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发布时间:2013-09-28 14:02:47  


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a or an

[(1) one; (2) any; (3) each]

Would you give me a sheet of paper? (1)

A triangle has three sides. (2)

He comes to see his grandmother once a week. (3)


[having the power to do something]

Are you able to speak English?


[(1) almost; (2) of or having a relation to]

He completed about half of his work. (1)

We talk about the weather. (2)


[at a higher place]

His head was above the water.


[to agree to receive]

Please accept my thanks.


[(1) something that happens by chance or mistake; (2) an unplanned event] She was injured in the accident. (1)

We met again by accident after seventeen years had passed. (2)


[(1) to say a person is responsible for an act or crime; (2) to make a statement against someone]

Her friend accused her of breaking his heart. (1)

The lawyer accused the suspect of lying. (2)


[(1) from side to side; (2) to the other side]

The box was ten centimeters across. (1)

The dog ran across the road. (2)



[to do something]

He acted immediately to stop the fight.


[one who seeks change through action]

The activist worked hard to change the law.


[someone acting in a play or show]

That actor frightened me.


[(1) to put (something) with another to make it larger; (2) to say more]

Please add my name to the list. (1)

She told him to leave, but added that she would like to see him again. (2)


[the executive part of a government, usually headed by a president or prime minister] The new administration starts work in January.


[(1) to accept; (2) to express one's guilt or responsibility]

When was the country admitted to the United Nations? (1)

He admitted that what he did was wrong. (2)


[a grown person]

Only an adult can sign the document.


[to help with information, knowledge or ideas in making a decision]

Did you advise him to leave?


[(1)to influence;(2)to produce an effect on]

A lack of sleep affected the singer's performance. (1)

Mr. Nutley's belief in my talent greatly affected my life. (2)


[feeling fear]

I am afraid of guns.


[(1)later; (2)behind]


She arrived after the lesson started. (1)

In the alphabet, B is after A. (2)


[(1) another time; (2) as before]

Sam played the song again. (1)

I found my book in the same place again. (2)


[(1) opposed to; (2) not agreeing with something]

They marched against the war. (1)

He agreed to most of the plan, but was against starting it now. (2)


[how old a person or thing is]

The legal age for voting is eighteen.


[an organization that is part of a larger group]

UNICEF is an agency of the United Nations.


[(1) an attack against a person or country; (2) the violation of a country's borders] The surprise attack was an act of aggression. (1)

The country committed aggression when it crossed the border of the other country. (2)


[(1) of time past; (2) before now]

He was my friend long ago. (1)

I saw her two years ago. (2)


[(1) to have the same belief as someone; (2) to be willing to do something] We agree about politics. (1)

Both sides agree to meet again next week. (2)



John studied agriculture because he wanted to be a farmer.


[(1) to help; (2) to support; (3) help, assistance]

He offered to aid the victims of the fire. (1)

Did you give money to aid the Democratic or the Republican candidate? (2) Congress voted to provide aid to the flood victims. (3)



[(1) to point a gun at; (2) a goal or purpose]

You cannot hit the target if you do not aim the gun. (1)

The aim of the reformers is to improve government. (2)


[the mixture of gases around the earth, mostly nitrogen and oxygen, that we breathe] The air is clean in the mountains.

air force

[a military organization using airplanes]

The air force wants more airplanes and missiles.


[a vehicle with wings that flies]

I flew home on an airplane.


[a place where airplanes take off and land]

The airplane landed at the airport in Washington.


[a collection of recorded music]

He recorded the song from an old record album.


[a strong, colorless liquid, usually made from grain, used as a drug or in industrial products]

The man fell because he drank too much alcohol.


[(1) having life; (2) not dead]

The flowers become alive in the spring. (1)

The accident victim was seriously injured but is still alive. (2)


[(1) everything; (2) everyone; (3) the complete amount]

She ate all that she wanted. (1)

All were invited to speak on the proposal. (2)

She spent all her money for a new car. (3)


[a nation or person joined with another for a special purpose]

Britain is a military ally of the United States.



[a little less than completely]

My dog is almost five years old.


[separated from others]

Some people enjoy eating alone.


[near or on]

We walked along the road.


[(1) before now; (2) even now]

She was already there when we arrived. (1)

It is already too late to take the train. (2)


[(1) added to; (2) too]

Please bring me the fish dinner and coffee, and also some water. (1) She said she also wanted to go home. (2)


[even if it is true that]

Although he was tired, he kept walking.


[(1) at all times; (2) every time]

This street is always busy. (1)

We always study together. (2)


[a nation's highest diplomatic representative (to another government)] Foreign ambassadors live in the capital city.


[to add to or to change (a proposal or law)]

The committee refused to amend its proposal.


[the bullets or shells fired from guns]

They could not fight without ammunition.


[in or part of (a group)]

She was among the students who left the school.



[the number, size or weight of anything]

The doctor gave him only a small amount of medicine.


[(1) a lack of order; (2) lawlessness]

The peaceful protests blocked the streets and produced anarchy. (1) Anarchy resulted when the city could not stop the riots. (2)


[a family member from the past]

My ancestors came from Switzerland in 1742.


[(1) very old; (2) long ago]

Scientists discovered the ancient knife in a cave. (1)

They read the Iliad while studying ancient Greece. (2)


[(1) also; (2) in addition to; (3) with]

My dog likes to run and jump. (1)

Five and three equal eight. (2)

Do you like rice and black beans? (3)


[a strong emotion against someone or something]

The protester's voice was full of anger.


[a living creature that moves, such as a dog or cat]

The kangaroo is a strange animal.


[a yearly celebration or observance of an event that happened in the past] When is your wedding anniversary?


[(1) to make known publicly; (2) to declare officially]

Who announced the VOA news last night? (1)

The president announced a tax cut. (2)


[(1) one more;(2)a different one]

May I have another kiss? (1)

Let's do this another way. (2)



[(1) a statement produced by a question; (2) to make a statement after being asked a question]

That was my final answer. (1)

She answered the question with a smile. (2)


[one or more of no special kind]

I do not have any plans to leave town.


[to express regret for a mistake or accident for which one accepts responsibility] Do not apologize for someone else's mistake.


[(1) to take to a higher court, person or group for a decision; (2) to call on somebody for help]

I have appealed the decision to a higher court. (1)

The aid organization appealed for more food and water for flood victims. (2)


[(1) to show oneself; (2) to come into sight; (3) to seem]

The actor appeared on television for the first time. (1)

The ship appeared as the fog lifted. (2)

The farmer appeared to be very tired. (3)


[(1) to name; (2) to choose]

The owner appointed John to head the new business. (1)

The president can appoint a judge to the new court. (2)


[(1) to agree with; (2) to agree to support]

The bank approved my loan. (1)

I approve of your proposal. (2)


[the scientific study of past human life and activities]

He studied archeology in college.


[any place or part of it]

My friend lives in this area.



[(1) to offer reasons for or against something; (2) to dispute; (3) to disagree] The President argued for more aid to schools. (1)

They argued all day but could not find agreement. (2)

George and Al love to argue about politics. (3)


[(1) military equipment; (2) weapons]

The rebels got most of their arms by taking them from soldiers. (1)

We are very concerned about the spread of nuclear arms. (2)


[military ground forces]

The army fights on the ground.


[on every side (of)]

She drove around in her new car.


[(1) to seize a person for legal action; (2) to take as a prisoner]

The judge ordered police to arrest him because he refused to come to court. (1) The police arrested the violent demonstrators. (2)


[to come to a place, especially at the end of a trip]

The president arrived in Tokyo for an official visit.


[expressions or creations by humans, such as paintings, music, writing or statues] Much of the art included paintings stolen during World War II.


[big guns]

Artillery destroyed most of the buildings in the town.


[(1) equally; (2) when; (3) while]

The wild fire spread as fast as the wind behind it. (1)

As he heard the gunshot, he looked at his watch and saw it was almost five o'clock.


He watched the animal as it ran across the field. (3)


[the part left after something burns]

Only ashes were left when the fire passed.



[(1) to question; (2) to say something is wanted]

We ask the teacher questions every day. (1)

The candidate asked the people for their votes. (2)


[to help]

The doctor asked the medical student to assist him.


[a person who travels in space]

Astronaut Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.


[the scientific study of stars and the universe]

I study astronomy because I like to look at stars.


[political protection given by a government to a person from another country] The refugee asked for political asylum.


[(1) in or near; (2) where; (3) when]

She saw the bear at the edge of the forest. (1)

Look at the bear. (2)

We must go home at noon. (3)


[the gases surrounding any star or planet]

The atmosphere of Venus is mostly water and carbon dioxide.


[(1) to tie together; (2) to connect]

Please attach this name card to your coat. (1)

He attached himself to our group. (2)


[(1) a violent attempt to damage, injure or kill; (2) to start a fight]

The war started with a rebel attack on government troops at Charleston, South Carolina. (1)

Several men attacked him on the street. (2)


[(1) to work toward something; (2) to try; (3) to make an effort]

He attempted to change his life one step at a time. (1)

Do not attempt to drive through the flood waters. (2)


You will never write your book if you do not attempt it. (3)


[to be present at]

The president will attend the meeting.


[(1) a vehicle with wheels used to carry people; (2) a car]

Is a bus an automobile? (1)

Who invented the automobile? (2)


[the time of the year between summer and winter]

The trees of autumn are bright red and yellow.


[(1) something (a number) representing the middle; (2) common; (3) normal]

The average of daily high temperatures in Washington in January is zero degrees, Celsius. (1)

The average amount spent for lunch was two dollars. (2)

John is an average student. (3)


[to stay away from]

Avoid meat and milk products to prevent a heart attack.


[not sleeping]

The storm kept everyone awake for hours.


[an honor or prize for an act or service]

Last night, we saw the movie that won the best picture award.


[not near]

The old man came from far away, but his home is here now.



[a newly born creature]

Mary had a baby last night.


[(1) the part behind the front; (2) the other way from forward]


The writer's picture is on the back of the book. (1)

She stopped walking away and looked back at me. (2)


[(1) wrong; (2) acting against the law; (3) not good]

Bill made a bad decision. (1)

The prisoner was a bad man for most of his life. (2)

The water was dirty and had a bad taste. (3)


[to make two sides or forces equal]

I balanced my budget by not spending more than I earned.


[something round]

The earth is shaped like a ball.


[a device of strong, light material that rises when filled with gas lighter than air] Many hot air balloons race in New Mexico each year.


[a piece of paper used for voting]

I was asked to count the ballots and announce the winner.


[(1) to not permit; (2) to stop; (3) an official restriction]

Running is banned at our swimming pool. (1)

The curfew bans all night time travel. (2)

The protestors called for a ban on smoking in public buildings. (3)


[an organization that keeps and lends money]

The man said he robbed banks because that is where the money is.


[to prevent or block]

He was barred from competing in the games because he used illegal drugs.


[anything that blocks or makes an action difficult]

The voting rights law removes most racial barriers to voting.


[(1) a military center; (2) to establish as a fact]

My brother is at a military training base. (1)


Her research was based on experiments. (2)


[a fight between opposing armed forces]

Southern forces won the battle but lost the war.


[(1) to live; (2) to happen; (3) to exist]

The man is very sick and will not be here much longer. (1) The wedding will be soon. (2)

Washington, D.C., has been the capital for 200 years. (3)


[to hit again and again]

The prison guards denied they beat the prisoner.


[that which pleases the eye, ear or spirit]

All fell silent at the beauty of the mountains.


[for the reason that]

He left because he was sick.


[to come to be]

When did he become sick?


[a sleeping place]

The bed was so hard that I could not sleep.



Bill ate before he went to work.


[(1) to do the first part of an action; (2) to start] He began to laugh when he saw me. (1)

A long walk begins with one step. (2)


[(1) at the back of; (2) in back of]

Our fastest runner was far behind the leader. (1) I live behind that hill. (2)



[(1) to think; (2) to feel sure of; (3) to accept as true; (4) to trust]

I believe it may rain tonight. (1)

Jim believes his friend is a good writer. (2)

The lawyer believed the suspect's statement. (3)

We believe in God. (4)


[an instrument that makes a musical sound]

Jim says he likes the sound of a church bell.


[(1) to be owned by; (2) to be a member of]

That book belongs to my sister. (1)

My brother belongs to the Boy Scouts. (2)


[lower than]

The temperature outside is below freezing.


[the most good]

All of our singers are good but Lisa is best.


[(1) to turn against; (2) to be false to]

The spy betrayed his country. (1)

The boy betrayed his mother's trust in him. (2)


[more good than]

Zach is a better baseball player than Al.


[(1) in the space or time that separates; (2) from one to the other]

I would like to meet with you between two and three o'clock. (1)

Secret talks between the two nations produced an agreement. (2)


[(1) of great size; (2) not small]

Texas is a big state. (1)

Melissa was a big baby. (2)


[a legislative proposal]

To become law, a bill must be approved by both houses of Congress and signed by the




[the scientific study of life or living things in all their forms]

My school requires one year of study each of biology, physics and chemistry.


[a creature that flies]

I watched the bird fly away until I could no longer see it.


[to cut with the teeth]

My dog sounds aggressive but he will not bite you.


[(1) dark; (2) having the color like that of the night sky]

I first saw him on a black and stormy night. (1)

The doctor arrived in a big black car. (2)


[(1) to accuse; (2) to hold responsible]

The police blamed him for the crime. (1)

Don't blame me for your bad decision. (2)


[a cloth cover used to keep warm]

The flood refugees needed food and warm blankets.


[to lose blood]

Do you know how to stop your nose from bleeding?


[not able to see]

Being blind did not keep him from becoming a famous singer.


[(1) to stop something from being done; (2) to prevent movement] He blocked any attempt to become friends. (1)

A truck accident blocked the road for an hour. (2)


[red fluid in the body]

A blood test is usually part of a yearly medical examination.



[to move with force, as in air]

The wind blows the autumn leaves.


[having the color like that of a clear sky]

My son has blue eyes.


[something built to travel on water that carries people or goods]

I like to fish from a boat.


[(1) all of a person or animal; (2) the remains of a person or animal] Exercise can improve anyone's body. (1)

Police found five bodies buried beneath the house. (2)


[to heat a liquid until it becomes very hot]

Boil one cup of water, add frozen vegetables and cook for five minutes.


[(1) a device that explodes with great force; (2) to attack or destroy with bombs] The bomb exploded outside the building. (1)

The warplanes bombed enemy missile launchers. (2)


[the hard material in the body]

The girl broke a bone in her wrist when she fell.


[a long written work for reading]

The professor has written six books about East Asia.


[a dividing line between nations]

Many new factories have been built across the border in Mexico.

(be) born

[(1) to come to life; (2) to come into existence]

When were you born? (1)

The American Revolution was born in Massachusetts. (2)


[to take as a loan]

The bank refused to let me borrow any more money.



[not just one of two, but the two together]

Both of us were educated at the University of Virginia.


[a container, usually made of glass, to hold liquid]

He drank the last bottle of water.


[the lowest part of something]

The damaged submarine is still at the bottom of the ocean.


[something to put things into]

Put the old books in that box.


[a young male person]

The boys played together after school.


[to refuse to take part in or deal with]

The farm workers union called for a boycott of vegetables picked by foreign workers.


[the control center of thought, emotions and body activity of all creatures]

Scientists continue to discover new information about the chemistry of the brain.


[having no fear]

Leaving home was a brave decision.


[a food made from grain]

We have bread at every meal.


[(1) to divide into parts by force; (2) to destroy]

The glass broke into many pieces. (1)

Years of hard work broke his health, but it did not break his spirit. (2)


[to take air into the body and let it out again]

Breathe deeply before you begin your speech.



[a structure built over a waterway, valley or road so people and vehicles can cross from one side to the other]

The city needs a new bridge across the river.


[(1) short; (2) not long]

Many people wish to speak, so please keep your comments brief. (1)

The car slowed down briefly, then speeded up. (2)


[(1) giving much light; (2) strong and clear in color]

Bright sunlight hurts my eyes. (1)

The new grass is bright green. (2)


[to come with something]

Sam will bring Tracy to the party.


[(1) to send information, stories or music by radio or television; (2) a radio or television program]

VOA broadcasts the news in Special English. (1)

The Special English broadcast can be heard almost everywhere. (2)


[a male with the same father or mother as another person]

I have three brothers, but no sisters.


[having the color like that of coffee]

Richard has brown hair and brown eyes.


[a spending plan]

Congress decided to add money to the education budget.


[to join materials together to make something]

Tim plans to build a house for his dog.


[anything built for use as a house, factory, office, school, store or place of entertainment]

My office is in that building next to the hotel.



[a small piece of metal shot from a gun]

The bullet hit the exact center of the target.


[(1) to be on fire; (2) to destroy or damage by fire]

The candles burned brightly enough for me to read the book. (1) The wildfire burned much of the forest. (2)


[to break open suddenly]

The dam burst and sent a wall of water rushing down the valley.


[to put into the ground and cover with earth]

Where do you think they buried the treasure?


[a public vehicle to carry people]

Ride the A-17 bus to 4th and Independence Avenue.


[(1) one's work; (2) buying and selling to earn money; (3) trade] My business is writing radio programs. (1)

The Internet is creating many new markets for business. (2) I have done business with that company for many years. (3)


[(1) doing something; (2) very active]

Are you busy now? (1)

George was very busy this morning with an emergency case. (2)


[(1) however; (2) other than; (3) yet]

She knew who called but I did not know. (1)

The boy ate nothing but candy. (2)

Jean was tired but she could not get to sleep. (3)


[to get by paying something, usually money]

Where did Lila buy those great clothes?


[(1) near; at; (2) next to; (3) from ; (4) not later than] Please sit here by me. (1)

They walked by the river. (2)

They performed a play by William Shakespeare. (3)


Her mother said that she had to be home by midnight. (4)



[a group of ministers that helps lead a government]

The President meets every week with his cabinet.


[(1) to give a name to ; (2) to ask for or request]

I call myself John. (1)

They called for an end to the fighting. (2)


[(1) quiet; (2) peaceful; (3) opposite of tense]

The calm crowd waited for the president to speak.

The city was calm after two days of rioting.

Can you remain calm in a tense situation? (3)


[a device for taking pictures]

Your camera takes very good pictures.


[a place with temporary housing]

The refugee camp provides temporary shelter, food and medical care.


[(1) a competition by opposing political candidates seeking support from voters; (2) a connected series of military actions during a war]

Presidential campaigns are much too long and cost too much. (1)

The Allied campaigns won the war in Europe and Asia. (2)


[(1) to be able to; (2) to have the right to; (3) a container used to hold liquid or food, usually made of metal]

The two sides can meet on Tuesday. (1)

I can live anywhere I wish in this country because that is my right. (2)

I bought three cans of vegetables at the food store. (3)


[(1) to end; (2) to stop]

Who cancelled the agreement? (1)

Mary cancelled her plans to have a party next week. (2)



[a disease in which dangerous cells grow quickly and destroy parts of the body] Scientists continue to find better ways to treat many kinds of cancer.


[a person who seeks or is nominated for an office or an honor]

Each political party has nominated a candidate for president.


[(1) the official center of a government; (2) the city where a country's government is] The capital of the government is in Washington. (1)

Washington is the capital of the United States. (2)


[an economic system in which the production of most goods and services is owned and operated for profit by private citizens or companies]

In the United States, capitalism has produced the world's strongest economy.


[(1) to make a person or animal a prisoner; (2) to seize or take by force; (3) to get control of]

Police captured the terrorist before he could explode the bomb. (1)

Rebel forces captured the city. (2)

Democrats won the election and captured control of Congress. (3)


[(1) a vehicle with wheels used to carry people; (2) an automobile; (3) a part of a train]

Electric street cars were replaced with buses many years ago. (1)

Fred's and Martha's new car will carry six people. (2)

That train has 57 flat cars and 12 box cars. (3)


[(1) to like; (2) to protect; (3) to feel worry or interest]

Jim told Laura that he cared for her and would like to see her again. (1)

His mother told him to take care of his younger brother. (2)

Would you care if I borrowed your car? (3)


[(1) acting safely; (2) with much thought]

Please be careful when you drive. (1)

He was careful to choose exactly the right words. (2)


[to take something or someone from one place to another]

Would you carry this bag for me, please?


case (court)

[a legal action]

The judge will call your case next.

case (medical)

[an incident of disease]

There was only one case of chicken pox at the school.


[a small animal that often lives with humans]

My cat climbed that tree and is afraid to come down.


[(1) to seize after a chase; (2) to stop and seize with the hands]

He runs so fast that no one can catch him. (1)

Catch the ball and throw it back to me. (2)


[(1) to make happen; (2) the thing or person that produces a result]

Too much rain caused the flood. (1)

The cause of the flood was too much rain. (2)


[a halt in fighting, usually by agreement]

The ceasefire stopped the fighting.


[to honor a person or event with special activities]

I think we should have a party to celebrate your birthday.


[(1) the middle of something; (2) the place in the middle; (3) a place that is the main point of an activity]

There was a hole in the center of the target. (1)

The chair sat at the center of the room. (2)

The experts checked the nuclear center for radiation leaks. (3)


[one hundred years]

This is the first year of the 21st century.


[an act or series of acts done in a special way established by tradition]

The new president took the oath of office at the inaugural ceremony in front of the capitol.



[a person leading a meeting or an organized group]

The party chairman led the meeting.


[(1) the best; (2) the winner]

John is a champion swimmer. (1)

The New York Yankees were the champions of professional baseball in the first year of the new century. (2)


[a possibility of winning or losing or that something will happen]

We have a good chance of getting home before dark.


[(1) to make different; (2) to become different]

Will you change your decision? (1)

His voice changed last year. (2)


[(1) to accuse someone of something, usually a crime; (2) a statement in which someone is accused of something]

She was charged with stealing a car. (1)

The charge was false. (2)


[to run or go after someone or something]

The dog chased the cat around the house.


[(1) to get by a trick; (2) to steal from]

He cheated on the history examination. (1)

The dishonest lawyer became rich by cheating the people that he represented. (2)


[to shout approval or praise]

The crowd cheered every time their team scored.


[(1) elements found in nature or made by people; (2) substances used in the science of chemistry]

Oxygen and hydrogen are the chemicals that form water. (1)

Do you read the list of chemicals listed in the foods you eat? (2)



[the scientific study of substances, what they are made of, how they act under different conditions, and how they form other substances]

How many years did you study chemistry?


[(1) the head or leader of a group; (2) leading; (3) most important]

Mr. Thompson is the new chief of our tax office. (1)

The chief cause of lung cancer is smoking. (2)

The chief reason he got the job was his experience with tax issues. (3)


[(1) a baby; (2) a boy or girl]

The child was born with the disease. (1)

Every child, boy or girl, should have an equal chance to succeed. (2)


[more than one child]

Sixty children were chosen to go to a camp in the mountains.


[to decide between two or more]

You may choose one meat and three vegetables from the lunch list.


[a closed shape that has all its points equally distant from the center, like an "O"] The settlers put their wagons in a circle to defend against the attack.


[a person who is a member of a country by birth or by law]

Every citizen is expected to vote.


[any important large town]

I lived in a small town as a child, but now I live in a city.


[not military]

Many civilians were killed in the attack on the town.

civil rights

[the political, economic and social rights given equally to all people of a nation] The law protects the civil rights of all citizens.


[to say something as a fact]

He claimed that his opponent lied about his activities as a student leader.



