High/Low/Quiet/Loud Drills – 1) The teacher holds a flashcard (or other prompt) high in the air to get the class to repeat in a high voice. 2) The teacher holds the prompt low to the ground, and the class repeats in a low voice. 3) The prompt is now held close to the teacher?s body and the TL is repeated in a quiet voice. 4) The prompt is held out towards the students and they repeat in a loud voice. Children of this age enjoy different styles of voices, and enjoy participating in these drills. You can add variety by starting quietly and getting louder and louder with each repetition, or
getting the children to whisper, and then on the last repetition allowing them to shout. 高低音、大小声 操练法
Triple Drill – The students chant the TL chorally, repeating the teacher?s model three times. The teacher carefully monitors the group (remembering not to chant with them, but listening instead!)
To make the standard triple drill more interesting for this level, the teacher can add an active element. After the students have repeated the TL three times the teacher shouts ?go?, and the students complete a pre-planned activity. Examples of these activities are: jump a set amount of times and sit down, run and touch the board and sit down or spin on the spot and sit down. The process of a triple drill followed by an activity can be repeated for a number of times. These types of drills need to be demonstrated first to avoid confusion.
As students drill words or sentences, they clap either as they say every word, or every syllable. To add variety the teacher can introduce various speeds or rhythms. It is best if the students don?t clap too loudly, because the noise level makes it difficult for the teacher to monitor students.
Write the vocabulary on the board. Call out the word and the students race to slap it.
Place several letters or words in different locations around the room. Get 4 or 5 students to stand back to back in a circle in the middle of the classroom. Call out a letter, phonic sound or word and the students in the circle need to run to the FC and say the word or sound. Do 2 or 3 turns per group before switching to another group.
Place three letters or words on the board. Draw lines from top to bottom to separate the FCs. Line the class up in front of one FC. As you say phonic sound or word
the students jump to the word or sound you said. Repeat this several times. For an interesting finish increase the speed with each word. Be sure to keep safety in mind when you increase the speed.
Stand Up Wrong and Clap:
Have the phonic sounds or words on the board. Point to one and say it. If you say a different word or sound to what you are pointing at the students stand up and clap twice
Find a Word:
Give the students a word and have them find it on the page. The first team that finds the word gets the points.
Hunt The Word:
Write words on post it notes and hide them around the classroom. Students have to find each note as it is called. When they find the word you can have them say it.
Set two chairs at opposite ends of the classroom, divide the class into two teams. Designate one chair as 'right' and the other as 'wrong'. Point at a word or sound on the board if you say it correctly. The students race to the ?right? chair, if you say it incorrectly they go to the ?wrong? chair.
Upper/Lower Case Matching:
Some or all of the letters are written on the board (both upper and lower case) and the students have to circle ?a? and draw a line to ?A?. This can be expanded by the teacher calling out a word and the students have to recognise the initial letter sound before they can complete the task. It can be made more fun by insisting that no 2 lines can cross or touch.
Students are split into 2 teams and are given one set of letter cards or magnetic letters. They then race to put the letters in order. This can be expanded so that the students must then find a flashcard beginning with each letter and place it next to the
Needs 4 or more students. Line them up in two teams as far from the whiteboard as possible (even in a small space this can be done if the chairs/tables are used as an obstacle course). The members of each team are given a pen and the teacher shouts "A". Thereafter each team member runs to the board in turn, writes the next letter of the alphabet, and runs back to the next team member to hand over the pen. This can be done with or without obstacles depending on classroom size and equipment.
A variation on the alphabet relay. Give each team a word (with the same number of letters) to write on the board. If the vocabulary is relatively new, write the words on the board, get students to look (eg. for 10 seconds) then rub out the word and play the game.
Simple Word Search:
Create a word search using vocabulary from the unit. Keep it very simple about 6 by 6 letters and only 4 or 5 words.
Write 3 words or sounds on separate pieces of paper. Show them to Ss and put them face down on the table. Shuffle them around so that Ss might not be able follow them. Point to a card and ask what word or sound is.
A group of words are written on the board and the students are given a minute to look at them. They must then turn away and close their eyes whilst the teacher rubs out one of the words. The students must then turn back to face the whiteboard and say which word has been erased.
Set up an obstacle course and have a word or sound between each obstacle. As the student completes each obstacle they have to say the word or sound.
Before you start makes sure you have presented and modelled the letter. For
modelling use FC and write the letter on the board. Now use your finger and draw an imaginary letter in the air. Remember the students will follow your actions so you will need to draw the reverse to allow them to draw the letter correctly. It?s more interesting for the students if you make some kind of sound or counting strokes while drawing the letter. Model this twice and then have the students repeat your action several times.
The teacher goes around the class with a FC of the TL. The students (lightly) slap the card and say the TL. This is especially useful for picking out those students with pronunciation problems. Try not to go around the class in a circle; instead pick students in an unpredictable, random order. It is also often preferable to isolate stronger students first before concentrating on those with any problems, bearing in mind sensitivities regarding ability and confidence.
Young children who are still learning the alphabet and word recognition can play this game. Write the word on the board, underline each letter then rub out the word. Students have to recreate the word in teams. Gallows are not necessary; any system will do.
O’s & X’s:
A standard tic-tac-toe grid is drawn up on the board and a word is written in each square. To claim a square the students must read the relevant word. The team or student that makes a line of 3 horizontally, vertically or diagonally is the winner. This game can be ?spiced up? by using a sticky ball which the students throw at the board to select the square to be read.
The teachers and the students read aloud together following the teacher?s pace. Choral reading works best if the teacher directs all students to use a finger to follow along the text as they read.
