯、表达清楚”的标准就过时了。

3. 是否恰当运用过渡词

恰当运用过渡词可以使文章结构紧凑,过渡自然,避免脱节现象。表时间的衔接词有then、as time goes by、day after day、gradually、finally等,表因果关系的词有as a result、because of、thanks to等。

对于这样一段话“Usually if you read the weather forecast in the newspaper, it will help you to predict how the day will turn out. But it’s not so in Britain.” 如果运用连接词contrary to并且变换一下句式,将其变为Contrary to popular belief, reading the weather forecast carefully in the newspaper will not help you to predict how the day will turn out则显得更简洁、更紧凑。可见恰当运用连接词和变换句式可以收到以少量词表达出丰富意思的效果。

4. 是否恰当运用修辞

众所周知,恰当的修辞可以使文章更生动形象。我们高中写的大多是记叙文,这就有了比喻、拟人等修辞方法应该发挥作用的地方。有这样一幅图画,上面画的是一块从一个下水渠口飞出的一块西瓜砸中了小明(肇事者,是他把西瓜扔到下水渠的。但是下水渠里有修理工,他也把西瓜扔了出来。) 多数同学描述为Xiaoming was hit by the piece of water-melon或The piece of water-melon hit Xiaoming on his head。若用上比喻拟人修辞,则可描述为The piece of water-melon, like a flying bullet, whose target was Xiaoming’s head, jumped out of the

cloacae (下水道) and hit exactly on its target.”

显而易见,后者更生动形象。

5. 文章是否条理清楚

条理性是指要合理布局文章结构。首先,在文章思路、组织材料、叙述顺序等方面要有一定的条理性。例如:题目要求写一篇记述文,我们可以按照事情发展的先后顺序来写;若介绍某一场所,可按照空间顺序来安排行文顺序;若是一篇议论文,就应该按照所议论观点的顺序来安排结构。全文结构应注意首尾呼应,前后相联。其次,根据需要安排好段落,各段之间要层次分明,每一段落的开头和结尾也要重视,开头语往往是总起句,结尾往往是总结句。请看下面这篇高考英语书面表达范文:

I will spend this summer holiday in the countryside. Although the city is modern and convenient, there are still some problems, such as air pollution, crowdedness and noise. In the countryside I can enjoy a comfortable and quiet life. There, the air is fresh and the water is clean. Trees are green and birds are singing. I can also go boating, fishing and swimming in the lake. What’s more, I can climb the hills. All this will be interesting and good for my health. Above all, I can learn more about nature. So I want to go to the countryside for a change. I’m looking forward to the coming of my summer holiday.

开头语I will spend this summer holiday in the countryside是总起句。结尾So I want to go to the countryside for a change. I’m looking forward to the coming of my summer holiday是总结句。

6. 表达是否准确地道

准确性是要求写出语法正确的句子,包括时态、语态、用词和句法等,但是不少考生由于受汉语思维习惯的影响,在写作时不自觉地产生了不规范的表达。要做到准确、地道地表达文章,首先必须要牢记掌握一些常用句型或习惯表达,避免中文式英语,在实践中不断总结中英表达差异,养成用英语思维写作的习惯。试体会下面的句子汉英表达上的差异。

(1)我等待着你的到来。

错误或失误:I’m waiting for you to come.

修改意见:I’m looking forward to your arrival.(NMET范文)

(2)现在我详细地给你介绍屋子的情况。

错误或失误:Now I am going to introduce the room to you carefully.

修改意见:Now I am going to give you a detailed description of the room.(NMET范文)

(3)工人们热烈欢迎我们来参观农场。

错误或失误:The workers welcomed us to visit the farm.

修改意见:The workers gave us a warm welcome.(NMET范文)

其次,要多读多背,在精读中汲取营养,对于好的句子最好背诵下来,适时用于写作中。其中,英语中的一些常识性语句就是非常典型的背诵材料。如在写通知时:

开头语:Attention, please. / May I have your attention, please? / I’ll have an announcement to make.

结尾语:Don’t forget the time and the address. / I’m sure you’ll have a lot of fun./That’s all, thank you.

在写参观欢迎词时的开头语:Welcome to our city. / Now let me tell you something about our school.

结尾语:I’m sure you’ll have a good trip. That’s all. Thank you!

写信时的开头语:I am glad to hear from you. / I’m writing to tell you something about… / How are you getting along with your studies? / I really don’t know how to thank you for your…

结尾语:Please give my best regards to… / I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon… / Remember me to your parents等。

正确牢记这些习惯用语,无疑可以增添句子表达的准确性,减少不必要的错误,从而提高书面表达的档次。

7. 行文是否自然流畅

流畅性是指根据整篇文章意思的需要,有效采用不同的连接手段,以使文章层次清晰,行文连贯。关联词就是常用的连接手段之一。下面列举一些常用的关联词:

(1) 表示平行、对等或选择关系:and,both…and,as well as,neither…nor,also,not only.…but also等。

(2) 表示转折关系:but,yet,however,nevertheless,in spite of,although,otherwise,while等。

(3) 表示对比关系:on the contrary,instead of,on the other hand,just like,unlike等。

(4) 表示因果关系:so,for,therefore,as a result,because,owing to,due to,thanks to,on account of等。

(5) 表示时间、顺序关系:shortly after, first, second…,then,next,finally,for one thing,for another thing,in the end,eventually等。

(6) 表示递进、强调关系:besides,furthermore,what’s more,in addition,moreover,worse still,above all,to make matters worse等。

(7) 表示解释、说明关系:namely,actually,such as,for example,for instance,that is to say,in other words,and so on,to tell you the truth,according to this等。

(8) 表示结论:in short,in brief,in a word,in general,as you know,as far as I know,on the whole等。

恰当使用这些关联词无疑能使全文过渡自然,令读者对后面的句子产生心理的期待和准备,增强句子间的逻辑性和紧凑性。

8. 文章是否有思想性

新标准对写作的要求增加了情感因素,在准确流畅表达写作要点的同时,适当增加句子的感情色彩,增加一些人情味,使文章读起来亲切,完全达到与读者进行交流的目的。例如:

(1) Do you think you’ll like it? If not, I can try and find another flat for you.

此句表达了作者对朋友尽职尽责的心情,回信由此充满了感情色彩。

(2) As far as I know, everyone is happy about the arrangement of things.

此句表达了作者对减负后的喜悦心情。

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