[(1) a battle; (2) to fight or oppose]

Ten protesters were injured in the clash with police. (1)

Angry farmers blocked roads and clashed with soldiers. (2)


[(1) to make pure; (2) free from dirt or harmful substances]

Please clean your room. (1)

Too many people around the world do not have clean water to drink. (2)


[(1) easy to see or see through; (2) easily understood]

Clear water is not always safe to drink. (1)

He won the debate because his arguments were clear to almost everyone. (2)


[a body of officials within a religious organization]

Many in the clergy supported the reforms proposed by the rebels.


[the normal weather conditions of a place]

Many retired people like to spend the winter in the warm climate of Florida.


[to go up or down something by using the feet and sometimes the hands] The firemen climbed ladders to rescue people living above the ground floor.


[a device that measures and shows time]

I was late for work because my clock stopped.


[(1) to make something not open; (2) near to]

Please close the window before you come to bed. (1)

Stay close to me in this big crowd. (2)


[a material made from plants, chemicals, animal hair and other substances] I feel cooler in summer when I wear shirts made of cotton cloth.


[what people wear]

Be sure to bring enough clothes for two weeks.



[a mass of fog high in the sky]

Clouds like those usually mean rain will come soon.


[a solid black substance used as fuel]

Much of our electricity is produced by plants that burn coal as fuel.


[forces, groups or nations joined together]

The country is led by a coalition government of three parties.


[land on the edge of the ocean]

The storm caused high waves and flooding along much of the Atlantic coast.


[a drink made from the plant of the same name]

People in Seattle drink lots of coffee.


[(1) not warm; (2) having or feeling great coolness or a low temperature]

The water is too cold for swimming. (1)

This has been a cold winter, with much ice and snow. (2)


[(1) to bring or gather together in one place; (2) to demand and receive]

The driver collected the children after school and brought them home. (1)

Your employer collects taxes for the government every time you are paid. (2)


[a small university]

Have you decided where you will attend college?


[land controlled by another country or government]

Hong Kong is no longer a British colony.


[the different effects of light on the eye, making blue, red, brown, black, yellow and others]

I love the bright colors of the autumn leaves.


[to mix or bring together]

The new organization combines radio and television broadcasting.



[(1) to move toward; (2) to arrive]

Jan is coming home for the holidays. (1)

The two sides came together on a settlement after long and detailed negotiations. (2)


[(1) to order; (2) to have power over something]

The general commanded the army to move against the enemy. (1)

The President commands all the military forces. (2)


[(1) to say something about; (2) to express an opinion about something]

Mr. President, please comment about the increased number of terrorist attacks. (1) He commented about the writers who criticized his new book. (2)


[a group of people given special work]

The committee met three times to decide who should get the special award.


[(1) usual; (2) same for all]

He liked to call himself a common man. (1)

The allies united for a common purpose: to win the war. (2)


[(1) to tell; (2) to give or exchange information]

The chairman communicated that he was not happy with the proposed agreement. (1) Because we communicate well, we understand each other's situation. (2)


[a group of people living together in one place or area]

Our community includes people from many other countries.


[a business organized for trade, industrial or other purposes]

My friend started an Internet company to repair and sell old musical instruments.


[to examine what is different or similar]

We urge you to compare the price and quality of our products with those of our competitors.


[to try to do as well as, or better than, another or others]

The Internet lets companies compete almost anywhere in the world.



[(1) having all parts; (2) ended or finished]

I have a complete set of recordings by the Beatles. (1)

We completed all the work yesterday. (2)


[(1) of or having many parts that are difficult to understand; (2) not simple] The trade agreement is the result of some very complex negotiations. (1)

It may seem simple, but it is really complex. (2)


[the settlement of an argument where each side agrees to accept less than first demanded]

Compromise may not be possible in that dispute.


[an electronic machine for storing and organizing information, and for communicating with others]

Computers are a necessary tool for managing a business.


[(1) interest, worry; (2) to fear]

The president expressed concern about the continuing violence. (1)

He said he is especially concerned that the fighting will spread to other countries. (2)


[to say a person or action is wrong or bad]

The senators condemned the man for refusing to answer their questions.


[(1) something declared necessary to complete an agreement; (2) a person's health] The conditions for his resignation included a ten million dollar payment. (1)

The doctor said the examination showed that Gary was in excellent condition. (2)


[a meeting]

I seemed to spend my days going from one conference to another.


[(1) to approve; (2) to say that something is true]

The senate confirmed the appointment of the new Agriculture Secretary. (1) The candidate confirmed the report that he was ending his campaign. (2)


[(1) a fight; (2) a battle, especially a long one]

We had a conflict about politics. (1)


The long conflict finally ended with a ceasefire, not a peace treaty. (2)


[to praise a person or to express pleasure for success or good luck]

I congratulate you for getting the highest score on the history test.


[(1) the organization of people elected to make the laws of the United States (the House of Representatives and the Senate); (2) a similar organization in other countries]

The President's party did not win control of either house of Congress. (1)

Five members of Mexico's Congress are in Washington to discuss trade issues. (2)


[(1) to join one thing to another; (2) to unite; (3) to link]

If you connect this wire to the red one, the green light will turn on. (1)

The two streams connect to form a river that flows through Greenlow City. (2) The policeman said the two crimes are connected. (3)


[one who usually supports tradition and opposes great change]

William is a conservative about social issues.


[(1) to give thought to; (2) to think about carefully]

Jack is considering what to give Amy for her birthday. (1)

The head of my office said he would consider my ideas for a more effective sales campaign. (2)


[the written general laws and ideas that form a nation's system of government] How do the laws provide for making changes in the constitution?


[(1) to hold; (2) to include]

The bottle contains one quart of milk. (1)

*one liquid quart = 0.9463 liter(米)

The paint in that old house contains a dangerous amount of lead. (2)


[a box, bottle or can used to hold something]

More juice is sold in plastic containers than in glass bottles.


[any of the seven great land areas of the world]

Did you know that long ago all the continents were joined together?



[to go on doing or being]

The governor said he would continue to fight for justice.


[(1) to direct; (2) to have power over]

Who controls the daily work of the company. (1)

The chairman of the transportation committee controls all the spending for transportation projects. (2)


[a large meeting for a special purpose]

Political parties hold conventions to choose presidential and vice presidential candidates.


[to heat food before eating it]

Helen will cook spaghetti with meat sauce tonight.


[almost cold]

My coffee is cool. Would you warm it for me, please?


[to act or work together]

If we cooperate on this work, we will finish more quickly.


[(1) to make something exactly like another; (2) something made to look exactly like another]

Joseph can copy that document for us. (1)

This copy is so bad I cannot read it. (2)


[a food grain]

Scientists are worried because genetically-changed corn got into food supplies for people.


[(1) true; (2) free from mistakes; (3) to change to what is right]

That is the correct date of the election. (1)

That sales agreement is correct. (2)

Did you correct that script? (3)



[(1) the price or value of something; (2) to be valued at]

The cost of the book is five dollars. (1)

The book costs five dollars. (2)


[a material made from a plant of the same name]

Most clothes are made of cotton.


[to speak or add numbers]

Her child learned to count by watching Sesame Street on television.


[(1) a nation; (2) the territory of a nation; (3) land away from cities]

English is one of the languages of his country. (1)

Much of the country in the West is desert. (2)

My family had a farmhouse in the country, not too far from the city. (3)


[(1) where trials take place; (2) where judges make decisions about law]

We have to give evidence in court today. (1)

The appeals court is considering mistakes made in his trial. (2)


[(1) to put something over a person or thing; (2) anything that is put over a person or thing]

Please cover the food left from dinner. (1)

Put your name on the front cover of your book. (2)


[a farm animal used for its milk]

He must pump the milk from his cows every morning and evening.


[(1) to fall violently; (2) to hit with great force]

The airplane crashed into the mountain. (1)

The two cars crashed into each other. (2)


[(1)to make; (2) to give life or form to]

She created a beautiful poem. (1)

The Declaration of Independence says all men are created equal. (2)


[(1) any living being; (2) any animal or human]

A microscope can show a great many living creatures in a drop of water. (1)


People are learning how to live peacefully with other creatures. (2)


[an agreement that payments will be made at a later time]

With this card I can use credit to buy things today and pay for them next month.


[a group of people working together]

Ten members of the ship's crew were injured by the explosion.


[an act that violates a law]

Telling a lie to the court is a crime.


[a person who is responsible for a crime]

The organization tries to find jobs for criminals released from prison.


[(1) an extremely important time when something may become much better or worse;

(2) a dangerous situation]

During a middle age crisis, people often make changes in their life. (1)

The Cuban missile crisis in the 1960s almost caused a nuclear war. (2)


[(1) to say what is wrong with something or someone; (2) to condemn; (3) to judge] His teacher criticized him for not completing his report. (1)

The judge criticized the man for his evil acts and sentenced him to spend twenty years in prison. (2)

Her editor asked her to criticize a new book about ancient Egypt. (3)


[plants that are grown and gathered for food, such as grains, fruits and vegetables] The major crops in this area are corn and soybeans.


[(1) to go from one side to another; (2) to go across]

The mother holds her child's hand when they cross the street. (1)

This ship crosses the ocean in five days. (2)


[a large number of people gathered in one place]

A large crowd gathered to watch the show.


[(1) to damage or destroy by great weight; (2)to defeat completely]


The falling tree crushed the house. (1)

The T.C. Williams High School football team crushed every team it played that year.



[to express or show sorrow or pain]

The thought of never seeing her again made him cry.


[all the beliefs, traditions and arts of a group or population]

Her Western culture and my Eastern culture made our lives exciting.


[(1) to improve health; (2) to make well; (3) something that makes a sick person well] Living more simply and eating plain food cured most of her health problems. (1) The doctor can cure the disease. (2)

Antibiotics are a cure for infection. (3)


[an order to people to stay off the streets or to close their businesses]

The streets were empty every night after the ten o'clock curfew.


[(1) movement of air, water or electricity; (2) belonging to the present]

The current slows down in this wide part of the river. (1)

She found the report in a current publication. (2)


[a long-established belief or activity of a people]

It is our custom to go to church on Sunday mornings.


[taxes on imports]

I like to buy items in the custom-free store because there are no taxes to pay on the purchase.


[(1) to divide or injure with a sharp tool; (2) to make less; (3) to reduce]

She cut her finger while using the bread knife. (1)

The labor strike cut the company's production by 60 percent. (2)

Congress cut foreign aid spending. (3)




[a wall built across a river to hold back flowing water]

The dam burst after a week of rain.


[(1) to cause injury or destruction; (2) harm; (3) hurt or injury, usually to things] The boy damaged his toys by throwing them against the wall. (1)

The storm caused a lot of damage to crops. (2)

Hitting the tree did serious damage to my car. (3)


[(1) to move the body and feet to music; (2) a series of steps, usually to music] Will you dance with me? (1)

Do you know how to do the chicken dance? (2)


[a strong chance of suffering injury, damage or loss]

Some people enjoy the danger of rock climbing or sky diving.


[having little or no light]

The room was dark.


[a day, month and year]

Today's date is September 10, 2000.


[a person's female child]

Tommy is going to the movies with Helen's daughter.


[(1) twenty-four hours; (2) the hours of sunlight]

I plan to be away from home for ten days. (1)

Alan works at night and sleeps during the day. (2)


[not living]

The number of dead and injured in the rioting is not yet known.


[not able to hear]

The deaf man could not hear what you said.


[(1) to have to do with; (2) to buy or sell]

The talks will deal with the problem of pollution. (1)


Her company deals in plastic. (2)


[(1) to argue for or against something; (2) a public discussion or argument]

The two candidates debated for one and a half hours on nationwide television. (1) Which candidate do you think won the debate? (2)


[(1) something that is owed; (2)the condition of owing]

The bank will want a list of all your debts before it considers your loan request. (1) I owe a great debt to my family for all they did for me. (2)


[(1) to choose; (2) to settle; (3) to judge]

Which of the two books did you decide to read? (1)

Jay and I agreed that we would decide our dispute. (2)

The judge decided that the accused man was not guilty. (3)


[(1) to say; (2) to make a statement]

Jane declared that she never wanted to see him again. (1)

The United States declared its independence from Britain on July 4, 1776. (2)


[to make less in size or amount]

Technology helped the farmer to decrease his use of electricity.


[(1) going far down; (2) a long way from top to bottom]

The diver went deep into the ocean. (1)

The ocean was very deep where the ship went down. (2)


[to cause to lose in a battle or struggle; (2) a loss; (3) the condition of having lost] The House of Representatives defeated the President's request for more money for health care. (1)

It was the first defeat for the White House on health care spending. (2)

The defeat kills efforts to expand the health care system. (3)


[(1) to guard or fight against attack; (2) to protect]

The soldiers fought hard to defend the city from the invaders. (1)

How can you defend what he did? (2)


[a shortage that results when spending is greater than earnings, or imports are greater


than exports]

The President and the Congress worked together to reduce the budget deficit.


[(1) to give the meaning of; (2) to explain]

Today, I want you to define all the words on this list. (1)

Please define how the new system will work. (2)


[a measure of temperature]

The temperature outside is two degrees, Celsius.


[(1) to decide to do something at a later time; (2) to postpone; (3) to cause to be late] Let us delay dinner until we finish this work. (1)

The meeting will be delayed until ten o'clock tomorrow morning. (2)

The snowstorm delayed my arrival. (3)


[(1) one sent to act for another; (2) one who represents another]

The President named the Vice President to be his chief delegate at the trade talks. (1) The elected state assembly in Virginia is called the House of Delegates. (2)


[(1) to ask by ordering; (2) to ask with force]

His wife demanded that he paint the windows. (1)

The law demands that we pay our taxes on time. (2)


[the system of government in which citizens vote to choose leaders or to make other important decisions]

The United States has been a representative democracy for more than two hundred years.


[(1) to make a public show of opinions or feelings; (2) to explain by using examples] The crowd demonstrated in support of human rights. (1)

The teacher demonstrated the idea with an experiment. (2)


[(1) to accuse of being wrong or evil; (2) to criticize severely]

The war crimes court denounced the general for murder and other evil acts. (1) The candidate denounced the newspaper report about his arrest. (2)


[(1) to declare that something is not true; (2) to refuse a request]


The mayor denied the report that he had taken illegal payments. (1)

The appeals court denied the woman's request for a new trial. (2)


[to need help and support]

I depend on my friends for emotional support.


[(1) to regret strongly; (2) to express sadness]

The United Nations deplored the latest violence in the Middle East. (1)

The President deplored the deaths in the ship explosion. (2)


[to move forces or weapons into positions for action]

The general deployed his forces along the border.


[(1) severe unhappiness; (2) a period of reduced business and economic activity during which many people lose their jobs]

The doctor gave her medicine for her depression. (1)

The latest economic depression in the United States happened a long time ago. (2)


[(1) to give a word picture of something; (2) to give details of something]

The young man described his home in the desert. (1)

The report described how the problem developed. (2)


[a dry area of land]

Survival is difficult in the hot, dry desert.


[to plan or create plans for]

An architect designed my new home.


[(1) to want very much; (2) to wish for]

After traveling for two weeks, Jim very much desired a meal cooked at home. (1) If you could have anything you wanted, what would you desire? (2)


[(1) to break into pieces; (2) to end the existence of]

The earthquake destroyed many houses. (1)

His actions destroyed any trust between them. (2)



[(1) a small part of something; (2) a small piece of information]

Lisa decided every detail of her wedding. (1)

I want to hear every detail of your story. (2)


[(1) to grow; (2) to create; (3) to experience progress]

He is developing into a fine young man. (1)

The professor developed a new way to teach English. (2)

The country needed many years to develop an industrial economy. (3)


[a piece of equipment made for a special purpose]

The microwave cooker is a device I use every day.


[a ruler with complete power]

The people of Yugoslavia forced the dictator from power.


[(1) to become dead; (2) to stop living; (3) to end]

If you touch that wire you will die. (1)

The river died slowly as pollution increased. (2)

All hope died when the prison gate closed. (3)


[usual daily food and drink]

The doctor ordered a special diet to help him lose weight.


[not the same]

His clothes are different from mine.


[(1) not easy; (2) hard to do, make or carry out]

Keith was a difficult child. (1)

Building a boat is a difficult job. (2)


[to make a hole in the ground]

Dig here and you will find water.


[(1) the main amount of food eaten at a usual time; (2) a special event that includes food ]

The family had its dinner at noon. (1)

The official dinner took place at the White House. (2)



[a person who represents his or her government in dealing with another government] Most foreign diplomats live in the Washington area.


[(1) to lead; (2) to aim or show the way;(3) straight to something; (4) not through some other person or thing]

The mayor directs all city agencies. (1)

He directed me to the theater. (2)

The most direct way to Annapolis is Highway 50. (3)

The path is direct. (4)


[(1) the way (east, west, north, south); (2) where someone or something came from or went to]

North is the opposite direction from south. (1)

The cold wind is coming from that direction. (2)


[earth or soil]

Little children enjoy playing in the dirt.


[(1) to become unseen; (2) to no longer exist]

His dog disappears when it is time for a bath. (1)

Dinosaurs disappeared a long time ago. (2)


[(1) to take away weapons; (2) to no longer keep weapons; (3) to make a bomb harmless by removing its exploding device]

The policeman disarmed the gunman. (1)

Some smaller countries have disarmed. (2)

Explosives experts often can disarm bombs. (3)


[to find or learn something]

Scientists have discovered cures for many kinds of cancer.


[(1) to talk about; (2) to exchange ideas]

We can discuss anything you wish. (1)

The two presidents discussed trade and other economic issues. (2)


[a sickness in living things, often caused by viruses, germs or bacteria]


Modern medicines have made some diseases disappear.


[(1) to send away; (2) to refuse to consider]

The scientist was dismissed for copying secret information about nuclear weapons. (1) The senators dismissed any idea of campaign finance reform. (2)


[(1) to oppose strongly by argument; (2) an angry debate]

The two nations disputed where the border between them should be. (1)

The United Nations helped settle the border dispute. (2)


[a person who strongly disagrees with his or her government]

The three dissidents were sentenced to long prison terms.


[the amount of space between two places or objects]

The distance from my house to your house is two kilometers.


[to jump into water head first]

He dived into the river and swam to the screaming child.


[to separate into two or more parts]

She divided the food into four equal amounts.


[(1) to act; (2) to make an effort]

I did the job exactly as ordered. (1)

He did the best that he could do. (2)


[a person trained in medicine to treat sick people]

He was sick so he went to see the doctor.


[an official piece of paper with facts written on it, used as proof or support of something]

The lawyer offered many documents to support his case.


[a small animal that often lives with humans]

Our dog loves to chase our cat.



[United States money, one hundred cents]

Could I borrow a dollar from you?


[an opening for entering or leaving a building or room]

He ran through the door just as she closed it.


[(1) from higher to lower; (2) in a low place]

The climbers walked down the mountain. (1)

I was doing some exercises down on the floor when she walked in. (2)


[(1) to have a picture or story in the mind during sleep; (2) a picture or story in the mind during sleep; (3) a happy idea about the future]

He dreamed he was standing on a falling building. (1)

The man described his dream to the psychiatrist. (2)

The civil rights leader had a dream that someday whites and blacks could live together in peace. (3)


[to take liquid into the body through the mouth]

I always drink water after running.


[to control a moving vehicle]

He is learning to drive a car.


[(1) to fall or let fall; (2) to go lower]

She dropped a book as she walked by him. (1)

The value of the dollar dropped. (2)


[to die under water]

Three hundred people drowned when the ferry boat sank.


[(1) anything used as a medicine or in making medicine; (2) a chemical substance used to ease pain or to affect the mind]

The new drug seems to be an effective weapon against infections. (1)

Some doctors say the illegal drug marijuana can reduce bad effects of treatment with anti-cancer chemicals. (2)



[(1) not wet; (2) without rain]

This raincoat will keep you dry. (1)

The hot, dry weather is causing severe problems for farmers. (2)


[(1) through the whole time; (2) while (something is happening)]

She said she would be too busy during the day to see me. (1)

I slept during his long speech. (2)


[pieces of matter so small that they can float in the air]

After the explosion, the air in the building was filled with dust.


[(1) one's job or responsibility; (2) what one must do because it is right and just] The soldier was often on guard duty. (1)

It is my duty to vote on election day. (2)



[every one by itself]

Each of us sang a different song in the show.


[(1) at or near the beginning, especially the beginning of the day; (2) opposite late] They saw her walking early this morning. (1)

A few arrived late, but most were early. (2)


[to be paid in return for work done]

She earns 40,000 dollars a year.


[(1) the planet we all live on; (2) the ground or soil]

Have you seen the picture of earth made from the moon's surface? (1)

The sun warmed the black earth of the farmer's field. (2)


[a sudden, violent shaking of the earth's surface]

The earthquake caused severe damage to bridges and buildings in Los Angeles.


[(1) to reduce; (2) to make less difficult]

The rate of economic inflation eased last month. (1)

The new equipment helped ease his job. (2)



[the direction from which the sun rises]

The sun rises in the east and goes down in the west.


[(1) not difficult; (2) not hard to do]

His English is easy to understand. (1)

She says that running five kilometers is easy for her. (2)


[to take food into the body through the mouth]

Can you eat now, or do you want to eat later?


[the scientific study of the environment and links among living and material things] She is an expert on the ecology of wetlands.


[the system by which money, industry and trade are organized]

Many people hope the economy will continue to grow.


[the line where something ends or begins]

Do not write near the edge of the paper.


[the act of teaching]

Congress approved the spending of 450 million dollars for aid to education.


[the result or change caused by something]

The storm had a serious effect on the economy.


[(1) an attempt; (2) the work necessary to do something]

The boy made an effort to help his mother. (1)

Climbing the mountain required great effort. (2)


[(1) the rounded object containing unborn young produced by female birds, fish or reptiles; (2) a single cell in a female person or animal that can develop into a baby] Sea turtles bury their eggs in the sand. (1)

Human eggs can be transplanted from one woman to another. (2)



[one of two, but not the other]

Can either of you tell me how to get to the airport?


[to choose by voting]

The voters elected the state governor as President of the United States.


[a form of energy that flows through wires to provide heat and light, and power to machines]

We did not have electricity or clean water after the storm.


[the offices of an ambassador and his or her assistants]

All foreign embassies are in Washington.


[an unexpected and dangerous situation demanding quick action]

The President declared a wildfire emergency in New Mexico.


[a strong feeling such as love, hate, fear or sadness]

The dispute produced strong emotions on both sides.


[to give work in return for wages]

Jane is employed as a prison guard.


[(1) having nothing inside; (2) to remove everything]

The house was empty. (1)

The old man emptied his glass and asked for more water. (2)


[(1) to stop; (2) to finish; (3) the part which comes last]

The chairman ended the meeting. (1)

The year ended peacefully. (2)

We were happy to reach the end of the project. (3)


[(1) a person opposing or hating another; (2) a person or people of the other side in a war]

The two men were fierce political enemies. (1)

Enemy soldiers attacked allied forces on the island. (2)



[(1) power used to do work, usually with machines; (2) the ability and willingness to be active]

Electricity provides most of the energy in our city. (1)

You can increase your energy by eating healthy food and exercising every day. (2)


[to make something be done]

Police enforce the law.


[a machine that uses energy to cause movement or to do work]

He says his car's engine will not start.


[a person who designs engines, machines, roads, bridges or railroads]

He worked as an engineer in the space program.


[to be pleased or satisfied by something]

Did you enjoy the movie?


