Nathaniel Hawthorne(1804-1864) （纳撒尼尔·霍桑）
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Life Major works
Themes Writing styles
? Birthplace: Salem, Massachusetts ? Family background: a family with a long Puritan tradition; father died when he was only 4 years old; mother relied on relatives in rearing her four children ? Education: reading extensively by his midteens and aspired to be a writer; from 1821-1825, he studied at Bowdoin college in Maine.
Early life influences on Hawthorne
? Salem - early childhood, later work at the Custom House. ? Puritan family background - one of his forefathers was Judge Hathorne, who presided over the Salem witchcraft trials, 1692. ? Belief in the existence of the devil. ? Belief in determinism宿命论.
? Puritans came from the Established Church of England in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. ? They were so called because they wished to purify the forms and rituals of the Church. ? Though it was pilgrims that first came to New England, yet Puritanism soon became the dominant faith with its rather gloomy outlook on life. ? The Puritans held that man lived to suffer and he must toil mightily for the glory of God. ? Their doctrine was widely known for its extremely rigid and strict morality. (original sins ,predestination,limited atonement)
? 1837-1842: Twice-Told Tales 《故事重述》 ? 1846: Mosses from an Old Manse 《古宅青苔》 ? 1850: The Scarlet Letter《红字》 ? 1851: The House of the Seven Gables 《带七个尖角阁的房子》 ? 1852: The Blithedale Romance《福谷传奇》
Features of his works
? Setting ： Puritan New England
? Themes ： Evil & Sin
? Idea ： "Black vision" toward human beings
Black Vision :
? Evil exists in the human heart ? Everyone possesses some evil secret ? Everyone seems to cover up his innermost evil ? Evil seems to be man’s birthmark ? Sin will eventually get punished ? Evil educates ? Overweening intellect—source of evil
1. Dark View of Human Nature（人性之“恶”） 2. Morality and Sin（道德 & 罪恶） 3. Human Isolation（人之孤独）
1.Dark View of Human Nature（人性之“恶”）
◇ Human beings are evil-natured and sinful， and this sin and evil is ever present in human heart and will pass on from one generation to another.
2.Morality and Sin（道德
◇ Man will get punished one way or another for his sin but can also be saved by his gooddeeds and self- improvement. ◇ One has to work and strive against temptation in order to win salvation(拯救). There could be no magic carriage which would enable one to reach heaven without toil or trouble.
3. Human Isolation（人之孤独）
◇ Human beings are born to be lonely.They defend their pride and selfishness for different reasons. A cha