Guided Oral Reading:
The teacher reads a sentence first. The students read it silently once, and then read aloud chorally one or two more times
Turn and Read (Say):
Have the class stand and turn around facing away from the board. Place a letter, picture or word FC, or write a letter(s) on the white board. When you say “go” the students are to turn around and say the word or sound represented on the board.
Each student must read one word from the text. Try achieving a fluent reading as if it was one person reading.
One student will role a dice to determine how many words they will have to read.
Sing the reading.
Run and Write:
Divide the class into two or three teams. Create one line for each team with the first student in line facing the board. For the younger students have examples of the letters to be used on the top part of the board. Divide the board into as many teams as you have. You will call out a letter and the students will take turns writing it on the board. After the first person in line writes the letter, that student
will pass the marker to the next student. Then the new student with the marker will write the same letter. This will continue until everyone has written the letter. The team that finishes first can receive the points.
Divide the class in to two teams. Place several pictures or words on the board. Try and have at least two for each sound. Have two students stand back to back in front of the class. Give them a phonics sound. The students must take three steps saying the phonics sound with every step. On the last step they turn and look at the board. You will be pointing to a word or picture that has that phonics sound in it. The students must say the word or sound and use their hands to pretend shoot the other student. The first student gets two points the second gets one for their teams.
Sticky Ball Throw:
Divide the class in to two teams. Now divide the board into 4. Place a letter, picture or word FC, or write a letter(s) in each square. Set a line where two students will stand in front of the board. Say a word or phonic sound and the student should throw the ball at the proper square and say the word or sound. The first student gets two points the second gets one for their teams.
This game is like Chinese whispers but instead of speaking the students will use their fingers to write the letters on the other students back. Divide the class into two or three teams. Line one team up in front of the class. Give the last student a letter and have that student use their finger to write the letter on the back of the student in front of them. The second student will then continue up the line. The last student should say the letter that was written on his back.
For smaller classes you can use two students at a time and have one writer and one guesser. The guesser should face the board and the writer should stand to the side to allow the whole class to see what he/she draws. Then have the whole class guess along with the guesser.
Read, Run, Write:
First photocopy the reading from the course book. Now divide the class into teams. Place one copy of the photocopied reading outside the class for each team. Have each team select a writer and the other team members will be the runners. The runners will take turns going to the photocopy and reading and remembering as much as they can. Then they will go back to the writer and dictate what they remember. When one runner returns to the writer and tells the team what they remember, the next runner can go. This is done until one or all teams have finished.
Initial Letter Slap:
A variation on Slap. Spread flashcards on the table then call out a letter. Students take any card beginning with that letter.
Reading Race Game:
This is a fun way to practise word and phonic recognition. Divide the class into two teams. Put a series of word or phonic sounds in a line down the middle of the room. The object is for a team to get to the end of the line by reading all the words or pronouncing the phonic sounds. Teams start from opposite ends and take it in turns to read a word or phonic sound. Teams may confer and should be helped if they can't read the word. Each turn the team advances one word or sound using a counter. When the teams meet on the same word or sound they must play scissors, paper, stone. The loser must go back to the beginning. The winner continues to advance. Teams can take it in turns to read or can change reader each time the team is sent back to the start.
这是一种十分有趣的操练单词和识别读音的方法。将学生分成两队。把一串单词或读音在教室中间摆成一条线。目的是要让学生将所有单词或读音从头到尾都读出来。两队从相反方向开始，每个成员轮流读一个单词或读音。队友间可协商甚至在确实不会读时，教师可以帮忙。Each turn the team advances one word or sound using a counter.当两队在同一个单词或读音相遇时，需要以石头剪刀布决胜，胜者继续前进，败者退回起点。每队可保持原有排列次序或在退回原点后调整次序。
Give the student a scrambled word, which must be unscrambled.
Understanding can be checked by having the student draw a picture which corresponds to the word.
What’s the Word?:
Attach a card with a word or letter to the front of each of two Ss. They stand back to back, then turn around and call out the other?s word. The first to say the other?s word is the winner.
Cut up some sentences (“This is a rabbit/This is what the rabbit sees). Spread the words around the room. Shout out a sentence and one Ss from each team races around the room slapping the words in order to make out the sentences. Variations: Students race to put the sentences in the correct order.
The students race to spell a word the teacher gives them. This is good fun if magnetic letters are used and the students are in teams. For more advanced students they should be encouraged to write on the board or in their books.
Snakes & Ladders:
A snakes and ladders board can be made with words in each square. When the students land on the square they must read the word before continuing.
Initial Letter Slap:
Flashcards are spread on the table and a letter is called out. Students slap any card beginning with that letter.
Words are written on the board with certain letters or phonic components missing. The students have to write in the missing letters. It depends on the level of the students as to whether or not they are told what the word is. This can be a team game if required.
Students are given one letter of a word each and the teacher says the word. The students have to line up in the correct order.
The students are split into 2 teams and the teacher says a word. The 1st student of each team runs to the board and writes the 1st letter of the word before running back and passing the pen to the next member who repeats the process with the next letter. For lower level students a simple alphabet relay is good fun.
Place the flashcards in a line on the floor. Students take it in terms to jump along the line, saying the appropriate target language as they land on each flashcard. Variations on this idea include: asking two or more students to come up at once and turning the above idea into a race.
Close Eyes and Guess:
The teacher arranges flashcards in front of him/her. The students are then asked to close their eyes. The teacher takes away a card and hides it behind his/her back. The students then open their eyes and guess which card has been taken away. Very young CP classes might find this activity challenging. One way to help them would be to let them keep their eyes open for the first few goes.
Have a word or sound on the board covered by a piece of paper. Reveal one letter at a time, the students have to guess what it is before it?s completely revealed.