[(1) as much as necessary; (2) the amount needed]

Does Richard have enough money to buy her a ring? (1)

Richard said he had enough. (2)


[to come or go into]

They entered the store together.


[(1) all surrounding things, conditions and influences that affect life; (2) the natural world of land, sea, air, plants and animals]

The group support stronger laws to protect the environment from industrial pollution.


Tell us what we can do to prevent further damage to our natural environment. (2)


[(1) the same in amount, size, weight or value; (2) having the same rights]

Each of them provided an equal amount of money to start the new business. (1) The amendment guaranteed that men and women would have equal rights. (2)


[things, tools or machines needed for a purpose or activity]

Jack has all the equipment we will need for our camping trip.



[(1) to get free; (2) to get away from; (3) to get out of]

The lion escaped from his cage. (1)

Three prisoners escaped from their guards. (2)

No one could escape from the high security prison. (3)


[more than others]

We liked the food, especially the fish.


[(1) to bring into existence; (2) to create]

Mister Jenkins established his business 23 years ago. (1)

Scientists have established a new way to communicate with creatures anywhere in the universe. (2)


[to form an opinion about a value, size or amount using less than complete information]

The media have failed in their attempts to estimate the winners of national elections.


[of or concerning people belonging to a large group because of their race, religion, language, tribe or where their ancestors lived]

Jay and Cindy enjoy eating ethnic food as often as possible.


[to change from a liquid into a gas]

Water evaporates more quickly during dry weather.


[in a way not thought possible]

They survived, even though the building was destroyed.


[that which happens, especially something of importance]

Swearing in a new President is a big event in Washington.


[at any time]

Did you ever meet Joseph's wife?


[(1) each one; (2) all]

Every winner gets a different prize. (1)


She has read every book in the library. (2)


[(1) material or facts that prove something; (2) a reason for believing]

The evidence proves the suspect is guilty. (1)

Children do not need evidence to believe in Santa Claus. (2)


[(1) not good; (2) extremely bad]

He had an evil plan. (1)

Only a truly evil person would treat a child so badly. (2)


[(1) having no mistakes; (2) correct in every detail]

That is the exact number of students present. (1)

His reports were exact in every way. (2)


[to study closely]

The judge examined the evidence carefully.


[a part that shows what the rest of a thing or group is like]

Her success is an example of the results of a good education.


[extremely good]

George is excellent at cooking French food.


[but for]

Except for Joe, everyone wanted to help.


[(1) to trade; (2) to give or receive one thing for another]

He exchanged his shares of stock for a cash payment. (1)

The two sides exchanged ideas on a peace agreement. (2)


[(1) to take away blame; (2) to pardon; (3) to forgive; (4) a reason (sometimes false) for an action]

He excused himself for lying to her. (1)

A governor's pardon excuses the prisoner's criminal act. (2)

Please excuse me for speaking your language so poorly. (3)

Missus Warner refused to accept her husband's excuse for what he did. (4)



[to kill]

What is the state's argument for executing murderers?


[an activity or effort for the purpose of improving the body or to stay in good health] Doctors say a half hour of exercise several times a week can prevent heart attacks.


[(1) to force a person to leave his or her country; (2) to expel; (3) a person who is forced to leave his or her country]

The writer was exiled because his book criticized the government. (1)

The new government exiled the former dictator. (2)

After the fall of the communist government, exiles were able to return home. (3)


[(1) to be; (2) to live]

Many of the documents needed by the court no longer exist. (1)

How long has life existed on Earth? (2)


[(1) to make larger; (2) to grow larger]

The mayor expanded the police force to stop an increase in crimes. (1)

This economy is expanding at a rate of four percent a year. (2)


[(1) to think or believe that something will happen; (2) to wait for an event] Do you expect an increase in pay this year? (1)

Tom and Mary Ann are expecting a new baby in August. (2)


[(1) to force out; (2) to remove from; (3) to send away]

The dishonest officers were expelled from the military forces. (1)

The students were expelled for bringing alcohol to school. (2)

Some of the exiles were expelled for religious reasons. (3)


[(1) to live through an event, situation or condition ; (2) something that one has done or lived through]

She experienced great pain. (1)

The experience caused her great pain. (2)


[(1) to test; (2) a test or trial carried out to prove if an idea is true or false, or to discover something]

The candidate said he experimented with marijuana when he was a student. (1)


The medical experiments showed that the new medicine was not effective against cancer. (2)


[a person with special knowledge or training]

She is an expert on nuclear disarmament.


[(1) to give reasons for; (2) to make clear; (3) to tell about; (4) to tell the meaning] Linda explained to her father why she wanted a big wedding. (1)

The president explained in detail his plan to send American soldiers to the troubled area. (2)

Wyatt explained the steps he used to solve the budget problem. (3)

Justin was asked to explain the effects of his solution on all sides in the dispute. (4)


[to break apart violently with a loud noise, like a bomb]

The criticism made him explode in anger.


[(1) to travel in a place that is not well known to learn more about it; (2) to make a careful search; (3) to examine closely]

A team led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the land west of the Mississippi River almost two hundred years ago. (1)

The spacecraft explored the solar system to search for signs of life. (2)

The committee explored every possibility before deciding what to do. (3)


[(1) to send to another country; (2) something sent to another country, usually for sale]

The United States has been importing much more from Asia than it exports. (1)

But it expects exports will increase following the approval of full trade relations with China. (2)


[to say clearly]

He expressed his love for her.


[(1) to stretch out in area or length; (2) to continue for a longer time]

The rebels have extended their control over more of the country. (1)

Officials have extended the time that students must be in school each day, from seven hours to eight. (2)


[more than normal, expected or necessary]


Newspapers printed extra copies to report election results.


[more than the usual or accepted]

My broken leg was extremely painful.

(~ly adverb)


[a person with strong religious or political beliefs who acts in an extreme or violent way]

Animal rights extremists broke into the building and released all the laboratory animals.


face [(1) the front of the head: eyes, nose, month; (2) to look toward; (3) to turn toward; (4) to have before you, such as a problem or danger]

Put a smile on your face. (1)

He faced the flag. (2)

She faced left, then right. (3)

The nation faced great danger. (4)

fact [something known or proved to be true]

The facts show that he spoke the truth.

factory [a building or group of buildings where goods are made]

The shoe factory in our town is moving to Mexico.

fail [(1) to not succeed; (2) to not reach a goal]

My car failed to start. (1)

The leaders failed to reach a peace agreement. (2)

fair [(1) just; (2) honest; (3) what is right]

The judge made a fair decision. (1)

He played the game fairly. (2)

(~ly adverb)

It was only fair that she invite him to dinner. (3)

fall [(1) to go down quickly; (2) to come down; (3) to drop to the ground or a lower position]

The burning airplane fell from the sky. (1)

The ball fell gently into my hands. (2)

The snow melted as it fell. (3)

false [(1)not true; (2) not correct]

She made a false statement to the police. (1)


The computer gave a false answer. (2)

family [the group that includes children and their parents]

She has a large family.

famous [known very well to many people]

He is a famous actor.

far [at, to or from a great distance]

John's home is far from here.

farm [land used to grow crops and animals for food]

His family owns a big farm in Kansas.

fast [(1) moving or working at great speed; (2) quick]

He said he could run as fast as a race horse. (1)

My dog is a fast eater. (2)

fat [(1) tissue in the bodies of humans and animals used to store energy and to keep warm; (2) thick; (3) heavy]

She stays thin by not eating any fat. (1)

Her dog looks fat, but all pugs look like that. (2)

The professor has published a fat book on world history. (3)

father [(1) the male parent; (2) a man who has a child or children]

Her father lives with them. (1)

Are you a father? (2)

fear [(1) to be afraid; (2) to worry that something bad is near or may happen; (3) a strong emotion when there is danger or trouble]

He feared what he could not see. (1)

He feared falling down. (2)

He had a fear that he would fall down. (3)

federal [of or having to do with a national or central government]

She works for the federal government as a tax collector.

feed [to give food to]

How many times a day do you feed your dog?

feel [(1) to have or experience an emotion; (2) to know by touching]

I feel sad because he is so far away. (1)

I feel sand between my toes. (2)

female [(1) a woman or girl; (2) the sex that gives birth; (3) of or about women] With a wife and three daughters, he was surrounded by females. (1)


Females have babies. (2)

Universities provide more support now for female sports programs. (3)

fence [something around an area of land to keep animals or people in or out] The farmer put up a new fence around the field.

fertile [(1) rich in production of plants or animals; (2) producing much]

The farmer's fertile soil produces huge crops. (1)

The writer has a fertile imagination. (2)

few [(1) not many; (2) a small number of]

Few people have ever seen such an unusual bird. (1)

I have a few ideas about how to solve the problem. (2)

field [an area of open land, usually used to grow crops or to raise animals] The farmer kept cows in two of his fields.

fierce [(1) extremely strong; (2) violent; (3) angry]

The fierce storm caused much damage. (1)

The soldiers fought fiercely. (2)

The angry demonstrators shouted fiercely. (3)

fight [(1) to use violence or force; (2) to attempt to defeat or destroy an enemy;(3) the use of force; (4) a battle]

The two boys were fighting about who would be first. (1)

The two armies fought fiercely to destroy each other. (2)

The fighting failed to push rebel forces from the city. (3)

The two sides exchanged charges in the continuing political fight. (4)

fill [to put or pour something into a container until there is space for no more] Jack filled his cup with hot coffee.

film [(1) to record something so it can be seen again; (2) to make a motion picture or movie; (3) a thin piece of material for making pictures with a camera; (4) a movie] He filmed the complete ceremony. (1)

She filmed the movie in New York. (2)

My camera needs more film. (3)

My favorite film is "Saving Private Ryan." (4)

final [(1) at the end; (2) last]

Tomorrow is the final day of winter. (1)

We won our final baseball game of the season.(2)

financial [of or about the system that includes the use of money, credit, investments and banks]

The growing political crisis could weaken our financial system.


find [(1) to discover or learn something by searching or by accident; (2) to decide a court case]

He found a new book by his favorite writer. (1)

The jury found the man guilty of murder. (2)

fine [(1) a payment ordered by a court to punish someone for a crime; (2) very good;

(3) very small or thin]

The court ordered him to pay a 500-dollar fine. (1)

She did fine work for our company. (2)

He drew a fine line under the word. (3)

finish [(1) to complete; (2) to end]

He finished reading the book. (1)

She finished her cup of tea. (2)

fire [(1) to shoot a gun; (2) the heat and light produced by something burning] He fired a warning shot and shouted, "Police." (1)

The fire warmed our hands. (2)

fireworks [rockets producing bright fire in the sky, used in holiday celebrations] We watched the fireworks for thirty minutes.

firm [not easily moved or changed]

She is firm in her opinion.

first [coming before all others]

Tom was the first person I saw.

fish [a creature that lives and can breathe in water]

How many fish did you catch?

fit [to be of the correct size or shape]

These shoes fit my feet.

fix [to make good or right again]

He was able to fix his car without help.

flag [a piece of colored cloth used to represent a nation, government or organization] The United States flag has fifty stars.

flat [(1) smooth; (2) having no high places]

He paints pictures on flat pieces of wood. (1)

The land is flat in most parts of the state of Kansas. (2)

flee [to run away from]


He tried to flee but the police caught him.

float [(1) to be on water without sinking; (2) to move or be moved gently on water or through air]

The boat floated on top of the water. (1)

The balloon rose into the air and floated away. (2)

flood [(1) to cover with water; (2) the movement of water out of a river, lake or ocean onto land]

The rising waters flooded much of the town. (1)

The flood began to go down when the rain stopped. (2)

floor [(1) the bottom part of a room for walking on; (2) the level of a building] The book fell to the floor. (1)

The fire was on the first floor. (2)

flow [to move like a liquid]

The oil flowed through the engine.

flower [the colored part of plants that carry seeds]

The field was covered by blue and red flowers.

fluid [any substance that can flow, such as a liquid]

The fluid on the floor was a harmless chemical.

fly [(1) to move through the air with wings, like a bird or airplane; (2) to travel in an airplane or flying vehicle]

Birds fly high in the sky. (1)

Walter will fly to Los Angeles tomorrow morning. (2)

fog [a mass of wet air that is difficult to see through]

The fog slowed traffic for several hours.

follow [(1) to come or go after; (2) to accept the rule or power of; (3) to obey] He asked us to follow him to his house. (1)

He follows the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. (2)

The official said he followed the orders of the President's lawyer. (3)

food [that which is taken in by all living things for energy, strength and growth] He wanted to get food for hungry people.

fool [(1) to make someone believe something that is not true; (2) to trick; (3) a person who is tricked easily]

Her lies fooled a lot of people. (1)

He fooled people to get what he wanted. (2)

Being tricked made him feel like a fool. (3)


foot [the part of the body that touches the ground when a person or animal walks] Her foot hurts because she stepped on a sharp rock.

for [(1) because of; (2) in exchange; (3) through space or time; (4) representative of;

(5) to be employed by]

He is famous for his work. (1)

Give me one dollar for the book. (2)

They traveled for one hour. (3)

I speak for all people. (4)

She works for a computer company. (5)

force [(1) to make someone do something or make something happen by using power;

(2) power, strength; (3) strength used against a person or object; (4) military power of a nation; (5) a military group]

They forced him to go with them. (1)

The bomb exploded with great force. (2)

He used powerful force to lift the fallen tree from her body. (3)

The President said he will use the full force of the country against foreign invaders.


A Navy and Marine Corps landing force is on its way to the troubled island. (5)

foreign [(1) of, about or from another nation; (2) not from one's own place or country] The United States has diplomatic relations with almost every foreign nation. (1) Foreign products seem to cost less than most products made here. (2)

forest [a place of many trees]

New laws prevent companies from cutting all the trees in the forest.

forget [to not remember]

The man was in trouble because he forgot his wedding anniversary.

forgive [(1) to pardon; (2) to excuse; (3) to remove guilt]

A pardon by the President forgives a criminal for the crime. (1)

I forgive you for taking my car. (2)

Please forgive me for being late. (3)

form [(1) to make; (2) to start; (3) to shape; (4) a kind]

We formed a plan before starting the project. (1)

They formed a swim team. (2)

She formed the clay bottle with her hands. (3)

Swimming is a form of exercise. (4)

former [(1) earlier in time; (2) not now]

At a former time, Philadelphia was the national capital. (1)

His former wife lives across the street from him. (2)


forward [(1) the direction in front of; (2) toward the front]

The group with the flags was 10 meters forward of the rest of the parade. (1) The men stepped forward when the sergeant commanded, "Forward, march." (2)

free [(1) to release; (2) not controlled by another or by outside forces; (3) not in prison;

(4) independent; (5) not limited by rules; (6) without cost]

He was freed at the end of the trial. (1)

For the first time, she felt free as a bird. (2)

He was a free man after being found not guilty. (3)

The United States is a free nation. (4)

After his final day of studies, he was free from all the rules of school. (5)

The prize she won was a free ride in an airplane. (6)

freedom [the condition of being free]

Many people in history have died for freedom.

freeze [(1) to cause or to become very cold; (2) to make or to become hard by cold] You will freeze unless you wear a coat. (1)

She freezes food and stores it in her freezer. (2)

fresh [(1) newly made or gathered; (2) recent]

His garden produces fresh vegetables every day. (1)

The lawyer criticized the fresh evidence found by police. (2)

friend [a person one likes and trusts]

The two men have been friends for more than fifty years.

frighten [to cause great fear]

Loud noises frighten my daughter.

from [(1) having a person, place or thing as a beginning or cause; (2) at a place distant, not near; (3) because of]

It is a message from the president. (1)

The school is five kilometers from my home. (2)

He is suffering from cancer. (3)

front [(1) the forward part; (2) the opposite of back; (3) the beginning; (4) the first part]

The front of her house needs painting. (1)

She wanted to sit in the front of the bus, not in the back. (2)

They were at the front of the line waiting to buy tickets. (3)

He said the best part was toward the front of the book. (4)

fruit [food from trees and plants]

Much of the fruit fell from the tree.


fuel [any substance burned to create heat or power]

Which kind of fuel do you use to heat your home?

full [(1) containing as much as a person or thing can hold; (2) complete]

The gasoline tank is full. (1)

He will spend the full week away from the office. (2)

fun [anything that is pleasing and causes happiness]

The children had fun at the birthday party.

funeral [a ceremony held in connection with the burial or burning of the dead]

After the funeral, the President's remains were buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

future [(1) time after now; (2) in the time to come]

We can talk about it in the future. (1)

All future meetings will be held in this room. (2)


gain [(1) to get possession of; (2) to get more; (3)to increase]

For a long time, United States voters did not know which candidate gained the presidency. (1)

He gained more support by speaking on television. (2)

His savings gained 150 dollars in interest. (3)

game [an activity with rules in which people or teams play or compete, usually sports] Our school won the baseball game.

gas [(1) any substance that is not solid or liquid; (2) any substance that burns to provide heat, light or power]

Seventy-eight percent of our atmosphere is nitrogen gas. (1)

Natural gas is used to heat many homes in the United States. (2)

gather [(1) to bring or come together into a group or place; (2) to collect]

They gather at the church every Sunday. (1)

Please help her gather flowers from the garden. (2)

general [(1) a high military leader; (2) without details; (3) affecting or including all or almost all]

The general ordered his forces to attack. (1)

The senator made a general statement on the proposal, and promised details later. (2) He hopes to change general opinion on the issue. (3)

gentle [(1) soft; (2) kind; (3) not rough or violent]


She has a gentle voice. (1)

He is gentle with children. (2)

I gave him a gentle push toward her. (3)

get [(1) to receive; (2) to gain; (3) to go and bring back; (4) to become; (5) to become the owner of]

Did you get the letter I sent to you? (1)

She got a new friend. (2)

Please get an apple for me at the food store. (3)

He got sick last night after the party. (4)

She got a new car today. (5)

gift [something given without cost]

He gave her a gift from Japan.

girl [a young female person]

Have you met the new girl in our class?

give [to present to another to keep without receiving payment]

Her husband gave her a diamond ring for her birthday.

glass [a hard, clear material that is easily broken, used most often for windows or for containers to hold liquids]

The glass broke when it hit the floor.

go [(1) to move from one place to another; (2) to leave]

We will go home from here. (1)

He said he must go at 10 o'clock. (2)

goal [(1) that toward which an effort is directed; (2) that which is aimed at; (3) the end of a trip or race]

Our goal is to finish this report today. (1)

We have several goals for the year. (2)

We reached our goal after two days of hard walking. (3)

god [(1) the spirit that is honored as creator of all things; (2) a spirit or being believed in many religions to have special powers]

They believe in God. (1)

The ancient Greeks believed in many gods. (2)

gold [a highly valued yellow metal]

He became rich after finding gold.

good [(1) pleasing; (2) helpful; (3) kind; (4) correct; (5) not bad]

The tea tastes good. (1)

Your good plans helped us complete the project early. (2)


He was a good person who had many friends. (3)

She gave good answers to every question on the examination. (4)

This meat looks good, but it smells bad. (5)

goods [things owned or made to be sold]

This store sells sporting goods.

govern [(1) to control; (2) to rule by military or political power]

Special rules govern the election. (1)

The troubled country is governed by a group of military officers. (2)

government [(1) a system of governing; (2) the organization of people that rules a country, city or area]

America has a democratic government. (1)

The Labor government has survived a political attack by the opposition party. (2)

grain [(1) the seed of grass plants used for food, such as wheat, rice and corn; (2) those plants that produce the seeds]

I like bread made from several different grains. (1)

The farmer raises two grains, wheat and corn. (2)

granddaughter [the daughter of a person's daughter or son]

My granddaughter is three years old today.

grandfather [the father of a person's father or mother]

He became a grandfather when his granddaughter was born.

grandmother [the mother of a person's father or mother]

She plans to visit her grandmother.

grandson [the son of a person's daughter or son]

The old woman had many grandsons.

grass [a plant with long, narrow, green leaves]

He asked his grandson to cut the grass in his yard.

gray [having the color like that made by mixing black and white]

Gray clouds filled the sky.

great [(1) very large or more than usual in size or number; (2) very good; (3) important]

A great many people around the world watched on television as the astronaut stepped onto the moon's surface. (1)

He was a great President. (2)

I like to read about the great heroes of history. (3)


green [(1)having the color like that made by mixing yellow and blue; (2) having the color like that of growing leaves and grass]

Mixing blue and yellow paint produces green paint. (1)

Rain has made the trees especially green this year. (2)

grind [to reduce to small pieces by crushing]

Many people grind coffee beans each morning to make coffee.

ground [(1) land; (2) the earth's surface; (3) soil]

The ground here is very dry. (1)

The airlines plane flew almost nine kilometers above the ground. (2)

In the spring, farmers prepare the ground for planting crops. (3)

group [(1) a number of people or things together; (2) a gathering of people working for a common purpose]

That group of houses was built last year. (1)

The two groups decided to work together instead of competing with each other. (2)

grow [(1) to develop or become bigger; (2) to increase in size or amount]

That young tree has grown much taller in the past year. (1)

Higher interest rates made his savings grow even more. (2)

guarantee [(1) to promise a result; (2) to promise that something will happen]

The company guaranteed it would repair or replace the computer if it broke within two years. (1)

The employee guaranteed he would complete the work by the end of the week. (2)

guard [(1) to watch and protect a person, place or thing; (2) a person or thing that watches or protects]

He guards the president. (1)

He is a prison guard. (2)

guerrilla [a person who fights as part of an unofficial army, usually against an official army or police ]

Guerrillas attacked a police station in the town and captured guns and ammunition.

guide [(1) to lead to; (2) to show the way; (3) one who shows the way]

He offered to guide us to the top of the mountain. (1)

The driver guided his car through the narrow street. (2)

Our guide spent the day showing us the city. (3)

guilty [(1) having done something wrong or in violation of a law; (2) responsible for a bad action]

The court found him guilty of stealing a car. (1)

She felt guilty because she did not call her mother. (2)


gun [a weapon that shoots bullets]

Is it legal to own a gun in your country?


hair [the fine material that grows from the skin, especially from the head]

She has long brown hair.

half [one of two equal parts of something]

She had some soup and half a sandwich for lunch.

halt [(1) to cause to come to a stop; (2) to stop]

He halted the group of marching men. (1)

The marching men halted. (2)

hang [(1) to place something so the highest part is supported and the lower part is not;

(2) to kill by hanging]

Please hang your coat next to the door. (1)

The court ordered the killer to die by hanging. (2)

happen [(1) to become a fact or event; (2) to take place]

The accident happened over there. (1)

He saw it happen. (2)

happy [(1) pleased; (2) satisfied; (3) feeling good; (4) not sad]

She was happy that he called. (1)

He was happy with the solution to the problem. (2)

His dog seemed happy to be outside. (3)

She looked happy for the first time since the accident. (4)

hard [(1) not easily cut or broken; (2) solid; (3) difficult to do or understand; (4) needing much effort or force]

A diamond is very hard. (1)

That hard door is made of oak wood. (2)

Legal papers written by a lawyer usually are hard to understand. (3)

Digging a well is hard work. (4)

harm [(1) to injure; (2) to damage; (3) damage; (4) hurt]

The dog did not harm me. (1)

Do not harm my son's good name. (2)

What harm did he do by speaking to me? (3)

The labor strike caused much harm to the business. (4)

harvest [(1) to gather crops; (2) the crop after it is gathered]


Farmers harvest their crops in autumn. (1)

