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发布时间:2014-05-28 10:03:30  

Week 4

Copyright 2009 Miss.Lei Qian

Individual differences in second language acquisition
1. Cognitive factors
Cognitive process Learning styles Learning strategies

2. Personality factors 3. Language aptitude 4. Motivation 5. Age of acquisition

Copyright 2009 Miss.Lei Qian

1.Cognitive factors that influence language learning
? Cognition refers to various mental processes used in thinking, remembering, perceiving, classifying etc.
? Processes common to all learners ? Styles that differ across individuals

? Strategies employed by different

Copyright 2009 Miss.Lei Qian

Processes common to all learners
1. Deductive reasoning
? A general rule—specific instances

(Learners are taught the rules of language, then apply these rules when they use the language.) Eg: All the numbers wich can be divided by two without remainders are called evens. 2,4,6,8,10 are evens.

Copyright 2009 Miss.Lei Qian

Eg: the past tense of verbs—ed looked; passed; talked.etc

Copyright 2009 Miss.Lei Qian

2. Inductive reasoning Specific instances—a general conclusion
(Students are not taught the grammatical rules but left to discover or induce rules of a language)

Copyright 2009 Miss.Lei Qian

? Eg: talked; walked; cooked; etc the past tense of verbs -ed

Copyright 2009 Miss.Lei Qian

Cognitive style
? Style refers to consistent and rather enduring tendencies or preferences within an individual.
? Visual, auditory or hands-on ? Analytic or global ? Random or sequential ? Concrete or abstract

? Field independence
? Tolerance of ambiguity ? Reflectivity and impulsivity
Copyright 2009 Miss.Lei Qian

Field independence
? Field independent style refers to your ability to perceive a particular, relevant item or factor in a field of distracting items.
? Field independence style(场独立型)

It enables you to distinguish parts from a whole, to concentrate on something in a noisy surrounding. ? Field dependence style(场依赖型) You always perceive the whole picture, the larger view. ? Different learners may have different field independence style.
Copyright 2009 Miss.Lei Qian

Tolerance of ambiguity
? The degree to which you are cognitively willing to tolerate ideas and propositions that run counter to your own belief system or structure of knowledge.
? Open-minded: they are free to entertain number

of innovations and creative possibilities, and not be cognitively or affectively disturbed by ambiguity and uncertainty. ? Close-minded: These people have rigid and dogmatic mind that is too narrow to be creative. It may be particularly harmful in second language learning.
Copyright 2009 Miss.Lei Qian

Reflectivity and impulsivity
? Reflective learners: learners who make final decision after a slower and calculated thinking. ? Impulsive learners: Learners who usually make a quick and impulsive guess at an answer to a problem. ? Reflective learners were slower but more accurate than im

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