The grain harvest was the largest in years. (2)

hat [a head cover]

You hair looks like you just took off your hat.

hate [(1) to have strong emotions against; (2) to consider as an enemy; (3) opposite love]

He hated to make mistakes. (1)

The woman hated her former husband. (2)

He said he did not hate her, but he also said he did not love her either. (3)

have [(1) to possess; (2) to own; (3) to hold]

I have only three dollars left. (1)

He had that car for a long time. (2)

I had the ball in my hand, and I dropped it. (3)

he [the boy or man who is being spoken about]

He is my father.

head [(1) to lead; (2) to command; (3) leader; (4) chief; (5) the top part of something;

(6) the highest position]

He heads the new office. (1)

The general heads allied military forces in Europe. (2)

That man is head of Jimmy's Boy Scout group. (3)

She is the head lawyer on this case. (4)

The stream begins flowing at the head of this valley. (5)

That old man was head of his country many years ago. (6)

headquarters [(1) the center from which orders are given; (2) the main offices of a business or organization]

The headquarters for United States naval forces in the Atlantic area is at Norfolk, Virginia. (1)

The headquarters of our company is near Seattle. (2)

heal [(1) to return to good health; (2) to cure; (3) to become well]

The medical center treats many sick people and heals some of them. (1)

A bone marrow transplant healed his cancer. (2)

He is completely healed. (3)

health [(1) the general condition of the body and mind; (2) the condition of being free from sickness or disease]

Health is a major concern in many countries. (1)

The woman says she is in good health now. (2)

hear [(1) to receive sound through the ears; (2) to receive news about]


Can you hear me if I talk softly? (1)

I heard that you have a new job. (2)

heat [(1) to make hot or warm; (2) great warmth; (3) that which is produced by burning fuel; (4) energy from the sun]

She is heating some water for tea. (1)

He became sick because of the desert heat. (2)

Can you feel the heat from the fire? (3)

They use the sun's heat to help warm their home. (4)

heavy [(1) having much weight; (2) not easy to lift; (3) of great amount or force] The doctor told him he is too heavy. (1)

She needed help to lift the heavy box. (2)

Heavy voting was reported in many parts of the country. (3)

helicopter [a machine without wings that can fly up or down or remain in one place above the ground]

Helicopters rescued many flood victims.

help [(1) to give support; (2) to assist; (3) to make easier; (4) support; (5) aid] The company helped him to complete his university studies. (1)

He helped her to put on her coat. (2)

Will you help me prepare for the test tomorrow? (3)

She needs your help to succeed. (4)

What kind of help can you provide for the refugees? (5)

here [in, to or at this place]

Please come here now.

hero [a person honored for being brave or wise]

She said her brother was a hero in the war.

hide [(1) to prevent from being seen or found; (2) to make secret]

He hid me in his closet until his mother left. (1)

Did she hide her political beliefs from you too? (2)

high [(1) tall; (2) far up; (3) far above the ground; (4) important; (5) above others] That tree is high enough for a tree house. (1)

There is a house high up on the mountain. (2)

The helicopter flew high above the ground. (3)

The Supreme Court is often called the high court. (4)

He is a high official in the federal government. (5)

hijack [to seize or take control of a vehicle by force]

The prisoners hijacked a car in their escape attempt.


hill [a small mountain]

The boys climbed that hill and went down the other side.

history [(1) the written record or description of past events; (2) the study of the past] She is writing a history of her family. (1)

How many years have you studied American history? (2)

hit [(1) to strike; (2) to touch with force]

Don't hit me. (1)

Her head hit the floor when she fell. (2)

hold [(1) to carry or support, usually in the hands or arms; (2) to keep in one position;

(3) to keep as a prisoner; (4) to contain; (5) to possess; (6) to occupy; (7) to organize and be involved in]

He held a cup of water to her mouth. (1)

The woman with the camera said, "Hold your head up while I take your picture." (2) The police held the suspect for questioning. (3)

This cup holds eight ounces of liquid. (4)

The businessman held a lot of stock in his company. (5)

She holds the office of mayor. (6)

The two sides hold talks this week. (7)

hole [(1) an opening; (2) a torn or broken place in something]

The little animal ran into a hole in the ground. (1)

The boy had torn a hole in his shirt. (2)

holiday [(1) a day when one does not work; (2) a day on which no work is done to honor or remember a person or event]

He plans to go to Europe for a two-week holiday. (1)

They decided to watch the fireworks in Washington on the Independence Day holiday, July 4th. (2)

holy [greatly honored in religion]

Christians follow the beliefs expressed in the Holy Bible.

home [(1) the building where a person lives, especially with family; (2) the place where one was born or comes from; (3) the area or country where one lives] The White House has been the President's home for eight years. (1)

Her home is New York City. (2)

He says he will return to his home in Texas when he retires. (3)

honest [(1) truthful; (2) able to be trusted]

You can believe what he tells you because he is an honest man. (1)

He says he is an honest person, but I do not trust him. (2)

honor [(1) to obey; (2) to show strong, good feelings for; (3) an award; (4) an act of


giving special recognition]

She will honor her promises. (1)

We honor our parents many times during the year, not just on Mothers' Day and Fathers' Day. (2)

The Sergeant was given America's highest award for bravery, the Medal of Honor. (3) He received many honors for his efforts to help others. (4)

hope [(1) to expect; (2) to believe there is a good chance that something will happen as wanted; (3) to want something to happen]

We hope she will arrive tomorrow. (1)

The doctor said he hopes the treatment will work as expected. (2)

I hope for good weather this weekend. (3)

horrible [(1) causing great fear; (2) terrible]

Fighting a war with weapons that spread deadly diseases is a horrible idea. (1) Two people died in the horrible traffic accident. (2)

horse [a large animal often used for racing, riding or farm work]

Do you enjoy riding horses?

hospital [a place where sick or injured people are given medical care]

She was treated at the hospital after falling off her horse.

hostage [a person captured and held as a guarantee that a demand or promise will be honored]

Police freed the hostages held by the terrorists.

hostile [(1) ready to fight; (2) ready for war]

He spoke words of peace but his eyes were hostile. (1)

Hostile forces were at the border, ready to invade. (2)

hot [having or feeling great heat or a high temperature]

The hot coffee burned my mouth.

hotel [a building with rooms, and often food, for travelers]

This hotel has good service.

hour [(1) a measure of time; (2) sixty minutes]

The two old friends talked for hours. (1)

He worked for four hours and thirty minutes on Saturday. (2)

house [(1) a building in which people live; (2) a country's parliament or lawmaking group]

I need to paint the outside of my house. (1)

Republican legislators control the House of Representatives. (2)


how [(1) in what way; (2) to what amount]

John does not know how to get to my house. (1)

How much money do you need? (2)

however [(1) yet; (2) but]

She said she would be late; however, she arrived on time. (1)

His leg was broken; however, that did not stop him from escaping. (2)

huge [(1) very big; (2) of great size]

The new employee made a huge mistake. (1)

We climbed that huge mountain. (2)

human [of or about people]

Workers found human bones buried under the old building.

humor [the ability to understand, enjoy or express what makes people laugh] He liked her because she had an unusual sense of humor.

hunger [the need for food]

Hunger is one of the world's biggest problems.

hunt [(1) to search for animals to capture or kill them; (2) to seek; (3) to try to find] The men with guns were hunting birds. (1)

We hunted for a way out of the valley. (2)

The negotiators hunted for a solution to the problem. (3)

hurry [to do or go fast]

If you hurry, you can catch the bus.

hurt [to cause pain, injury or damage]

The runner hurt his leg just before the big race.

husband [a man who is married]

Have you met Jan's husband?


I [the person speaking]

I am glad to meet you.

ice [frozen water]

Would you like more ice in your drink?

idea [(1) a thought or picture in the mind; (2) a belief]

He liked your ideas for the party. (1)

His ideas about religion are very strange. (2)


identify [to recognize someone or something and to say who or what they are] Can you identify the man you saw with the victim?

if [(1) on condition; (2) provided that]

I will go only if you go. (1)

I will go if you go. (2)

illegal [(1) not legal; (2) in violation of a law]

His friend was an illegal visitor to this country. (1)

The judge said throwing waste paper from the car was an illegal act. (2)

imagine [(1) to make a picture in the mind; (2) to form an idea]

I can imagine how pleased she was with the gift. (1)

She said she could imagine several ways to correct the problem. (2)

immediate [(1) without delay; (2) very near in time or place]

The emergency required immediate action. (1)

The officer ordered his men to search the immediate area. (2)

import [(1) to bring from another country; (2) something brought from another country, usually for sale]

This candy was imported from Germany. (1)

The report said imports were increasing but exports were lower. (2)

important [having great meaning, value or power]

She is an important member of Congress.

improve [(1) to make better; (2) to become better]

He improved the company's earnings. (1)

The company's earnings improved. (2)

in [(1) inside; (2) held by; (3) contained by; (4) surrounded by; (5) during] The food is in the ice box. (1)

What do you have in your hand? (2)

The good wine is in that bottle. (3)

Did you get wet in the storm? (4)

He heard the child crying in the night. (5)

incident [an event or something that happens]

The incident did not affect her performance.

incite [to urge or cause an action or emotion, usually something bad or violent] The speaker incited the riot.

include [(1) to have; (2) to make a part of]

That price includes sales tax. (1)


Please include Mary on the list of speakers. (2)

increase [to make more in size or amount]

The runner increased his speed near the finish line.

independent [(1) not influenced by or controlled by another or others; (2) free; (3) separate]

An independent investigator found no evidence of wrongdoing. (1)

He was an independent thinker. (2)

The 13 American colonies declared that they were independent from Britain. (3)

individual [one person]

He wrote about protecting the legal rights of the individual.

industry [(1) any business that produces goods or provides services; (2) the work and related activity in factories and offices; (3) all organizations involved in manufacturing]

She works in the travel industry. (1)

Industry began slowing down in the final months of 2000. (2)

He believes the labor unions and industry will reach early agreement on their differences. (3)

infect [to make sick with something that causes disease]

A biological weapon could infect millions of people with a deadly disease.

inflation [a continuing rise in prices while the value of money goes down] Federal banking officials were able to keep inflation from rising.

influence [(1) to have an effect on someone or something; (2) to cause change] The strong economy did not influence voters to keep the party in power. (1) What influenced your decision to change jobs? (2)

inform [(1) to tell; (2) to give knowledge to]

Please inform me when you leave the office. (1)

I informed her about what happened. (2)

information [(1) knowledge; (2) facts]

He got the information from several books. (1)

He asked for information about his family. (2)

inject [to force a fluid into, such as putting medicine or drugs into the body through the skin]

The doctor injected the painkiller into his shoulder.

injure [to cause harm or damage to a person or animal]

The mail carrier was injured by an angry dog.


innocent [(1) not guilty of a crime; (2) not responsible for a bad action]

The court found that she was innocent of all charges. (1)

The woman said her innocent dog never bit anyone. (2)

insane [mentally sick]

How does your country treat insane people?

insect [a very small creature, usually with many legs and sometimes with wings] Flying insects attacked them as soon as they went into the forest.

inspect [(1) to look at something carefully; (2) to examine, especially by an expert] He inspected his fingers for dirt. (1)

The policeman inspected her car for damage. (2)

instead [(1) in the place of; (2) taking the place of]

She chose you instead of me. (1)

He planned to go to a movie but decided to stay home instead. (2)

instrument [a tool or device designed to do something or to make something] The spacecraft carried instruments to examine the surface of Mars.

insult [to say something or to do something that makes another person angry or dishonored]

He insulted her by arriving very late at her party.

intelligence [(1) the ability to think or learn; (2) information gathered by spying] The research project required scientists with great intelligence. (1)

The agency collected much intelligence about planned terrorist attacks. (2)

intelligent [quick to understand or learn]

The boy was so intelligent that he began university studies at the age of twelve.

intense [(1) very strong; (2) extremely serious]

Security was intense during the President's visit. (1)

Learning the language required intense study. (2)

interest [(1)&(2) what is important to someone; (3) a share in owning a business; (4) money paid for the use of money borrowed]

He acted to protect his interests. (1)

She had a great interest in painting. (2)

My father holds an interest in several businesses. (3)

The bank approved his loan, but it wanted him to pay 15 percent in interest each year.


interfere [(1) to get in the way of; (2) to work against; (3) to take part in the activities


of others, especially when not asked to do so]

He did not win the race because another boat interfered by turning in front of his boat.


The snowstorm interfered with our plans to climb the mountain. (2)

Joanne asked her father not to interfere in her dispute with Bryan. (3)

international [(1) of or about more than one nation or many nations; (2) of the whole world]

The international conference of South American leaders has opened in Quito. (1) The information is in the report on international trade. (2)

intervene [(1) to come between; (2) to come between in order to settle or solve] The police intervened before any shots were fired. (1)

The President urged the United Nations to intervene in the border dispute. (2)

invade [to enter an area or country by force with an army]

Allied forces in England invaded the Normandy area of France in 1944.

invent [(1) to plan and make something never made before; (2) to create a new thing or way of doing something]

Did Henry Ford invent the automobile? (1)

Did Henry Ford invent a new way to build cars? (2)

invest [to give money to a business or organization with the hope of making more money]

George asked his friends to invest in his new oil company.

investigate [(1) to study or examine all information about an event, situation or charge;

(2) to search for the truth]

Civil rights leaders asked the federal government to investigate voting problems in some parts of Florida. (1)

Congress is investigating the president's relationship with a young woman. (2)

invite [to ask someone to take part in or join an event, organization or gathering] Jason invited Candy to his party.

involve [(1) to take part in; (2) to become a part of; (3) to include]

He has been involved in drama for many years. (1)

She became completely involved with her new family. (2)

The project involved thousands of people. (3)

iron [a strong, hard metal used to make machines and tools]

People have been making tools of iron for about 2,800 years.

island [a land area with water all around it]

Ken lived on several different islands in the South Pacific Ocean.


issue [an important problem or subject that people are discussing or arguing about ] Campaign finance reform was the most important issue in the election campaign.

it [a thing, place, event or idea that is being spoken about ]

The sky is blue, but it also has a few white clouds.


jail [a prison for those waiting to be tried for a crime or for those serving sentences for crimes that are not serious]

He was sentenced to ten days in jail.

jewel [a valuable stone, such as a diamond or emerald]

She keeps her valuable jewels at the bank.

job [the work that one does to earn money]

Jean has a new job at an Internet company.

join [(1) to put together or come together; (2) to become part of or a member of] I can join the two broken parts together. (1)

We invited her to join our study group. (2)

joint [shared by two or more]

We made a joint agreement not to meet next week.

joke [something done or said to cause others to laugh]

Have you heard any new jokes?

judge [(1) to form an opinion about; (2) to decide a question, especially a legal one ;

(3) a public official who decides problems of law in a court]

I helped judge the writing ability of each person in the competition. (1)

The jury judged the two men guilty of all charges. (2)

The judge in traffic court hears many cases every day. (3)

jump [to push down on the feet and move up quickly into the air]

How high can you jump?

jury [a group of people chosen to decide what is true in a trial]

The jury found him guilty.

just [(1) only; (2) very shortly before or after the present; (3) at the same time; (4) what is right or fair]

Help me for just a minute. (1)

He just left. (2)

He left just as I came in. (3)


The law is just, in my opinion. (4)


keep [(1) to possess; (2) to have for oneself]

They kept the old house for a long time. (1)

He keeps most of the money that he earns. (2)

kick [to hit with the foot]

How far can you kick the ball?

kidnap [to seize and take away by force]

The man kidnapped the boy but released him after the family paid him a million dollars.

kill [(1) to make dead; (2) to cause to die]

The woman killed her three husbands for their money. (1)

The blight killed almost every chestnut tree in the United States. (2)

kind [(1) sort; (2) gentle; (3) caring; (4) helpful]

What kind of dog is that? (1)

He is a kind man. (2)

She was a kind mother to all her children. (3)

A kind old man told me where to find your house. (4)

kiss [to touch with the mouth to show love or honor]

Do you remember your first kiss?

knife [a tool or weapon used to cut]

The knife that he found was very sharp.

know [(1) to understand something as correct; (2) to have the facts about; (3) to recognize someone because you have met and talked together before]

I know the answer to your question. (1)

Do you know how deep the river is here? (2)

He knew her for many years. (3)

knowledge [(1) that which is known; (2) learning or understanding]

A huge library in Alexandria, Egypt, was the world's center of knowledge 2,300 years ago. (1)

You can use the Internet computer system to find knowledge about a great many subjects. (2)


labor [(1) work; (2) workers as a group]


Building a house is hard labor. (1)

Organized labor is a major force in American politics. (2)

laboratory [a room or place where experiments in science are done]

The medical students spent much of their time in the laboratory.

lack [(1) to be without; (2) the condition of needing, wanting or not having] The farmhouse lacked heat and electricity. (1)

The lack of rain caused the crops to fail. (2)

lake [a large area of fresh water surrounded by land]

She swam across the lake.

land [(1) to come to the earth from the air; (2) the part of the earth not covered by water; (3) the ground]

Airplanes land at airports. (1)

Only 25 percent of the earth's surface is land. (2)

He bought this land ten years ago. (3)

language [(1) words and their use; (2) what people speak in a country, nation or group]

She was interested in how new words come into the language. (1)

How many languages do you speak? (2)

large [(1) big; (2) being of more than usual size, amount or number; (3) opposite small]

How large is your house? (1)

He had a large voice for such a small man. (2)

She was a large woman. (3)

last [(1) to continue; (2) after all others; (3) the only one remaining]

The talks will last three days. (1)

He was the last person to arrive. (2)

She is the last person in line. (3)

late [(1) after the correct time; (2) near the end; (3) opposite early]

He arrived an hour late for work. (1)

The doctor said she would have her baby late in the year. (2)

Do you like to eat early or late? (3)

laugh [to make sounds to express pleasure or happy feelings]

I always laugh at her funny stories.

launch [(1) to put into operation; (2) to begin; (3) to send into the air or space] The terrorists launched an attack in the middle of the night. (1)

She said she soon will launch her campaign for mayor. (2)


The United States launched an Apollo spacecraft on a flight to the moon. (3)

law [all or any rules made by a government]

The mayor urged city officials to pass the new law.

lead [(1) to show the way; (2) to command; (3) to control; (4) to go first]

I could not find the store until he led me to it. (1)

General Wilcox will lead the special anti-terrorist force. (2)

He leads our music department. (3)

She followed as he led the way. (4)

leak [to come out of or to escape through a small opening or hole (usually a gas or liquid)]

Oil leaked from the broken pipe.

learn [(1) to get knowledge about; (2) to come to know a fact or facts]

He learned calculus in high school.(1)

She wondered how he learned where she lived. (2)

leave [(1) to go away from; (2) to let something stay where it is]

His son will leave home next year for college. (1)

Please leave me alone. (2)

left [(1) on the side that is toward the west when one is facing north; (2) opposite right]

Do you write with your left hand? (1)

I am lost because I turned left instead of right. (2)

legal [of or in agreement with the law]

He said his lawyer gave him good legal advice.

legislature [a government lawmaking group]

The legislature makes laws.

lend [(1) to permit someone to use a thing temporarily; (2) to make a loan of money] Joe said he will lend me his car tomorrow. (1)

None of his friends would lend him any money. (2)

less [(1) smaller in amount; (2) not as much]

His doctor said he should eat less meat. (1)

She travels less in her new job. (2)

let [(1) to permit to do or to be; (2) to make possible]

Let me help you with that. (1)

She let him drive her new car. (2)


letter [a communication in writing sent to another person]

I wrote a letter to you last night.

level [(1) the amount or height that something reaches or rises to; (2) the position of something or someone]

The river rose to its highest level in history during the flood last year. (1)

He has worked at the top levels of government for many years. (2)

liberal [one who usually supports social progress or change]

Liberal lawmakers proposed a bill to reduce the cost of medicine for older Americans.

lie [(1) to have one's body on the ground or other surface; (2) to say something that one knows is not true]

She said she needed to lie down for a few minutes to rest. (1)

The official told the court he did not lie about his campaign money. (2)

life [(1) the time between being born and dying; (2) opposite death; (3) all living things]

She spent her life helping people. (1)

He died, but doctors brought him back to life. (2)

She wrote a history of life on Earth. (3)

lift [to take or bring up to a higher place or level]

We watched the rising water lift the house and carry it away.

light [(1) a form of energy that affects the eyes so that one is able to see; (2) anything that produces light; (3) bright; (4) not heavy]

We could see the island clearly in the sun's light. (1)

Please leave the light on when you go. (2)

The room was painted light blue. (3)

She said her bag was light, but I could not lift it. (4)

lightning [light produced by electricity in the air, usually during a storm]

Lightning filled the dark sky like fireworks.

like [(1) to be pleased with; (2) to have good feelings for someone or something; (3) in the same way as; (4) similar to]

I like this new dress. (1)

I like her very much. (2)

Much training is needed to sing like he does. (3)

She sounds like my sister. (4)

limit [(1) to restrict to a number or amount; (2) the greatest amount or number permitted]

The hotel limits the number of people sleeping in each room. (1)

The limit is four people in each room. (2)


line [(1) a long, thin mark on a surface; (2) a number of people or things organized; (3) one after another; (4) the edge of an area protected by military forces]

He used his sword to make a line in the sand. (1)

The soldiers stood in a line, side by side. (2)

They turned and marched in a line, one after another. (3)

Enemy soldiers could not break through allied lines. (4)

link [(1) to connect; (2) to unite one thing or event with another; (3) a relation between two or more things, situations or events]

The Russian and American spacecraft linked with each other in orbit. (1)

The royal marriage linked the two kingdoms. (2)

Scientists found a link between tobacco and lung cancer. (3)

liquid [a substance that is not a solid or gas, and can move freely, like water] Ice changes to liquid when the temperature rises above zero degrees Celsius.

list [(1) to put in writing a number of names of people or things; (2) a written series of names or things]

Please list your name, address and telephone number. (1)

This is a list of all the things I plan to do today. (2)

listen [to try to hear]

If you listen very carefully, you can hear them singing.

literature [all the poems, stories and writings of a period of time or of a country] He is interested in ancient Greek literature.

little [(1) not tall or big; (2) a small amount]

He has a little dog named Elmo. (1)

She could not buy it because she had only a little money with her. (2)

live [(1) to have life; (2) to exist; (3) having life; (4) alive]

She lived for many years after her operation. (1)

He lives in Chicago. (2)

Please do not cut down a live tree. (3)

He said some polio vaccines were made from a live virus. (4)

load [(1) to put objects on or into a vehicle or container; (2) that which is carried] She told him to load the boxes in the back of the car. (1)

The truck carried a full load of fruit from Florida. (2)

loan [(1) money borrowed that usually must be returned with interest payments; (2) something borrowed]

The bank made a 10,000-dollar loan to him yesterday. (1)

I gave him those tools only as a loan. (2)


local [about or having to do with one place]

They told him about a local place where he could get a good dinner.

lonely [(1) feeling alone and wanting friends; (2) visited by few or no people] The city is full of lonely people. (1)

He was a lonely man after his wife left. (2)

long [(1) not short; (2) measuring from beginning to end; (3) measuring much; (4) for much time]

We saw a long snake behind the house. (1)

The road is three miles long. (2)

※one mile = 1.6 kilometers

Those pictures were made by someone who lived long before my people came to this land. (3)

I knew her a long time ago. (4)

look [(1) to turn the eyes toward so as to see; (2) to search or hunt for; (3) to seem to be]

He looked at her for a long time. (1)

I looked for that book but I could not find it. (2)

She looks like my sister. (3)

lose [(1) to have no longer; (2) to not find; (3) to fail to keep; (4) to be defeated] The prisoner lost all hope of escape. (1)

The little boy lost his toy car. (2)

He worried that he might lose his job. (3)

Their school lost the big game. (4)

loud [(1) having a strong sound; (2) full of sound or noise]

The speaker had a loud voice. (1)

The music at the rock concert was too loud. (2)

love [(1) to like very much; (2) to feel a strong, kind emotion (sometimes involving sex); (3) a strong, kind emotion for someone or something; (4) opposite hate] He loved walking in the mountains. (1)

She liked to pretend that he loved her more than anyone. (2)

She has a great love for music. (3)

He said his love for her would never die. (4)

low [(1) not high or tall; (2) below the normal height; (3) close to the ground] You will find low prices for products on the Internet. (1)

The airplane flew low over the town. (2)

Fog is a low cloud near the ground. (3)

loyal [showing strong friendship and support for someone or something]


The President chose loyal supporters to serve in his cabinet.

luck [something that happens by chance]

He always has good luck in finding a place to park his car.


machine [a device with moving parts used to do work]

Our copy machine always seems to stop working when I have a lot of documents to copy.

magazine [a publication of news, stories, pictures or other information]

He likes to read computer magazines.

mail [letters, papers and other things sent through an official system, such as a post office]

E-mail is so much faster than sending mail through the post office.

main [the most important or largest]

Her main interest now is raising her children.

major [great in size, importance or amount]

Corn and wheat are major crops in the United States.

majority [(1) the greater number; (2) more than half]

The President's party won a majority of seats in the House of Representatives. (1)

A bill passes only if a majority of the members approve. (2)

make [(1) to produce; (2) to create; (3) to build; (4) to do something or to carry out an action; (5) to cause to be or to become]

Many products sold in America are made in China. (1)

She makes beautiful hats. (2)

The same company makes many of the houses here. (3)

They make each other happy. (4)

The movie producer made her a star. (5)

male [(1) a man or boy; (2) the sex that is the father of children; (3) of or about men] Police described him as a male in his early twenties. (1)

Males are in the minority in the United States. (2)

That store sells only male clothes. (3)

man [an adult male human]

That man is my father.

manufacture [to make goods in large amounts]


His company manufactures sewing machines.

many [a large number or amount of]

I have eaten here many times.

map [a picture of the earth's surface or a part of it]

Do you have a map of the city?

march [(1) to walk in a group like soldiers; (2) to walk together in a large group to protest about something]

The Marines spent many hours learning to march. (1)

The protesters marched to the White House. (2)

mark [to make a sign or cut on something]

The price is marked on the box.

market [(1) a place or area where goods are sold, bought or traded; (2) an economic system in which the prices of things are decided by how many there are and how much money people are willing to pay for them]

She sells her vegetables at the farmers' market. (1)

The President spoke about the successful growth of market economies around the world. (2)

marry [(1) to join a man and woman together as husband and wife; (2) to become husband and wife (usually in a religious or civil ceremony)]

The priest married the man and woman. (1)

Jim married Sue last Sunday. (2)

mass [an amount of matter having no special form and usually of a large size] The gravity force of a space object depends on its mass.

mate [to bring together a male and a female to create another creature]

Their dogs mated last week so they should have puppies soon.

material [(1) the substance, substances or matter of which something is made or from which something can be made, such as wood, cloth or stone; (2) anything that can be made into something else]

Which materials are used to build houses in your country? (1)

Scientists are using genetic material to create plants and animals different from those in nature. (2)

mathematics [the science dealing with amounts, sizes and shapes, as explained by numbers and signs]

Their mathematics test had questions on algebra and geometry.

matter [(1) anything that can be seen or felt; (2) what things are made of]


Scientists are trying to measure all the matter in the universe. (1)

Anything you can see or feel is made of matter. (2)

may [a word used with an action word to mean permit (1) or possible (2) ]

May I go? (1)

They may leave tomorrow. (2)

mayor [the chief official of a city or town government]

Her father was elected mayor of Springfield.

meal [food eaten to satisfy hunger, such as dinner]

Take this medicine after every meal.

mean [(1) to want to; (2) to give the idea of; (3) to have the idea of]

She meant to call you on the telephone, but she forgot. (1)

Tell me what you mean to do about the damage to my car. (2)

I know what you mean. (3)

measure [(1) to learn the amount, size or distance of something; (2) an action taken; (3) a legislative proposal]

I will measure the size of the windows. (1)

What measures did you take to prevent more damage? (2)

The Senate approved the measure. (3)

meat [the part of a dead animal used for food]

She no longer eats meat; only vegetables, grains and fruits.

media [all public information organizations, including newspapers, television and radio]

The big story in the media is the vote counting problem.

medicine [(1) a substance or drug used to treat disease or pain; (2) the science or study of treating and curing disease or improving health]

She started feeling better after she began using the medicine. (1)

His wife is studying medicine at the Harvard Medical School. (2)

meet [to come together with someone or something at the same time and place] We will meet here tomorrow with other members of the committee.

melt [to make a solid into a liquid by heating it]

Ice melts into water at temperatures above zero degrees Celsius.

member [one of a group]

He is a member of a rock band.

memorial [something done or made to honor the memory of a person or event]


Have you visited the Lincoln Memorial in Washington?

memory [(1) a picture in the mind of past events; (2) the ability to remember; (3) a thing remembered]

I can still see in my memory the place we used to swim. (1)

He has a good memory. (2)

Do you have any memory of your father before he went to war? (3)

mental [about or having to do with the mind]

She had some unusual mental powers.

mercy [(1) kindness toward those who should be punished; (2) the power to be kind or to pardon]

She showed mercy by forgiving him for leaving her. (1)

He admitted guilt and asked the judge for mercy. (2)

message [(1) written or spoken news or information; (2) a note from one person to another person or group]

The candidate delivered his message to the crowd. (1)

He sent her an E-mail message with his computer. (2)

metal [a hard substance such as iron, steel or gold]

Many products formerly made of metal now are made of plastic.

method [the way something is done]

She developed a new method for losing weight.

microscope [a device used to make very small things look larger so they can be studied]

Tell me what you see through the microscope.

middle [(1) the center; (2) a place or time of equal distance from both sides or ends; (3) in the center]

He stopped in the middle of the field. (1)

They rested in the middle of the day. (2)

I would guess her age to be in the middle twenties. (3)

militant [someone active in trying to cause political change, often by the use of force or violence]

Police are prepared for violence by militant demonstrators.

military [(1) the armed forces of a nation or group; (2) of or about the armed forces] She has been in the military for seven years. (1)

Many military bases were closed in the United States. (2)

milk [the white liquid produced by female animals to feed their young]


Please bring me a glass of cold milk.

mind [the thinking, feeling part of a person]

He has a good mind, but sometimes he does not use it.

mine [(1) to dig useful or valuable substances out of the earth; (2) a place in the earth where such substances are found; (3) a bomb placed under the ground or under water so it cannot be seen]

Mining for gold can create serious environmental problems. (1)

Many old mines can be found in the mountains of the western United States. (2) An international treaty seeks a ban on the use of explosive military mines. (3)

mineral [a substance found in nature that is not an animal or a plant, such as coal or salt]

Name two important minerals found under the ground.

minister [(1) a member of a cabinet; (2) a high government official ]

The Cabinet Ministers meet every Tuesday. (1)

The Prime Minister and his new Foreign Minister will arrive in Washington tomorrow.


minor [(1) small in size; (2) of little importance]

Only a minor amount of money is missing. (1)

He wrote a report on a minor English poet. (2)

minority [(1) the smaller number; (2) opposite majority]

Blacks, Hispanics and Asians are minorities in America. (1)

The Democrats are the minority party in the Congress. (2)

minute [(1) a measure of time; (2) one of the sixty equal parts of an hour; (3) sixty seconds]

I saw him only minutes ago. (1)

We met for 30 minutes. (2)

She gave him exactly one minute to explain. (3)

miss [to fail to hit, see, reach or meet]

He missed meeting her by only about two minutes.

missile [any weapon that can be thrown or fired through the air and explodes when it reaches its target]

Some Senators support building a new rocket system to defend against long distance missiles.

missing [(1) lost; (2) not found]

My watch is missing. (1)

His brother was reported missing in Vietnam. (2)


mistake [(1) a wrong action or decision; (2) an action done without the knowledge that it was wrong]

He made a mistake by not waiting for the telephone call. (1)

Her mistake was not understanding his feelings for her. (2)

mix [to put different things together to make one thing]

She mixed peanut butter and fruit jelly in a sandwich.

mob [a large group of wild or angry people]

The peaceful demonstration suddenly became an angry mob.

model [(1) an example; (2) something, usually small, made to show how something will look or work]

Her daughter was the model of a perfect child. (1)

This model shows how his new home will look when completed. (2)

moderate [not extreme]

The moderate proposal was approved by both sides.

modern [(1) of the present or very recent time; (2) the most improved]

We enjoyed the Museum of Modern Art. (1)

The old ships are being replaced by modern ones. (2)

money [pieces of metal or paper used to pay for things]

Do you need some money?

month [one of the twelve periods of time into which a year is divided]

This is the first month of the new year.

moon [the bright object often seen in the night sky that orbits the earth about every twenty-nine days]

The full moon is bright enough to read a book by.

moral [concerning what is right or wrong in someone's actions]

He made a moral decision not to fight in the war.

more [greater in size or amount]

She has more talent than anyone I know.

morning [the early part of the day, from sunrise until noon]

He writes in the morning and works in the office later in the day.

most [greatest in size or amount]

Which country has the most people?


mother [(1) the female parent; (2) a woman who has a child or children]

My wife is a good mother. (1)

That woman with the loud voice is the mother of seven children. (2)

motion [(1) a movement; (2) a continuing change of position or place]

The motion of the car sometimes makes her sick. (1)

The motion of the waves did not stop. (2)

mountain [a part of the earth's surface that rises high above the area around it] They plan to climb Rainier, the great mountain southeast of Seattle.

mourn [to express or feel sadness]

They mourned the death of their daughter.

move [(1) to change position; (2) to put or keep in motion; (3) to go]

Move the chair over here. (1)

The dog's tail moved from side to side. (2)

She moved to California last year. (3)

movement [(1) the act of moving or a way of moving; (2) a series of acts or efforts to reach a goal]

The movement of the boat made her sick. (1)

The gun control movement wants to keep guns away from criminals. (2)

movie [(1) a motion picture; (2) a film]

Which movie would you like to watch? (1)

Making the movie cost 75 million dollars. (2)

much [great in amount]

They read much of the time.

murder [(1) to kill another person illegally; (2) the crime of killing another person] The angry man murdered three people in his office. (1)

The jury found him guilty of murder. (2)

music [the making of sounds by singing or using a musical instrument]

She has loved music since she was a small child.

must [a word used with an action word to mean necessary]

You must go to school.

mystery [(1) something that is not or cannot be explained or understood; (2) a secret] No one can explain the mystery of the crying woman in the window of the old house.


What happened that night is still a mystery. (2)



name [(1) to appoint; (2) to nominate; (3) to give a name to; (4) a word by which a person, animal or thing is known or called]

The Governor named him to be a justice on the state Supreme Court. (1)

She said the President will name her to be an ambassador. (2)

We named our son John, after his grandfather. (3)

Her dog's name is Elmo. (4)

narrow [(1) limited in size or amount; (2) not wide; (3) having a short distance from one side to the other]

The Democrats passed the bill by a narrow majority. (1)

They ran along the narrow path between the two buildings. (2)

The narrow valley was less than a kilometer wide. (3)

nation [a country, together with its social and political systems]

The American nation is more than two hundred years old.

native [someone who was born in a place, not one who moved there]

He is a native of Texas.

natural [(1) of or about nature; (2) normal; (3) common to its kind]

I am interested in biology and other natural sciences. (1)

It is natural for a cat to sleep most of the time. (2)

Babies naturally cry a lot. (3)

nature [(1) all the plants, animals and other things on earth not created by humans; (2) events or processes not caused by humans]

She enjoys the beauty of nature. (1)

Modern technology cannot protect us from storms, wildfires and other acts of nature.


navy [the part of a country's military force trained to fight at sea]

He led an exciting life in the navy.

near [(1) not far; (2) close to]

Rain is near; I can smell it. (1)

She lives near the sea. (2)

necessary [(1) needed to get a result or effect; (2) required]

The farmer said rain is necessary to save his crops. (1)

A passport is necessary before you go. (2)

need [(1) to require; (2) to want; (3) to be necessary to have or to do]

I need some sleep. (1)

Do you need a drink? (2)


He needed someone to help him learn English. (3)

negotiate [to talk about a problem or situation to find a common solution]

They are trying to negotiate a peace agreement.

neither [not one or the other of two]

Neither boy had any money.

neutral [not supporting one side or the other in a dispute]

The election officials were not neutral.

never [(1) at no time; (2) not ever]

I had never seen him before. (1)

He said he would never lie to me. (2)

new [(1) not existing before; (2) not known before; (3) recently made, built, bought or grown; (4) another; (5) different]

They have a new baby. (1)

Did you see the new information about the Governor? (2)

John bought a new car today. (3)

California needs some new electric power centers. (4)

She has some exciting new ideas. (5)

news [information about any recent events, especially as reported by the media] The local news on television last night was full of violence.

next [(1) coming immediately after; (2) nearest]

The next job is to clean house. (1)

Turn left at the next street. (2)

nice [(1) pleasing; (2) good; (3) kind]

I hope you have a nice time with your friend. (1)

Their children seem nice. (2)

He said some very nice things about you. (3)

night [the time between when the sun goes down and when it rises, when there is little or no light]

Did you hear that storm last night?

no [(1) used to reject or to refuse; (2) not any; (3) not at all]

No, I will not do it. (1)

After the windstorm, no fruit was left on the tree. (2)

As soon as the show started we could see that our friend was no actor. (3)

noise [sound, especially when loud]

What is making so much noise?


nominate [(1) to name someone as a candidate for an election; (2) to propose a person for an office or position]

The Democratic Party nominated our Governor as its Presidential candidate. (1) Do you think we should nominate Tom as our committee representative? (2)

noon [(1) the middle of the day; (2) twelve o'clock in the daytime]

He usually eats lunch about noon. (1)

I have to be in his office at noon. (2)

normal [(1) the usual condition, amount or form; (2) usual; (3) what is expected] Snow is normal this time of year. (1)

Her normal drink is tea. (2)

I expect him to leave home at the normal time. (3)

north [the direction to the left of a person facing the rising sun]

We drove north for 10 miles.

※one mile = 1.6 kilometers

not [a word showing that something is denied or untrue]

She is not going.

note [(1) to talk about something already known; (2) a word or words written to help a person remember; (3) a short letter]

She noted that our report must be completed by three o'clock. (1)

I wrote a short note about the meeting so I could talk about it tomorrow. (2) She sent a Christmas note to some of her friends. (3)

nothing [(1) not anything; (2) no thing]

He had eaten nothing all day. (1)

He talked of nothing but food. (2)

now [(1) at this time; (2) immediately]

Now I understand what you meant. (1)

Can you talk to me now? (2)

nowhere [not in, to or at any place]

The boy said he had nowhere to go.

nuclear [(1) of or about the energy produced by splitting atoms or bringing them together; (2) of or about weapons that explode by using energy from atoms] He worked as a nuclear engineer. (1)

The government fears that terrorists will buy or steal nuclear weapons. (2)

number [a word or sign used to show the order or amount of things]

A large number of people are expected to join the protest.



obey [to act as one is ordered to act]

She said she became a judge because she believed that people must obey the laws.

object [(1) to show that one does not like or approve; (2) to protest;(3) something not alive that can be seen or touched]

The lawyer said he would object if the disputed evidence was given. (1)

He objected strongly to the Senator's comment. (2)

She found a strange object near her house. (3)

observe [(1) to watch; (2) to look at carefully; (3) to celebrate or honor something] She observed everyone who walked past her house. (1)

They observed the elections to report on possible violations of voting laws. (2) They will observe the anniversary of the day she was born. (3)

occupy [to take and hold or to control by force]

Soldiers occupied the town formerly controlled by rebels.

ocean [(1) the area of salt water that covers almost seventy-five percent of the earth's surface; (2) any of the five main divisions of this water]

We are going to the ocean for two weeks. (1)

He has sailed across the Pacific Ocean three times. (2)

of [(1) made from; (2) belonging to; (3) about; (4) connected to; (5) included among] Her ring is made of gold. (1)

His son is a member of the Boy Scouts. (2)

That movie is the story of a woman who wins one million dollars. (3)

Someone broke the window of my car. (4)

One of my brothers is a doctor. (5)

off [(1) away; (2) at a distance; (3) condition when something is no longer operating or continuing; (4) not on; (5) not connected]

She walked off without speaking. (1)

The lake was 10 miles off. (2)

※one mile = 1.6 kilometers

The game is off because of rain. (3)

The electric power was off for three hours. (4)

He took off the rope so his dog could run. (5)

offensive [(1) a military campaign of attack;(2) having to do with attacking] The government offensive began with an air attack. (1)

The weapons included a new offensive missile that destroys radar centers. (2)

offer [(1) to present or propose;(2) the act of presenting or proposing; (3) that which is


presented or proposed]

He offered to help her find her car. (1)

Republican leaders made an offer to share power with the Democrats. (2)

She got a job offer from a computer company in Texas. (3)

office [(1) a room or building where business or work is done; (2) a public position to which one is elected or appointed]

Her office is on the fortieth floor of the new building. (1)

He was elected to the office of Vice President. (2)

officer [(1) a person in the military who commands others; (2) any person who is a member of a police force]

Her father is an army officer in Germany. (1)

Two police officers were honored for saving the lives of five people. (2)

official [(1) a person with power in an organization; (2) a representative of an organization or government;(3) of or about an office; (4) approved by the government or someone in power]

She is an official of our church council. (1)

Members of our local parents and teachers organization are electing an official to represent them at the state level. (2)

She read about it in the official newspaper. (3)

An official statement said the labor strike would begin at midnight. (4)

often [many times]

How often do you see each other?

oil [(1) a thick liquid that does not mix with water and that burns easily; (2) a black liquid taken from the ground and used as fuel]

Oil for heating homes costs a lot more this year. (1)

The president says America must produce more of the oil it needs. (2)

old [(1) not young or new; (2) having lived or existed for many years]

He has an old car and an old house. (1)

The old tree has been growing for more than three hundred years. (2)

on [(1) above and held up by; (2) touching the upper surface of; (3) supported by; (4) about; (5) at the time of]

The clock is on the wall. (1)

The book is on the table. (2)

He is on his feet. (3)

The report on the meeting is ready. (4)

He left on Wednesday. (5)

once [one time only]

We had dinner there once.


only [(1) being the single one or ones; (2) no more than]

He was the only person here. (1)

We have only two dollars. (2)

open [(1) to start; (2) not closed; (3) not secret]

They opened talks. (1)

We saw them through the open window. (2)

No secrets were discussed at the open meeting. (3)

operate [(1) to do work or a job; (2) to cut into the body for medical reasons] Her family operates a car repair business. (1)

Doctors will operate on him to remove a cancer. (2)

opinion [a belief based on one's own ideas and thinking]

What is your opinion on the power crisis?

oppose [(1) to be against; (2) to fight against]

She opposes cutting trees in national forests. (1)

Protesters promised to oppose attempts to put oil wells in wild areas of Alaska. (2)

opposite [(1) as different as possible; (2) completely different from; (3) exactly the other way]

They worked on opposite sides of town. (1)

The two men held opposite opinions on the war. (2)

North is the opposite direction from south. (3)

oppress [(1) to make others suffer; (2) to control by the use of unjust and cruel force or power]

The Khmer Rouge used torture and murder to oppress the Cambodian people. (1)

The American colonists declared independence because Britain oppressed them with heavy taxes and brutal force. (2)

or [(1) giving another of two choices; (2) giving the last of several choices] Would you like coffee or tea? (1)

I could meet you at noon on Monday, Tuesday, or Friday. (2)

orbit [(1) to travel in space around a planet or other object; (2) the path or way an object travels in space around another object or planet]

The spacecraft will orbit the moon three times. (1)

The satellite is in an orbit that will keep it always above the same place on Earth. (2)

order [(1) to give a command; (2) to tell someone what to do; (3) a command; (4) the correct or normal way things are organized; (5) a peaceful situation in which people obey laws]

The sergeant ordered the marching soldiers to halt. (1)


The court ordered election officials to count the votes again. (2)

You have no choice but to obey the order. (3)

The President spoke about a new world order. (4)

Police stopped the rioting and returned order to the city. (5)

organize [(1) to put in order; (2) to put together into a system]

He needed a few minutes to organize his thoughts. (1)

She will help him organize the material for his book. (2)

other [(1) different; (2) of another kind; (3) the remaining one or ones of two or more] Any other woman would have left him. (1)

He wanted a life other than his own. (2)

That man is short; the other is tall. (3)

our [of or belonging to us]

We ate our dinner in the park.

oust [(1) to force to leave; (2) to remove by force]

The soldiers ousted the farmers from the village. (1)

The rebels ousted the President. (2)

out [(1) away from the inside; (2) opposite of in]

He walked out of the house. (1)

She was out of the office when I arrived. (2)

over [(1) above; (2) covering; (3) across, in or on every part of]

She looked up as the plane flew over her. (1)

He pulled the blanket over his sleeping daughter. (2)

She has traveled all over the world. (3)

overthrow [(1) to remove from power; (2) to defeat or end by force]

The people of Yugoslavia overthrew the President. (1)

The report said the generals were plotting to overthrow the government. (2)

owe [to pay or have to repay (usually money) in return for something received] How much do I owe you for the coffee?

own [to have or possess for oneself]

He said he owned the car.



[a hurt or suffering somewhere in the body]

The injury caused him great pain.



[(1) to cover with a liquid color; (2) to make a picture with liquid colors; (3) a colored liquid used to cover or protect a surface]

He will paint his house next week. (1)

She painted this picture when she was young. (2)

How much paint will you need to paint your house? (3)


[a metal container used for cooking]

Cook your food in this pan.


[a thin, flat material made from plants or cloth often used for writing]

I use a lot of paper for my schoolwork.


[a device that permits a person or thing to fall slowly from an airplane or helicopter to the ground]

He jumps from an airplane and his parachute lets him fall slowly to the ground.


[a group of people and vehicles moving together to celebrate a special event or anniversary]

She took the children to watch the Independence Day parade.


[to forgive for a crime and release from punishment]

Presidents can pardon criminals.


[a father or mother]

Her parents will be here later.


[a government lawmaking group]

The government ended parliament and called new elections.


[(1) something less than the whole; (2) not all of something]

I spend part of today planning what I will do tomorrow. (1)

Only a small part of this land belongs to me. (2)


[(1) a group of people working together for a political purpose; (2) a group of people or friends gathered together for enjoyment]

She raises money for the Democratic Party. (1)


Bill has invited everyone to a party at his house. (2)


[(1) to go by or move around something; (2) to move along; (3) to cause or permit to go]

You can pass the car in front of us. (1)

The hours passed slowly as he waited to leave. (2)

The guard passed him through the gate. (3)


[a person traveling by airplane, train, boat or car who is not the pilot or driver] All passengers and the crew of the airplane survived the emergency landing.


[a document permitting a person to travel to another country]

She was arrested for traveling with a false passport.


[(1) the time gone by; (2) the time before; (3) recent; (4) immediately before; (5) former]

He would like to forget the past. (1)

The records showed the patient had no medical problems in his recent past. (2) She has not been here for the past few days. (3)

He is the past president of our organization. (4)

He is a past president of our organization. (5)


[(1) a narrow way for walking; (2) a way along which something moves]

We walked along the path together. (1)

He watched the path of the arrow all the way to the target. (2)


[a person being treated by a doctor for a health problem]

The doctors examined the patient carefully.


[to give money for work done or for something bought]

She paid a lot of money for her clothes.


[(1) the condition of freedom from war, fighting or noise; (2) rest; (3) quiet] We have been at peace for almost ten years. (1)

He was sleeping, at peace with the world. (2)

A shout broke the peace of the early morning. (3)



[(1) any group of persons; (2) all the persons of a group, race, religion or nation]

A large crowd of people welcomed the Pope to St. Louis. (1)

The American people are a mix of the world's people. (2)


[a part of every hundred]

Ten is ten percent of one hundred.


[(1) complete or correct in every way; (2) completely right or good; (3) without mistakes]

It was a perfect performance. (1)

Today is a perfect day. (2)

She had a perfect score on the test. (3)


[to speak, dance or sing in front of others]

She performed perfectly.


[an amount of time within events, restrictions or conditions]

The child went through a period of intense growth.


[(1) never changing; (2) lasting for a very long time or for all time]

Please tell me your permanent address. (1)

Astronauts left an American flag on the moon as a permanent memorial. (2)


[(1) to let; (2) to make possible]

Her parents permit her to work. (1)

The wider doors and raised walkway permit people in wheelchairs to use the building.



[a man, woman or child]

She is a good person to know.


[of the body]

Physical exercise helps keep him healthy.


[the study of motion, matter and energy]

Studying physics takes a lot of time.



[(1) an idea or representation of something as seen by the eye; (2) a painting; (3) what is made with a camera]

She drew a picture of him from memory. (1)

The picture of her was painted many years ago. (2)

My camera takes good pictures. (3)


[a part of something larger]

Please have a piece of my birthday cake.


[a farm animal used for its meat]

He raises pigs on his farm.


[one who guides or flies an airplane or helicopter]

The pilot landed the airplane on a road.


[a long, round piece of material used to move liquid or gas]

The pipe moves oil from Texas to Virginia.


[(1) to put something somewhere; (2) an area or a part of an area; (3) space where a person or thing is; (4) any room, building, town or country]

He placed the book on the table. (1)

The place you are looking for is on the other side of town. (2)

I am staying at his place. (3)

Japan is a place I would like to visit. (4)


[(1) to organize or develop an idea or method of acting or doing something; (2) an organized or developed idea or method]

They plan to have a party. (1)

The plan will not work. (2)


[a large object in space that orbits the sun]

Earth is a planet.


[(1) to put into the ground to grow; (2) a living growth from the ground which gets its food from air, water and earth]

If you plant this, it will grow. (1)

These plants have beautiful flowers in the summer. (2)



[a material made from chemicals that can be formed and made into things] I ate with a plastic spoon from a plastic plate on a plastic table.


[(1) to have fun; (2) to not work; (3) to take part in a sport; (4) to make music on an instrument; (5) a story acted in a theater]

She plays with her baby. (1)

I cannot play today. (2)

He plays baseball every day. (3)

Will you play the guitar? (4)

We saw a play at the theater last night. (5)


[(1) to make one happy; (2) to give enjoyment]

He was pleased to see her again. (1)

The music is pleasing to her. (2)


[(1) all that is needed; (2) a large enough amount]

There is plenty of time to see a movie. (1)

We have plenty of food. (2)


[(1) to make secret plans; (2) a secret plan to do something wrong or illegal] Her friends plotted to surprise her with a party. (1)

A bank employee discovered the plot. (2)


[words and their sounds organized in a special way to express emotions]

Several of his poems have been published.


[(1) to aim one's finger toward; (2) to aim; (3) the sharp end of something] The man pointed his finger at the suspect. (1)

She pointed the gun at the target. (2)

The knife had a sharp point. (3)


[a substance that can destroy life or damage health]

Police found poison in the woman's food.


[(1) a government agency responsible for guarding the public, keeping order, and making sure people obey the law; (2) members of that agency]


The mayor said police have failed to reduce crime in the city. (1)

He said the city needs more police. (2)


[an established set of plans or goals used to develop and make decisions in politics, economics or business]

The new president said he would change the nation's economic policy.


[the activities of government and of those who are in public office]

He enjoys discussing politics with his friends.


[to release dangerous or unpleasant substances into the air, soil or water]

The governor said he will act against companies that pollute the air and water in his state.


[(1) people with little or no money; (2) lacking money or goods; (3) of bad quality] She has proposed programs to help the poor. (1)

His family is poor because he cannot keep a job. (2)

The company makes poor products. (3)


[(1) liked by many people; (2) generally approved by the public]

She is a popular girl at our school. (1)

A proposal to cut taxes has much popular support. (2)


[all the people in a place, city or country]

The population of the world continues to increase.


[(1) a city where ships load or unload goods; (2) a place on a coast where ships can be safe from a storm]

Baltimore is a busy port on the Atlantic coast. (1)

The ship raced the storm to a safe port. (2)


[(1) a place; (2) the way of holding the body; (3) the way a thing is set or placed; (4) a job (or level of a job) in an organization]

The soldiers attacked the enemy position. (1)

The position of his body showed he was in pain. (2)

Someone changed the position of the bed. (3)

Her father holds a high position in the company. (4)



[(1) to have; (2) to own; (3) to control or be controlled by]

She possesses great negotiating skills. (1)

He possesses a 1955 Ford Thunderbird car. (2)

An evil spirit possessed her. (3)


[(1) able to be done; (2) can happen or is expected to happen]

The train is a possible way to get there. (1)

She is a possible candidate for President in 2004. (2)


[to delay action until a later time]

The meeting is postponed until Tuesday.


[(1) to flow; (2) to cause to flow]

Rain water poured down the mountain. (1)

People poured from the store when the alarm sounded. (2)


[(1) the ability to control or direct others; (2) control; (3) strength; (4) ruling force; (5) force or energy used to do work]

The police have the power to arrest and question people suspected of crimes. (1) The independent counsel was given the power to investigate the president. (2) Nations have nuclear weapons with the power to destroy the world. (3)

The governing power of the United States rests in the Constitution. (4)

Water power turns the wheel. (5)


[(1) to say good things about; (2) to approve]

Kelley's professor praised her test results. (1)

The father praised his son's decision. (2)


[(1) to make a request to a god or spirit; (2) to praise a god or spirit]

He prayed to ask God to forgive him for the terrible thing he had done. (1) She prayed to give thanks to God for healing her son. (2)


[(1) carrying a child within the body before it is born; (2) expecting to give birth to a baby]

She just learned that she is pregnant. (1)

The pregnant woman expects to give birth next month. (2)



[(1) to make ready; (2) to put together]

She is prepared for her trip to Europe. (1)

He will prepare dinner. (2)


[(1) to offer for consideration; (2) a gift; (3) now; (4) to be at a place]

We will present our idea to the committee. (1)

I gave them a present for their anniversary. (2)

The present time is a good time. (3)

I was present at school yesterday. (4)


[(1) the chief official of a country that is a republic; (2) the leader of an organization] The President of the United States serves a term of four years. (1)

His wife is president of our school's parents and teachers organization. (2)


[(1) to urge strongly; (2) newspapers, magazines and other publications]

The mayor pressed him for money for his re-election campaign. (1)

The opening of the new hospital was fully reported in the local press. (2)


[the force produced when something is pushed down or against something else] We expect a storm because the atmospheric pressure is very low.


[to keep or stop from going or happening]

Doctors are trying to prevent the disease from spreading.


[the amount of money for which anything is bought, sold or offered for sale] He is asking a fair price for his house.


[a place where a person is kept as punishment for a crime]

The state is building a new prison because the old one is not big enough.


[(1) of or about a person or group that is secret; (2) opposite public]

Reports say a private army is plotting to take over the government. (1)

This private property is closed to public use. (2)


[(1) something offered or won in a competition; (2) something of value that one must work hard for to get]

She knows the writer who won the Nobel Prize last year. (1)


The prize that he seeks is peace in the Middle East. (2)


[(1) a good chance of taking place; (2) a little more than possible] My son's friend probably will eat at our house tonight. (1)

We probably will get some rain from those dark clouds. (2)


[a difficult question or situation with an unknown or unclear answer] She has sympathy for people with those problems.


[an operation or series of changes leading to a desired result]

The production process seems to be a success.


[(1) to make; (2) to create; (3) to cause something to be; (4) to manufacture] The farmer produced a big crop. (1)

Who produced the new action movie? (2)

The police produced some new evidence at the trial. (3)

His company produces road signs. (4)


[a job that requires special training]

Many doctors are leaving the medical profession.


[a teacher at a college or university]

Do you like your English professor?


[money gained from a business activity after paying all costs of that activity] How much profit did you make from selling the stock?


[(1) a plan of action; (2) the different events or parts of a meeting or show] We have developed a program to increase company profits. (1)

Our group is part of the program at the school meeting. (2)


[movement forward or toward improvement or a goal]

Are you making progress on your science project?


[a planned effort to do something]

She hopes to complete her science project in about a week.



[ideas or information used to influence opinions]

Does political propaganda win elections?


[anything owned by someone such as land, buildings or goods]

His property extends from here to the river.


[to present or offer for consideration]

She proposed a new program for teaching English.


[(1) to guard; (2) to defend; (3) to prevent from being harmed or damaged]

The museum is protecting its valuable paintings with a new security system. (1) The Secret Service protects the White House from any kind of attack. (2)

Seat belts and air bags protect the driver and front seat passenger in most new cars.



[(1) to speak against; (2) to object]

The speakers protested the lack of controls on handgun sales. (1)

The group protested because their votes were not counted. (2)


[to show to be true]

The defense lawyer proved that the young man was not guilty.


[to give something needed or wanted]

She provided food and warm clothing to the homeless man.


[(1) of or about all the people in a community or country; (2) opposite private] Everyone could speak at the public meeting. (1)

She said she spoke as a private citizen, not as a public official. (2)


[something that is published such as a book, newspaper or magazine]

I do not read that publication.


[(1) to make public something that is written; (2) to include something in a book, newspaper or magazine]

The government published the list of properties. (1)


Did the newspaper publish anything about the accident? (2)


[(1) to use force to move something toward the person or thing using the force; (2) opposite push]

Please pull the microphone closer so we can hear you. (1)

You have to pull, not push the door to open it. (2)


[to force a gas or liquid up, into or through]

The broken part would not pump fuel from the tank to the engine.


[to cause pain, suffering or loss for doing something bad or illegal]

The judge punished him with a five-year prison sentence.


[(1) to buy with money or with something of equal value; (2) that which is bought] Did you purchase your watch in Switzerland? (1)

He used a charge card to pay for the purchase. (2)


[(1) free from anything that is different or that reduces value; (2) clean]

He asked if the ring was made of pure gold. (1)

Do not expect pure water from a mountain stream. (2)


[(1) the reason or desired effect for doing something; (2) goal]

What is the purpose of your trip? (1)

His only purpose in life was to make her happy. (2)


[(1) to use force to move something away from the person or thing using the force; (2) opposite pull]

She pushed him away. (1)

Ed pushed the horse and I pulled it. (2)


[(1) to place; (2) to set in position]

She put the dog outside. (1)

He put the television where everyone could see it. (2)



[(1) that which something is known to have or be; (2) amount of value or excellence]


An important quality of steel is its strength. (1)

Their goods are of the highest quality. (2)


[(1) to ask; (2) to express wonder or disbelief; (3) a sentence or word used in asking for information; (4) a problem; (5) an issue to be discussed]

His father questioned him about the car. (1)

She questioned if he really cooked the dinner. (2)

Did you answer every question in the test? (3)

The question of a pay increase is blocking a new labor agreement. (4)

The civil rights question is a big issue in the campaign. (5)



She made a quick decision.


[(1) with little or no noise; (2) having little or no movement; (3) calm]

The room was so quiet he could hear his heart beat. (1)

The sea was quiet. (2)

City streets were quiet on the night before Christmas. (3)



[(1) to run; (2) to take part in a competition to decide who or what can move fastest;

(3) to take part in a campaign for political office; (4) one of the major groups that humans can be divided into because of a common physical similarity, such as skin color]

The cat and dog raced through the house. (1)

Are you racing in the one hundred meter event? (2)

Her mother entered the race for mayor. (3)

All races of people are equal under the laws of the United States. (4)


[a device that uses radio signals to learn the position or speed of objects that may be too far away to be seen]

Radar can show if a storm is moving toward us.


[(1) waves of energy from something that produces heat or light; (2) energy from a nuclear substance, which can be dangerous]

Radiation from the sun can burn our skin. (1)

Radiation from a nuclear explosion can kill. (2)



[the system of sending and receiving signals or sounds through the air without wires] Do you listen to VOA Special English on the radio?


[(1) to make a sudden attack; (2) a sudden attack]

Police raided a number of houses where illegal drugs were sold. (1)

Thirty-eight people were arrested in the drug raid. (2)


[(1) a road for trains; (2) a company that operates such a road and its stations and equipment]

The government has made a walking trail where the railroad was. (1)

Railroads in the United States mostly carry products instead of passengers. (2)


[water falling from the sky]

Rain has fallen for three days.


[(1) to lift up; (2) to move to a higher position; (3) to cause to grow; (4) to increase] Rising floodwaters raised the house and carried it away. (1)

The bridge raises so ships can pass under it. (2)

The farmer raises mostly corn and soybeans. (3)

Congress raised taxes. (4)


[(1) not common; (2) not usual; (3) not often]

He has rare musical ability for a boy so young. (1)

A warm day is rare this time of year. (2)

It is rare for me to get so many telephone calls. (3)


[(1) speed; (2) a measure of how quickly or how often something happens; (3) the price of any thing or service that is bought or sold]

The old man reads at a slow rate. (1)

What is the patient's heart rate? (2)

The interest rate on home loans has increased. (3)


[(1) to put a hand toward; (2) to arrive at; (3)to come to]

She reached out to take my hand. (1)

He reached home about six o'clock. (2)

We will reach a decision soon. (3)



[to act as a result of or in answer to]

How did she react to the news?


[to look at and understand the meaning of written words or numbers]

She reads four newspapers every morning.


[(1) prepared; (2) completed; (3) organized; (4) willing]

They are ready to start the game. (1)

Your food order is ready. (2)

The new Congress is ready to begin its work. (3)

Who is ready to eat an insect? (4)


[(1) true; (2) truly existing; (3) not false]

The real reason he came here was to see you. (1)

He never believed in ghosts until he saw a real one. (2)

That is a real diamond, not a copy. (3)


[in agreement with the way things are]

He put a realistic price on his house and sold it very quickly.


[(1) the cause for a belief or act; (2) purpose; (3) something that explains]

She did not believe his reason for leaving. (1)

The reason he studies English is to get a better job. (2)

Warmer water in the eastern Pacific Ocean is the reason for unusual weather in the Americas. (3)


[(1) ready to listen to reasons or ideas; (2) not extreme; (3) ready or willing to compromise]

The head of our office is a reasonable woman. (1)

They told him to come home at a reasonable hour. (2)

They reached agreement because they were reasonable.(3)


[(1) to act against a government or power, often with force; (2) to refuse to obey; (3) one who opposes or fights against the government of his or her country]

The people rebelled against the government. (1)

My body rebels when I exercise too much. (2)

Rebels fought to overthrow the government. (3)



[to get or accept something given, offered or sent]

I received your letter today.


[a short time ago]

These are recent pictures of my family.


[a temporary reduction in economic activity, when industries produce less and many workers lose their jobs]

Will a big tax cut prevent a recession?


[(1) to know or remember something or someone that was known, known about or seen before; (2) to accept another nation as independent and establish diplomatic ties with its government]

He recognized his friend of many years ago. (1)

Most nations recognized the newly independent country.


[(1) to write something in order to have it for future use; (2) to put sound or pictures in a form that can be kept and heard or seen again; (3) a writing that shows proof or facts about something]

He records each day what his teachers expect him to study at home. (1)

VOA Special English feature programs are recorded before they are broadcast. (2)

A public record is kept of all home sales in this county. (3)


[(1) to get again something that was lost, stolen or taken away; (2) to return to normal health or normal conditions]

The police recovered the stolen money. (1)

She is expected to recover from the operation. (2)


[having the color like that of blood]

Those red flowers are roses.


[(1) to make less or smaller in number, size or amount; (2) to cut]

She reduced her picture so it would fit in her passport. (1)

Congress voted to reduce taxes. (2)


[(1) to make better by changing; (2) to improve; (3) a change to a better condition] The Congress reformed the way candidates pay for political campaigns. (1) He reformed his life by ending all use of tobacco and alcohol. (2)


The voters approved reforms that will reduce air and water pollution. (3)


[a person who has been forced to flee because of unjust treatment, danger or war] His family came to the United States as refugees.


[(1) to reject; (2) to not accept, give or do something]

She refused his apology. (1)

He refused to fight in the Vietnam War. (2)


[a feeling of sadness or sorrow about something that is done or that happens] The President expressed regret that so many lives were lost.


[to refuse to accept, use or believe]

Colonel Travis rejected the General's demand.


[(1) understandings or ties between nations; (2) members of the same family; (3) people connected by marriage or family ties]

The United States does not have diplomatic relations with Cuba. (1)

Most of his relations live in California. (2)

He sees his wife's relations almost every week. (3)


[(1) to free; (2) to permit to go; (3) to permit to be known or made public]

The terrorists released their hostages. (1)

The child released his balloon. (2)

The spokesman released details of the President's trip. (3)


[a belief in, or the honoring of, a god or gods]

The Constitution says the United States cannot establish an official religion.


[(1) to stay in a place after others leave; (2) to stay the same]

She remained in the town after most of her friends left. (1)

He has remained my friend for almost 50 years. (2)


[a dead body]

The soldier's remains were buried in the National Cemetery.



[(1) to think about the past; (2) opposite forget]

I still remember stories that my grandfather told me. (1)

She told him to remember to call when he got home. (2)


[(1) to take away or take off; (2) to put an end to; (3) to take out of a position or office]

She removed her shoes as soon as she sat down. (1)

Doctors removed his gall bladder. (2)

The dishonest judge was removed from office. (3)


[work done to fix something]

His car is being repaired.


[to say or do again]

Please repeat what you said.


[(1) to tell about; (2) to give the results of a study or investigation; (3) the story about an event; (4) the results of a study or investigation; (5) a statement in which the facts may not be confirmed]

She reported about her holiday in Europe. (1)

The scientist reported the results of his experiment. (2)

Did you read the newspaper report about the accident? (3)

The director said he was pleased with our budget report. (4)

A report said 260 people were killed. (5)


[(1) to act in the place of someone else; (2) to substitute for; (3) to serve as an example]

She represents the people who could not be here. (1)

On this map, X represents where the treasure is buried. (2)

This statue represents the skills of the ancient artists. (3)


[to control or to restrict freedoms by force]

He repressed his people.


[(1) to ask for; (2) the act of asking for]

She requested a glass of water. (1)

No one heard her request for help. (2)



[to need or demand as necessary]

This job requires computer skills.


[to free from danger or evil]

He rescued a little boy floating in the sea.


[a careful study to discover correct information]

He made the discovery after many years of research.


[to leave a position, job or office]

The President has resigned.


[(1) to oppose; (2) to fight to prevent]

He resists all demands for new elections. (1)

The baby resisted sleep for several hours. (2)


[an official statement of agreement by a group of people, usually reached by voting] The United Nations Security Council approved a joint cease-fire resolution.


[anything of value that can be used or sold]

Our coal supplies are a great energy resource.


[(1) having a duty or job to do; (2) being the cause of]

He is responsible for preparing the report. (1)

They were responsible for the accident. (2)


[(1) to sit, lie down or sleep to regain strength; (2) that which remains; (3) the others] You should rest after your long walk. (1)

Would anyone like the rest of my dinner? (2)

He spoke to the rest of them. (3)


[(1) to keep controlled; (2) to limit action by a person or group]

He restrained his anger. (1)

Police restrained the protestors. (2)


[(1) to limit; (2) to prevent from increasing or becoming larger]


The government restricted travel. (1)

The device restricts the car's speed. (2)


[(1) to happen from a cause; (2) that which follows or is produced by a cause; (3) effect]

The accident resulted from the thick fog. (1)

The test results showed she was pregnant. (2)

As a result of the storm, no one could get to work. (3)


[to leave a job or position because one is old or in poor health]

He retired at age 55 and traveled for the rest of his life.


[(1) to go or come back; (2) to bring, give, take or send back]

She returned home yesterday. (1)

I returned the book to the library last week. (2)


[(1) to protest violently; (2) to fight for a change, especially of government] Demonstrators will revolt if police try to arrest them. (1)

Protesters revolted and seized several government buildings. (2)


[a food grain]

Rice is a major food in much of the world.


[(1) having much money or goods; (2) having plenty of something]

Her brother became a rich man. (1)

Oil made Kuwait a rich country. (2)


[(1) to sit on or in and be carried along; (2) to travel by animal, wheeled vehicle, airplane or boat]

She and I ride horses every weekend. (1)

I ride the subway to work. (2)


[what a person legally and morally should be able to do or have; (2) agreeing with the facts; (3) good; (4) correct; (5) opposite wrong; (6) on the side that is toward the east when one is facing north; (7) opposite left]

It is their right to vote. (1)

You gave the right answer. (2)

He is the right kind of person for the job. (3)


She always seems to do the right thing. (4)

She said she was right and he was wrong. (5)

Our farm is on the right side of the river. (6)

Turn right, not left, at the second street. (7)


[(1) to act with many others in a violent way in a public place; (2) a violent action by a large group of people]

Prisoners rioted and started fires inside the prison. (1)

The riot spread from the football game to the streets. (2)


[(1) to go up; (2) to go higher; (3) to increase; (4) to go from a position of sitting or lying to a position of standing]

The moon will rise soon after the sun goes down. (1)

The river is rising and spreading out. (2)

The temperature rises as the sun gets higher. (3)

He rose to his feet as she walked into the room. (4)


[the chance of loss, damage or injury]

He never considered the risk of a broken heart.


[a large amount of water that flows across land into another river, a lake or an ocean] Native Americans called the big river "the Father of Waters."


[a long piece of hard ground built between two places so people can walk, drive or ride easily from one place to the other]

The road was straight until it reached the mountains.


[(1) to take money or property secretly or by force; (2) to steal]

Someone robbed his television. (1)

The two men robbed her as she walked home from work. (2)


[a hard piece of mineral matter]

He threw a rock across the river.


[a device shaped like a tube that moves through air or space by burning gases and letting them escape from the back or bottom, sometimes used as a weapon] The huge rocket launched three men on a flight to the moon.



[(1) to turn over and over; (2) to move like a ball]

The children rolled down the hill. (1)

She rolled her eyes at his joke. (2)


[a separate area within a building with its own walls]

The boy spent hours playing in his room.


[the part of a plant that is under the ground and takes nutrients from the soil] The roots brought food to the big tree and held it firmly in the ground.


[a long, thick piece of material made from thinner pieces of material, used for tying] The boy tied the end of the rope around the tree.


[(1) not flat or smooth; (2) having an uneven surface; (3) violent; (4) not made well] The rough floor was made of wood, split by hand. (1)

We found rough ground at the top of the mountain. (2)

The strong wind made a rough sea. (3)

The rough wall of stones did not stand straight. (4)


[having the shape of a ball or circle]

The stone plate was perfectly round.


[to move something over the surface of another thing]

The boy rubbed his hand over the cat's back.


[a substance made from the liquid of trees with the same name, or a similar substance made from chemicals]

The ball was made of rubber.


[(1) to damage severely; (2) to destroy]

The rain ruined the book he left outside. (1)

Time ruined the old building, leaving only fallen walls. (2)


[(1) to govern or control; (2) to decide; (3) a statement or an order that says how something must be done]

One party ruled the Senate; the other ruled the House of Representatives. (1)


Five of nine Supreme Court judges ruled that the Republican should be President. (2) The rules were not clear on how to count the votes. (3)


[to move quickly by steps faster than those used for walking]

Please walk, do not run, to the nearest door.



[to damage or destroy as an act against an organization or nation]

The rebels sabotaged the railroad.


[to do without something or to suffer a loss for a belief, idea, goal or another person] She sacrificed her house to pay for medical school for her son.


[not happy]

He was sad because she left.


[away from harm or danger]

This is a safe place for you to stay.


[to travel by boat or ship]

We will sail to Hawaii on Thursday.


[a person involved in sailing a boat or ship]

He is a sailor on one of the big oil ships.


[a white substance found in seawater and in the ground, used to affect the taste of food]

The doctor says eating too much salt can raise my blood pressure.


[(1) not different; (2) not changed; (3) like another or others]

He eats at the same time every day. (1)

She looks the same as she did ten years ago. (2)

His car is the same as mine. (3)


[extremely small pieces of crushed rock found in large amounts in deserts and on



The hot sand of the desert burned her feet.


[(1) a small object in space that moves around a larger object; (2) an object placed in orbit around the earth]

The Earth and other planets are satellites of the sun. (1)

A new communications satellite was put in orbit today. (2)


[to give or provide what is desired, needed or demanded]

Does this food satisfy your hunger?


[(1) to make safe; (2) to remove from harm; (3) to keep for future use]

He saved the building by disarming the bomb. (1)

The fireman saved her when he pulled her from the burning house. (2)

She saved a little money every week. (3)


[(1) to speak; (2) to express in words]

What will you say to her? (1)

I will say to her what is in my heart. (2)


[(1) a place for education; (2) a place where people go to learn]

Is your son going to public or private school? (1)

Her school is testing students to measure how much they have learned. (2)


[the study of nature and the actions of natural things, and the knowledge gained about them]

Science has made great changes in our lives in just a few years.


[a large area of salt water, usually part of an ocean]

The rough sea seems angry.


[to look for carefully]

We searched everywhere for her missing book.


[(1) one of the four periods of the year that is based on the earth's position toward the sun (spring, summer, autumn, winter); (2) a period of time based on different weather conditions; (3) a period during the year when something usually happens]


He says autumn is his favorite season. (1)

She likes to visit there during the dry season. (2)

He cannot wait for baseball season to start. (3)


[(1) a thing to sit on; (2) a place to sit or the right to sit there]

The boy gave the woman his seat on the bus. (1)

He has held his seat in parliament for 40 years. (2)


[the one that comes after the first]

This is the second time I have been here.


[(1) something known only to a few and kept from general knowledge; (2) hidden from others; (3) known only to a few]

No member will talk about the secret ceremonies. (1)

The nuclear scientist denied giving secret information to foreign spies. (2) Many secret stories of the Cold War are now becoming known. (3)


[(1) freedom from danger or harm; (2) protection; (3) measures necessary to protect a person or place]

Security was increased in the city. (1)

The store provided its own security. (2)

Strong national security kept the country safe. (3)


[(1) to know or sense through the eyes; (2) to understand or know]

Did you see her smile? (1)

I see what you mean. (2)


[the part of a plant from which new plants grow]

If you plant the seeds now, you can eat vegetables in two months.


[(1) to search for; (2) to try to get; (3) to plan to do]

They are seeking a cure for cancer. (1)

She is seeking election to public office. (2)

Electric power companies are seeking to reduce their use of coal. (3)


[to appear to be]

She seems to be in good health.



[(1) to take quickly by force; (2) to take control of quickly; (3) to arrest]

Marines seized the island in three days. (1)

The generals seized power after the president fled. (2)

The policeman seized the suspect. (3)


[all that which makes one person different from others]

He seems to think only of himself.


[to give something in exchange for money]

He will sell his car to me for 2,000 dollars.


[the smaller of the two groups in the governments of some countries, such as in the United States Congress]

The Senate has 100 members, two from each state.


[(1) to cause to go; (2) to permit to go; (3) to cause to be carried, taken or directed to or away from a place]

She sent the boy away. (1)

To which university did he send his daughter? (2)

The government will send supplies immediately to the earthquake area. (3)


[(1) to come to know about by feeling, believing or understanding; (2) any of the abilities to see, hear, taste, smell or feel]

He sensed that the dog would not attack him. (1)

The medicine affected his sense of taste. (2)


[(1) to declare the punishment for a crime; (2) the punishment for a crime] The judge sentenced him to three years in prison. (1)

She received a sentence of 18 months of community service. (2)


[(1) to set or keep people, things or ideas away from or independent from others; (2) not together or connected]

He separated the two boys and told them to stop fighting. (1)

They work in separate offices. (2)


[a number of similar things or events that follow one after another in time, position or order]


The doctor said the series of tests would show the cause of the pain.


[(1) important; (2) needing careful consideration; (3) dangerous]

The two sides have begun serious negotiations. (1)

We have a serious problem to solve. (2)

The accident victim is reported to be in serious condition. (3)


[(1) to work as an official; (2) to be employed by the government; (3) to assist or help]

He served as Secretary of State. (1)

She has served as a government employee for 30 years. (2)

She served us tea and made us feel welcome. (3)


[(1) an organization or system that provides something for the public; (2) a job that an organization or business can do for money; (3) military organizations such as an army, navy or air force; (4) a religious ceremony]

Schools and roads are services paid for by taxes. (1)

His business provides childcare services for working parents. (2)

Two of her sons are in the military services. (3)

Our church provides three services every Sunday morning. (4)


[(1) to put in place or position; (2) to establish a time, price or limit]

She set food in front of us. (1)

Have you set a time for our meeting? (2)


[(1) to end (a dispute); (2) to agree about (a problem); (3) to make a home in a new place]

The long dispute was finally settled. (1)

We settled our legal problem without going to court. (2)

Her family settled in Dallas many years ago. (3)


[three or more, but not many]

I saw them in the office several days ago.


[(1) not gentle; (2) causing much pain, sadness or damage]

The prisoners received severe treatment from their guards. (1)

The powerful storm caused severe damage to homes. (2)



[(1) either the male or female group into which all people and animals are divided because of their actions in producing young; (2) the physical activity by which humans and animals can produce young]

What is the sex of your children? (1)

The doctor warned them about the dangers of unprotected sex. (2)


[to move or cause to move in short, quick movements]

Do not shake your finger at me.


[(1) to give form to; (2) the form of something, especially how it looks]

He shaped his own version of the truth from the facts that were known. (1) She made him a birthday cake in the shape of a fish. (2)


[(1) to give part of something to another or others; (2) a part belonging to, given to or owned by a single person or a group; (3) any one of the equal parts of ownership of a business or company]

They shared the food that remained. (1)

Each of the brothers had an equal share of the business. (2)

The president owned 100,000 shares of the company's stock. (3)


[(1) having a thin edge or small point that can cut or hurt; (2) causing hurt or pain] The sharp knife cut through the vegetable and into his finger. (1)

Her sharp, angry voice cut him like a knife. (2)


[the girl or woman who is being spoken about]

She is a kind woman.


[a farm animal used for its meat and hair]

They used the wool from their sheep to make all of their clothes.


[(1) to fire artillery; (2) a metal container that is fired from a large gun and explodes when it reaches its target; (3) a hard outside cover]

The big guns shelled the town for an hour. (1)

The soldiers fired more than 200 artillery shells. (2)

The turtle's shell protects it from its enemies. (3)


[(1) to protect or give protection to; (2) something that gives protection; (3) a place of safety]


She sheltered her son from the evil she saw in the world. (1)

Survival in nature requires food, water and shelter. (2)

They found shelter under a tree until the rain ended. (3)


[(1) to aim a light; (2) to give bright light; (3) to be bright; (4) to clean to make bright] He shined the light on them. (1)

The sun shined brightly in the clear sky. (2)

The faces of the children shined with happiness. (3)

She shined the silver lamp until she could see her face in it. (4)


[(1) to transport; (2) a large boat]

He ships his products by truck. (1)

The ship seemed to stop at every island in the Caribbean Sea. (2)


[(1) to cause to feel sudden surprise or fear; (2) something that greatly affects the mind or emotions; (3) a powerful shake, as from an earthquake]

She was shocked to find a man hiding in her house. (1)

Her father's sudden death was a great shock to her. (2)

Many minor shocks followed the earthquake. (3)


[a covering for the foot]

I cannot find one of my shoes.


[(1) to cause a gun or other weapon to send out an object designed to kill; (2)to use a gun]

The policewoman will shoot you if you move. (1)

He shoots only at targets. (2)


[(1) lasting only for a small period of time; (2) not long; (3) opposite tall]

He made a short speech. (1)

The missing dog has short legs and a long body. (2)

She is short, but her husband is tall. (3)


[(1) used with another verb (action word) to show responsibility, (2) probability, (3) or that something is believed to be a good idea]

We should study. (1)

The talks should begin soon. (2)

Criminals should be punished. (3)



[to speak very loudly]

The protestors shouted at the President.


[(1) to make something be seen; (2) to make known; (3) a play or story presented in a theater, or broadcast on radio or television, for enjoyment or education; (4) something organized to be seen by the public]

She showed an anger I did not know she possessed. (1)

He showed that he could do it. (2)

Did you hear the Morning Show today on VOA radio? (3)

The music students played at a free show after school. (4)


[to make or become less in size, weight or value]

Those wool clothes will shrink if you wash them in hot water.


[(1) suffering physically or mentally with a disease or other problem; (2) not in good health]

She is sick with a fever. (1)

He always seems to be sick. (2)


[the condition of being in bad health]

Doctors do not yet know what is causing her sickness.


[(1) the outer surfaces of an object that are not the top or bottom; (2) parts away from the middle; (3) either the right or left half of the body]

The side of my car was damaged in the accident. (1)

On which side of the football field does our school sit? (2)

He usually sleeps on the left side of his body. (3)


[(1) to write one's name; (2) a mark or shape used to mean something; (3) evidence that something exists or will happen; (4) a flat piece of material with writing that gives information]

The writer signed a copy of his book for me. (1)

A white mark on trees is a sign of the mountain trail. (2)

Scientists have found no sign yet of life anywhere else in the Universe. (3) That sign tells us how many miles we must drive to get to Chicago. (4)

*one mile = 1.6 kilometers


[(1) to send a message by signs; (2) an action or movement that sends a message]


That traffic light signals when we must stop or go. (1)

Paul Revere will make a signal with his light to warn if the British are coming by land or sea. (2)


[(1) to make quiet; (2) to stop from speaking or making noise; (3) a lack of noise or sound]

Silence the television by pushing the mute button on your hand control. (1) The team leader silenced his men with a hand sign. (2)

She heard only silence. (3)


[a valued white metal]

That little box is made of silver.


[like something else but not exactly the same]

The President said his proposal was similar to a proposal by Congress.


[(1) easy to understand or do; (2) not difficult or complex]

Special English is a simple form of spoken English. (1)

This book tells us in a simple way how to use a computer to do complex work. (2)


[from a time in the past until now]

I have known her since we went to school together.


[to make music sounds with the voice]

He sings in the shower.


[one only]

He gave her a single flower, a red rose, to show his love.


[to go down into water or other liquid]

He sank deeper into the mud with each step.


[a female with the same father or mother as another person]

I have only one sister.


[(1) to rest on the lower part of the body without the support of the legs; (2) to become



Please sit down and rest. (1)

She sat down. (2)


[the way things are during a period of time]

The situation in the Middle East is very dangerous.


[(1) the space occupied by something; (2) how long, wide or high something is] Can you imagine the size of the Universe? (1)

Geometry can help you measure the size of that big tree. (2)


[all the bones of a human or other animal together in their normal positions]

Scientists sometimes find the skeletons of people who lived thousands of years ago.


[the ability gained from training or experience]

He has great baseball skills.


[the outer covering of humans and most animals]

Her skin was burned red by the intense sunlight.


[the space above the earth]

The sky was filled with beautiful white clouds.


[a person owned or controlled by another]

All slaves in the United States were freed by an amendment to the Constitution in 1865.


[to rest the body and mind with the eyes closed]

Do you sleep eight hours or more each night?


[to move smoothly over a surface]

A big area of snow slid down the mountain.


[(1) to reduce the speed of; (2) not fast in moving, talking or other activities] Slow your speed to 45 miles per hour. (1)

*one mile = 1.6 kilometers


Is Special English slow enough for you? (2)


[(1) little in size or amount; (2) few in number; (3) not important; (4) opposite large] The small boy was hungry. (1)

The small force landed by parachute. (2)

It was a small problem and easy to solve. (3)

His small house was next to a big building. (4)


[(1) to break or be broken into small pieces by force; (2) to hit or move with force] He smashed the window with a rock. (1)

The speeding car smashed into the wall. (2)


[(1) to sense through the nose; (2) something sensed by the nose]

She smelled something burning. (1)

I love the smell of food cooking. (2)


[(1) to use cigarettes or other tobacco products by burning them and breathing in the smoke; (2) that which can be seen rising into the air like a cloud from something burning]

He smoked cigarettes until he died. (1)

The smoke from the burning forest rose high into the sky. (2)


[(1) having a level surface; (2) opposite rough]

The smooth floor was perfect for dancing. (1)

The floor was rough until the workman made it smooth. (2)


[soft, white pieces of frozen water that fall from the sky, usually in winter or when the air temperature is very cold]

The snow fell for two days.


[(1) in such a way that; (2) also; (3) too; (4) very; (5) as a result; (6) in order that; (7) for the purpose of]

He held the flag so all could see it. (1)

She was tired and so was I. (2)

She left early, and so did we. (3)

I am so sick. (4)

They were sick, so they could not come. (5)

We plant seeds so plants will grow. (6)

Come early so we can discuss the plans. (7)



[of or about people or a group]

The president offered a new solution for some social problems.


[(1)not hard; (2) easily shaped; (3) pleasing to touch; (4) not loud]

She likes a soft bed but her husband likes a hard bed. (1)

Her daughter likes to shape things from soft clay. (2)

I like to hold her soft hands. (3)

The room was filled with soft music. (4)


[earth in which plants grow]

She put the seeds in the soil and the plants began to grow.


[a person in the army]

A soldier is trained to be ready for any situation.


[(1) having a hard shape with no empty spaces inside; (2) strong; (3) not in the form of a liquid or gas]

The tools were solid metal and very heavy. (1)

The house is solid, so it will survive the storm. (2)

Ice is the solid form of water. (3)


[(1) to find an answer; (2) to settle]

The boy solved the mathematics problem. (1)

The committee hopes its proposals will solve the current economic problem. (2)


[(1) of an amount or number or part not stated; (2) not all]

Would you like some coffee? (1)

Would you like some of my coffee? (2)


[a person's male child]

Tommy is my youngest son.


[(1) not long after the present time; (2) quickly]

She will soon be 18 years old. (1)

Tell him to get here as soon as possible. (2)



[(1) any group of people or things that are the same or are similar in some way; (2) a kind of something]

They are the same sort of people as I. (1)

He is the sort of person you want as a friend. (2)


[(1) fast-moving waves of energy that affect the ear and result in hearing; (2) that which is heard]

Sound travels through the air at a speed of 1,088 feet per second. (1)

*one feet = 30.48 centimeters

She says the sound of the ocean helps her sleep. (2)


[the direction to the right of a person facing the rising sun]

He lives 15 miles south of Washington.

* one mile = 1.6 kilometers


[(1) the area outside the earth's atmosphere where the sun, moon, planets and stars are;

(2) the area between or inside things]

Humans began making flights into space in the early 1960's. (1)

Their new house has more space than their old one. (2)


[(1) to talk; (2) to say words with the mouth; (3) to express one's thoughts to others and exchange ideas; (4) to give a speech to a group]

She would not speak to him. (1)

He spoke to everyone. (2)

He spoke about his proposal to everyone he met. (3)

The Senator speaks to a group tomorrow about trade relations with East Asia. (4)


[(1) of a different or unusual kind; (2) not for general use; (3) better or more important than others of the same kind]

Special English is a special kind of English that is easy to understand. (1)

This is a special machine that can be used only by a trained worker. (2)

She received a special award for a lifetime of service to others. (3)


[a talk given to a group of people]

The President will make a television speech tonight about civil rights.


[(1) to make something go or move faster; (2) the rate at which something moves or travels; (3) the rate at which something happens or is done]


The chairman is speeding up debate on the bill. (1)

Do you know the speed of light? (2)

Special English news is read at a speed of 90 words per minute. (3)


[to give as payment; to use]

He spent 45 dollars for food. (1)

He spends much time studying. (2)


[to cause or permit liquid to flow out, usually by accident]

The big ship spilled hundreds of thousands of barrels of oil into the ocean.

*one barrel(米)= 42 gallons (159 liters)


[(1) the part of a human that is not physical and is connected to thoughts and emotions;

(2) the part of a person that is believed to remain alive after death]

His spirit continued to fight the disease even after his body surrendered. (1)

Many believe a person's spirit does not die but returns to the world in a new body. (2)


[(1) to separate into two or more parts; (2) to divide or break into parts]

When you split wood for a fire, you are warmed two times: once by the work and later by the fire. (1)

Cells split into two parts; the new part becomes a new cell that is exactly like the old one. (2)


[any game or activity of competition involving physical effort or skill]

His daughter plays four sports.


[(1) to become longer or wider; (2) to make or become widely known]

The old tree has spread its roots and branches over a wide area. (1)

Please spread the news that we are having a party next Saturday. (2)


[the time of the year between winter and summer]

I hope spring starts early this year.


[(1) to steal or get information secretly; (2) one who watches others secretly; (3) a person employed by a government to get secret information about another country] She spied to get information for another company. (1)

A spy for the man's wife watched him for several weeks. (2)

Three people employed at the C.I.A. were accused of being spies for a foreign country.




[a flat shape having four equal sides]

Measure this square and tell me how much material is needed to cover it.


[to cut or push into or through with a pointed weapon]

The person stabbed her then ran away.


[(1) to move into or be in a position in which only the feet are on a surface; (2) to be in one position or place]

She told the students to stand for the opening ceremony. (1)

Two hours ago, she was standing where the city bus stops. (2)


[(1) a mass of gas that usually appears as a small light in the sky at night, but is not a planet; (2) a famous person, usually an actor or singer]

Those stars form the shape of Orion the Hunter. (1)

Some Hollywood stars were at the White House last night. (2)


[(1) to begin; (2) to make something begin]

He will start the new job tomorrow. (1)

Will you start the car and turn on the heater? (2)


[to suffer or die from a lack of food]

Thousands may have starved to death because of crop failures in Sudan.


[(1) to say; (2) to declare; (3) a political part of a nation]

The Ambassador stated his concern about the problem. (1)

A White House spokesman stated that no changes had been made in policies affecting trade with Asia. (2)

He plans to travel through several western states. (3)


[(1) a place of special work or purpose; (2) a place where passengers get on or off trains or buses; (3) a place for radio or television broadcasts]

Rebels attacked a police station outside the city. (1)

He plans to meet her when she arrives at the bus station. (2)

She works at the television station. (3)



[a form of a human, animal or other creature usually made of stone, wood or metal] The Statue of Liberty in New York harbor was a gift from France.


[(1) to continue to be where one is; (2) to remain; (3) to not leave; (4) to live for a time]

I will stay here until you return. (1)

He stayed at home yesterday. (2)

She said I should stay until she calls. (3)

They stayed in New York for two years. (4)


[to take without permission or paying]

Be careful. She will steal your heart.


[the gas that comes from hot water]

The kitchen is full of steam when his mother cooks.


[iron made harder and stronger by mixing it with other substances]

Much of the steel used now in the United States is imported.


[(1) to move by lifting one foot and placing it in a new position; (2) the act of stepping;

(3)one of a series of actions designed to reach a goal]

He stepped through the door. (1)

We moved slowly up the mountain, one step at a time. (2)

The final step is to put the new boat in the water. (3)


[(1) to attach something to another thing using a substance that will hold them together; (2) to become fixed in one position so that movement is difficult; (3) a thin piece of wood]

We will put glue on the wallpaper, then stick the paper to the wall. (1)

Something is making the door stick. (2)

We need some small sticks to start a campfire. (3)


[(1) not moving; (2) until the present or a stated time; (3) even so; (4) although] The man was standing still. (1)

Was he still there? (2)

She slept for nine hours, but she was still tired. (3)

The job was difficult, but she still wanted to do it. (4)



[a small piece of rock]

The boys threw stones at the soldiers.


[(1) to prevent any more movement or action; (2) to come or bring to an end] She stopped the car. (1)

Stop that noise. (2)


[(1) to keep or put away for future use; (2) a place where people buy things] She stores food for emergencies. (1)

His father owns an automobile parts store. (2)


[violent weather, including strong winds and rain or snow]

The storm caused severe damage across southern Florida.


[the telling or writing of an event, either real or imagined]

No one believed the story of her life, so she changed it.


[a heating device used for cooking]

The stove is broken so I cannot cook dinner.


[continuing in one direction without turns]

The road is straight, all the way across the desert.


[(1) unusual; (2) not normal; (3) not known]

I saw some strange lights in the sky last night. (1)

Our backyard is a strange place to see a deer. (2)

Some of our customs seem strange to her. (3)


[a road in a city, town or village]

Which street are you looking for?


[(1) to extend for a distance; (1) to pull on to make longer or wider]

They stretched the rope across the river. (1)

His shoulders stretched the coat. (2)


[(1) to hit with force; (2) to stop work as a way to seek better conditions, more pay or


to make other demands]

He struck the baseball with the bat. (1)

The workers are on strike for more money. (2)


[(1) having much power; (2) not easily broken, damaged or destroyed]

The strong wind blew down some trees. (1)

Even some of the strong trees were damaged. (2)


[(1) the way something is built, made or organized; (2) a system that is formed or organized in a special way; (3) a building]

This picture shows the structure of a plant cell. (1)

He will propose some changes in the structure of the organization. (2)

The new structure will have offices on 14 floors. (3)


[(1) to try with much effort; (2) to fight with; (3) a great effort; (4) a fight] He struggled to keep his company open. (1)

The two boys struggled for no reason. (2)

It is a great struggle just to get up in the morning. (3)

Who were the boys in that struggle outside the school? (4)


[(1) to make an effort to gain knowledge by using the mind; (2) to examine carefully] He studied for many years to become a doctor. (1)

She studied the problem carefully before making her proposal. (2)


[(1) not able to learn much; (2) not intelligent]

You are not stupid, you have a learning problem. (1)

There are no stupid people, only stupid mistakes. (2)


[the person or thing being discussed, studied or written about]

Everyone knows the subject of this meeting, so let us get started.


[an underwater ship]

The submarine is in trouble at the bottom of the ocean.


[the material of which something is made (a solid, liquid or gas)]

The new substance is a liquid that quickly changes to a solid when mixed with another chemical.



[(1) to put or use in place of another; (2) a person or thing put or used in place of another]

You can substitute this medicine for the one you have been using. (1)

Jim is a substitute for Tom in today's game. (2)


[an attempt to weaken or destroy a political system or government, usually secretly] The three men are accused of subversion.


[(1) to reach a goal or thing desired; (2) to produce a planned result]

He succeeded in marrying her. (1)

The team succeeded in winning every game that year. (2)


[(1) of this or that kind; (2) of the same kind as; (3) similar to]

She was surprised that they were interested in visiting such places. (1)

Such people are never happy with their situation. (2)

He had coins, keys, gum and such in his pockets. (3)


[(1) not expected; (2) without warning; (3) done or carried out quickly or without preparation]

All of us got wet during that sudden rainstorm. (1)

Police made a sudden arrest in the case. (2)

He made a sudden decision to retire immediately. (3)


[(1) to feel pain in the body or mind; (2) to receive or experience hurt or sadness] She suffered much before her death from cancer. (1)

He suffered from depression when he did not use his medicine. (2)


[a sweet substance made from liquids taken from plants]

I would like sugar in my tea, please.


[to offer or propose something to think about or consider]

She suggested doing the job a different way.


[the warmest time of the year, between spring and autumn]

Most public schools are closed during the summer.



[the huge star in the sky that provides heat and light to earth]

Without the sun, life would not exist on Earth.


[to direct and observe the work of others]

She supervises a health services office.


[(1) to give; (2) to provide; (3) the amount of something that can be given or sold to others]

The organization supplies food and clothing to poor people. (1)

The store supplies workers with low cost uniforms and other work clothing. (2) The store has large supplies of uniforms in all sizes. (3)


[(1) to carry the weight of; (2) to hold up or in position; (3) to agree with others and help them reach a goal; (4) to approve]

The walls support the weight of the house. (1)

My helper supports the part while I connect it. (2)

Her job is to support the other workers by agreeing with their decisions. (3) He supports them by approving their efforts to complete the work. (4)


[(1) to believe, think or imagine; (2) to expect]

I suppose you are right. (1)

It is supposed to rain tonight. (2)


[(1) to put down or to keep down by force; (2) to prevent information from being known publicly]

The government suppressed any attempt to end its control. (1)

The government suppressed all reports of demonstrations. (2)


[(1) very probable; (2) with good reason to believe; (3) true without question] He believed he had a sure method of escape. (1)

Everything she wrote was based on sure facts. (2)

The government had sure proof that he did the crime. (3)


[the outer side or top of something]

The rocket landed on the surface of the moon.


[(1) an amount that is more than is needed; (2) extra]

The United States had a big budget surplus. (1)


That country has a trade surplus. It exports more than it imports. (2)


[(1) to cause a feeling of wonder because something is not expected; (2) something not expected; (3) the feeling caused by something not expected]

Her friends surprised her with a party. (1)

The party was a big surprise. (2)

Her real surprise made everyone else as happy as she. (3)


[(1) to give control of oneself or one's property to another or others; (2) to stop fighting and admit defeat]

The robbers surrendered to police. (1)

Germany surrendered to the allied powers to end the war in Europe. (2)


[(1) to form a circle around; (2) to be in positions all around someone or something] The house was surrounded by big trees. (1)

Soldiers surrounded the enemy headquarters. (2)


[to remain alive during or after a dangerous situation]

No one survived when the plane crashed into the mountain.


[(1) to imagine or believe that a person is guilty of something bad or illegal; (2) a person believed to be guilty]

Police suspected her from the beginning. (1)

They questioned all the usual suspects. (2)


[to cause to stop for a period of time]

The committee meeting was suspended because not enough voting members were there.


[to take into the stomach through the mouth]

He swallowed the medicine.

swear in

[to put an official into office by having him or her promise to carry out the duties of that office]

The chief justice will swear in the president.


[tasting pleasant, like sugar]


This fruit is very sweet.


[to move through water by making motions with the arms and legs]

Can you swim across the river?


[a sharing of feelings or emotions with another person, usually feelings of sadness] You have our sympathy for your loss.


[(1) a method of organizing or doing something by following rules or a plan; (2) a group of connected things or parts working together for a common purpose or goal] The office established a filing system so that we can find documents easily and quickly. (1)

Our system of justice sometimes makes mistakes and punishes an innocent person. (2)



[(1) to put a hand or hands around something and hold it, often to move it to another place; (2) to carry something; (3) to seize; (4) to capture; (5) to begin to be in control] Take this glass. (1)

They will take this with them. (2)

Did the policemen take the evidence? (3)

The Marines took the enemy position. (4)

The President takes office tomorrow. (5)


[(1) to express thoughts in spoken words; (2) a meeting for discussion]

He will talk to us. (1)

The professor will give the talk. (2)


[(1) higher than others; (2) opposite short]

New York has many very tall buildings. (1)

Tom is tall but his wife is short. (2)


[(1) a large container for holding liquids; (2) a heavy military vehicle with guns] That oil tank is leaking. (1)

The tank moved into position and began shelling the town. (2)


[any person or object aimed at or fired at]


We fired at paper targets 300 meters from us.


[to sense through the mouth]

The fruit tastes sweet.


[the money a person or business must pay to the government so the government can provide services]

Federal taxes are due April 15th, unless you pay them earlier.


[a drink made from the plant of the same name]

May I get you a cup of tea?


[(1) to show how to do something; (2) to provide knowledge; (3) to cause to understand]

Will you teach me how to drive a car? (1)

She wants to teach high school students. (2)

He taught me to understand poems. (3)


[a group organized for some purpose, often for sports]

She plays on the softball and soccer teams.


[to pull apart, often by force]

Did your dog tear the newspaper?


[the fluid that comes out of the eyes while crying]

Her eyes flooded with tears.


[(1) involving machines, processes and materials in industry, transportation and communications; (2) of or about a very special kind of subject or thing]

He has made many technical improvements in our factory. (1)

You need technical knowledge to understand how this system works. (2)


[the use of scientific knowledge and methods to produce goods and services] She works at a company that designs communications technology.


[a device or system for sending sounds, especially the voice, over distances]


Do you have a wireless telephone?


[a device for making objects that are far away appear closer and larger]

Space telescopes can see objects near the edge of our galaxy.


[(1) a device that receives electronic signals and makes them into pictures and sounds;

(2) the system of sending pictures and sounds by electronic signals over a distance so others can see and hear them on a receiver]

He has a television in every room. (1)

Television has affected almost every part of our lives. (2)


[(1) to give information; (2) to make known by speaking; (3) to command] He will tell everyone how to get to the party. (1)

She will tell us about her trip to China. (2)

Do what I tell you. (3)


[the measurement of heat and cold]

What is the temperature outside?


[lasting only a short time]

He has a temporary job.


[(1) having fear or concern; (2) dangerous; (3) opposite calm]

My pregnant sister is tense about the pain of childbirth. (1)

The bomb threat created a tense situation. (2)

The calm situation suddenly became a tense situation. (3)


[(1) a limited period of time during which someone does a job or carries out a responsibility; (2) the conditions of an agreement that have been accepted by those involved in it]

He served two terms in Congress. (1)

The terms of the peace agreement were guaranteed by the United States and Russia.



[(1)very bad; (2) causing terror or fear]

She had a terrible day at the office. (1)

The hostages were in a terrible situation. (2)



[a large area of land]

The area is dangerous territory in summer because of extremely hot weather and lack of water.


[(1) extreme fear; (2) that which causes great fear]

She lived with the terror that the attack could happen again. (1)

He froze with terror when he saw the angry bear running toward him. (2)


[a person who carries out acts of extreme violence as a protest or a way to influence a government]

The terrorist admitted that he made the bomb.


[(1) to attempt to learn or prove what something is like or how it will act by studying or doing; (2) an attempt to learn or prove what something is like or how it will act by studying or doing; (3) a group of questions or problems used to find out a person's knowledge]

The scientists will test the new engine soon. (1)

The test of the new engine takes place today. (2)

The students did well on the language test. (3)


[(1) connecting word used to link things that may be similar, but are not equal] My sister is taller than I am.


[to say that one has a good feeling toward another because that person did something kind]

I want to thank you for helping me.


[(1) showing the person, place or thing being spoken about; (2) the person, place or thing being spoken about]

That man is a soldier. (1)

The building that I saw was very large. (2)


[used in front of a name word to show that it is a person or thing that is known about or is being spoken about]

The man watched the animal run into the woods.


[a place where movies are shown or plays are performed]


We saw a wonderful play last night at the theater.


[other people being spoken about]

Did you talk to them about the dog?


[(1) at that time; (2) and so]

We were young then. (1)

If I am late then she gets angry. (2)


[a possible explanation of why something exists or how something happens using experiments or ideas, but which is not yet proven]

Other scientists are debating his theory about the disappearance of dinosaurs.


[(1) in that place or position; (2) to or toward that place]

What did you find over there? (1)

I am going there to get something to eat. (2)


[of or about the people, places or things nearby that have been spoken about already] These are my children.


[those ones being spoken about]

They work with us on several projects.


[(1) having a large distance between two opposite surfaces; (2) having many parts close together; (3) almost solid, such as a liquid that does not flow easily; (4) opposite thin]

The wall is two meters thick. (1)

The forest is very thick. (2)

He put thick oil in the motor of his old car. (3)

This house paint is thick, not thin like the other paint. (4)


[(1) having a small distance between two opposite surfaces; (2) not fat; (3) not wide;

(4) opposite thick]

The walls in this house are very thin. (1)

He was fat as a boy but is thin as a man. (2)

The young trees are thin but will grow wide. (3)

The electric wires were thin, not thick. (4)



[any object]

Do you know what that thing is?


[(1) to produce thoughts; (2) to form ideas in the mind; (3) to consider; (4) to believe] What is it in humans that makes them think? (1)

Sometimes he thinks about the purpose of his life. (2)

I will think about your request. (3)

I think you are right. (4)


[coming after two others]

You are the third person to tell me about that.


[of or about the person, place or thing nearby that has been spoken about already] This note will answer your question.


[to warn that one will do harm or cause damage]

The bank threatened to seize his house.


[(1) in at one end and out at the other; (2) from front to back; (3) from top to bottom;

(4) with the help of; (5) by]

Oil is shipped through a pipe from Texas to Virginia. (1)

The dog ran through the house. (2)

The submarine sank through the water. (3)

They got help through their church. (4)

They came through the back way. (5)


[to cause to go through the air by a movement of the arm]

Very few baseball players can throw a ball 100 miles an hour.

* one mile = 1.6 kilometers


[(1) to join or hold together with some material; (2) anything that joins or unites; (3) links or connections]

He tied his dog to the tree. (1)

They are connected by business ties. (2)

The two nations have strong trade ties. (3)


[(1) that which is measured in minutes, hours, days and years; (2) a period that can be


identified in hours and minutes and is shown on a clock; (3) a period when an event should or will take place]

We have been friends for a long time. (1)

What time is it? (2)

The time for starting the meeting is two o'clock. (3)


[(1) having less strength because of work or exercise; (2) needing sleep or rest] Talking all day makes him tired. (1)

I am so tired I could sleep all day. (2)


[(1) showing the direction of an action; (2) showing the person or place toward which an action is directed; (3) showing a goal or purpose]

At the first stoplight, turn to the right. (1)

She is flying to Seattle. (2)

Come to my house to study tonight. (3)


[this day]

I am glad that school ends today.


[(1) in one group; (2) at the same time or place; (3) in cooperation]

Her wedding will bring us all together next month. (1)

They will be together at school tomorrow. (2)

We agreed to work together. (3)


[the day after today]

You will feel better tomorrow, after a night's rest.


[this night]

Are you going to see her tonight?


[(1) also; (2) as well; (3) more than is necessary]

I like him too. (1)

She will be at the party too. (2)

He works too much. (3)


[any instrument or device designed to help one do work]

May I borrow a tool from you to fix my keyboard.



[(1) the upper edge or surface; (2) the highest part; (3) the cover of something] The food is in the pan on the top of the stove. (1)

She climbed to the top of the mountain. (2)

Please put the top on the box of tea. (3)


[(1) to cause severe pain; (2) the act of causing severe pain in order to harm, to punish or to get information from]

The guards tortured the prisoners by beating them. (1)

Torture was used to get information about the rebels. (2)


[the complete amount]

The measure proposes a tax-reduction total of 1.6 trillion dollars over ten years.


[to put the hand or fingers on]

Please do not touch the wet paint.


[(1) in the direction of; (2) leading to]

He walked toward the river. (1)

They took the first steps toward a peace agreement. (2)


[a center where people live, larger than a village but not as large as a city]

Many towns are smaller now because young people move to the cities.


[(1) to buy and sell or exchange products or services; (2) the activity of buying, selling or exchanging products or services]

He trades shares of stock on the New York Stock Exchange. (1)

The United States wants to sell more American products in its trade with China. (2)


[a ceremony, activity or belief that has existed for a long time]

A big Thanksgiving Day dinner is a tradition in our family.


[the movement of people, vehicles or ships along a street, road or waterway] Traffic was very slow during the evening rush hour.


[(1) extremely sad; (2) terrible]

The boy's struggle against disease was a tragic story. (1)


A tragic car crash killed five people. (2)


[(1) to teach or learn how to do something; (2) to prepare for an activity; (3) an engine and the cars connected to it that move along a railroad]

A doctor will train the group in emergency medical treatment. (1)

The soldiers trained for days to prepare for the attack. (2)

She rides a train to work every day. (3)


[to move goods or people from one place to another]

Trucks will transport the goods.


[the act or business of moving goods or people]

Effective transportation depends on reasonable fuel costs.


[(1) to catch or be caught by being tricked; (2) to be unable to move or escape; (3) a device used to catch animals]

Police trapped robbers by opening stores that offered to buy stolen goods. (1) He was trapped in the burning building. (2)

Few people use traps now to catch animals for their fur or skins. (3)


[to go from one place to another, usually for a long distance]

He travels to California several times a year.


[the act of fighting against one's own country or of helping its enemies]

Only a few persons have been tried for treason in the past 50 years.


[a large collection of money, jewels or other things of great value]

Searchers still find treasure in ships that sank as they carried gold to Europe.


[(1) to deal with; (2) to act toward in a special way; (3) to try to cure]

The new book treats the subject of political wrong-doing in the 1990's. (1) His political enemies treated him unfairly. (2)

Doctors are treating the disease with a new medicine. (3)


[(1) the act of treating; (2) the use of medicine to try to cure or make better]

A new report offers a different treatment on the costs of reducing air pollution. (1) Doctors are developing some new treatments for the AIDS disease. (2)



[a written agreement between two or more nations]

The United States may seek changes in the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.


[a very tall plant that is mostly wood, except for its leaves]

Some new rules are expected to reduce the number of trees cut in the National Forests.


[an examination in a court of a question or dispute to decide if a charge is true] Evidence against the terrorists will be presented at a trial in New York.


[a group of families ruled by a common chief or leader]

Another Native American tribe is seeking the return of lands taken by the government in the 1800's.


[(1) to cheat; (2) to fool a person so as to get something or make him or her do something]

He used false documents to trick the tax office into reducing his taxes. (1)

She tricked him into giving her private information about his credit card. (2)


[a movement from one place to another, usually a long distance]

We will go on a trip to Europe next month.


[a number of soldiers in a large controlled group]

American and European troops are keeping peace in Yugoslavia.


[that which causes concern, fear, difficulty or problems]

He always has trouble starting his car.


[a temporary halt in fighting agreed to by all sides involved]

Fighting ended when the two sides agreed to a truce.


[a heavy vehicle used to carry goods]

The men loaded everything that I own into the truck.



[(1)correct; (2) not false]

The news report was true. (1)

The woman made a true statement to the court. (2)


[to believe that someone is honest and will not cause harm]

Many important people trusted him.


[(1) to make an effort; (2) to take court action against a person to decide if he or she is guilty or innocent of a crime]

We will try to find her. (1)

The court will try him next week. (2)


[(1) a long, round structure through which liquids or gases can flow; (2) a long, thin container in which they can be kept]

The patient breathed through a tube placed in his throat. (1)

The tube of toothpaste is empty. (2)


[(1) to change direction; (2) to move into a different position; (3) to change color, form or shape]

Turn to the left at the next street. (1)

Turn the meat so it will cook on both sides. (2)

Her beautiful black hair turned white as years passed. (3)



[(1) below; (2) below the surface of; (3) less than; (4) as called for by a law, agreement or system]

The river flows under the bridge. (1)

The submarine went under. (2)

The book was under 20 dollars. (3)

Such action is not permitted under the law. (4)


[(1) to know what is meant; (2)to have knowledge of]

I understand what you mean. (1)

He understands chemistry. (2)


[to join together]

The new president will try to unite all parties in support of his program.



[all of space, including planets and stars]

Do you know why the universe is expanding?


[a place of education that usually includes several colleges and research organizations]

Her sons are students at different universities.


[(1) except if it happens; (2) on condition that]

I will not go, unless the rain stops. (1)

I will come to your house unless it rains. (2)


[(1) up to a time; (2) before]

She said she would wait for me until three o'clock. (1)

We cannot start until everyone arrives. (2)


[to, in or at a higher position or value]

We will walk up the stairs.


[(1) to advise strongly; (2) to make a great effort to get someone to do something] He urged the governor to think carefully before signing such a bill. (1)

The speaker urged the crowd to take control of the university. (2)


[needing an immediate decision or action]

She said urgent action is necessary.


[(1) the form of the word "we" used after a preposition; (2) or used as an object of a verb]

He said he would write to us. (1)

They saw us yesterday. (2)


[(1) to employ for a purpose; (2) to put into action]

We use electricity to light our house. (1)

He used a piece of glass to cut the ropes that tied our hands. (2)


[(1) as is normal or common; (2) as is most often done, seen or heard]

They watched all the usual television shows. (1)


We left for work at our usual time. (2)



[a long area of land between higher areas of land]

The people in the valley worry about snow sliding down the mountain.


[(1) the quality of being useful, important or desired; (2) the amount of money that could be received if something is sold]

His greatest value is honesty. (1)

The value of their house rose 50 percent in two years. (2)


[a plant grown for food]

She is healthy because she eats lots of vegetables and exercises every day.


[(1) anything on or in which a person or thing can travel or be transported, especially anything on wheels; (2) a car or truck]

This area is closed to all vehicles. (1)

We pay a tax based on the value of each vehicle we own. (2)


[the form of something with different details than earlier or later forms]

Are you using the latest version of that computer program?



He was very late.


[to reject or refuse to approve]

The President promised to veto the bill if Congress passes it.


[(1) bad; (2) dangerous; (3) showing harm or hate]

They had a vicious argument about money. (1)

That vicious dog has bitten several people. (2)

He made some vicious statements about the President. (3)


[(1) someone or something that is injured, killed or made to suffer; (2) someone who is tricked]


The victim never saw the vicious person who struck her. (1)

The victim trusted the woman who took her money. (2)


[a success in a fight or competition]

The little school won its first basketball victory in two years.


[a very small town]

Many villages are dying as people move to towns and cities.


[(1) to fail to obey or honor; (2) to break (an agreement)]

He violated laws against making illegal drugs. (1)

He violated the loan agreement by making payments late. (2)


[the use of force to cause injury, death or damage]

She said parents are concerned about violence in the schools.


[to go to or come to a place for a short time for friendly or business reasons] The President will visit Japan next month.


[the sound made by creatures, especially humans, for speaking]

She has a nice voice for speaking.


[a hill or mountain around a hole in the earth's surface that can explode, sending hot, melted rock and ash into the air]

Many volcanoes are active and could explode suddenly.


[(1) to choose a candidate in an election; (2) a choice or decision expressed by the voice, by hand or by writing]

Americans vote in national elections every two years. (1)

Officials hope to reduce mistakes in votes by replacing old voting systems with new and better ones. (2)


wages [money received for work done]

Jack receives his wages every Friday.

wait [(1) to delay acting; (2) to postpone]


Wait for me. (1)

We will wait until next Tuesday to discuss the problem. (2)

walk [to move by putting one foot in front of the other]

She walks two miles every day.

*one mile = 1.6 kilometers

wall [(1) the side of a room or building formed by wood, stone or other material; (2) a structure sometimes used to separate areas of land]

He has many pictures on his wall. (1)

China built the Great Wall to protect against enemy invasions. (2)

want [(1) to desire; (2) to wish for; (3) to need]

He wants to see her more often. (1)

She wants to win a lot of money in the lottery. (2)

They want to eat now. (3)

war [fighting between nations, or groups in a nation, using weapons]

The world's last major war, World War II, ended in 1945.

warm [(1) almost hot; (2) having or feeling some heat]

My coffee is warm instead of hot. (1)

She likes to sit outside in the warm sunlight. (2)

warn [(1) to tell of possible danger; (2) to advise or inform about something bad that may happen]

A weather radio warns of dangerous storms. (1)

The President warned that the country may be entering an economic recession. (2)

wash [to make clean, usually with water]

Tommy says that he will wash the car today.

waste [(1) to spend or use without need or care; (2) to make bad use of; (3) a spending of money, time or effort with no value gained or returned; (4) something thrown away as having no value; (5) the liquid and solid substances that result from body processes and are passed out of the body]

Do not waste your money by buying video games. (1)

He wasted his life by using drugs and alcohol. (2)

Watching television is a waste of time. (3)

Chemical wastes pollute our water supplies. (4)

How do astronauts deal with the problem of wastes from their bodies? (5)

watch [(1) to look at; (2) to observe closely; (3) to look and wait for]

Did you watch the football game on television? (1)

Watch every move he makes. (2)

I will watch for her train to arrive. (3)


water [the liquid that falls from the sky as rain or is found in lakes, rivers and oceans] May I have some water, please?

wave [(1) to move or cause to move one way and the other, as a flag in the wind; (2) to signal by moving the hand one way and the other; (3) a large mass of water that forms and moves on the surface of a lake or ocean]

The flag is waving in the wind. (1)

She waved at me. (2)

The waves are especially large today. (3)

way [(1) a path on land or sea or in the air; (2) how something is done; (3) method] This trail is the way to our camp. (1)

She says I should drive the way that she does. (2)

Show me the way to hit the ball. (3)

we [two or more people, including the speaker or writer]

He and I will go together, and we will return together.

weak [(1) having little power; (2) easily broken, damaged or destroyed; (3) opposite strong]He was weak from hunger. (1)

We are worried about crossing the weak bridge. (2)

You need a strong rope, not a weak one, to tie the boat to the tree. (3)

wealth [a large amount of possessions, money or other things of value]

His wealth comes from his rich grandfather.

weapon [anything used to cause injury or to kill during an attack, fight or war] Police could not find the weapon used in the murder.

wear [to have on the body, as clothes]What will you wear to the party?

weather [the condition of the atmosphere resulting from sun, wind, rain, heat or cold] We will have more cold weather tomorrow.

week [a period of time equal to seven days]

She will be gone for two weeks.

weigh [to measure how heavy someone or something is]

The ticket agent will weigh your bag at the airport.

welcome [to express happiness or pleasure when someone arrives or something develops]

We welcomed the sun after a week of rain.

well [(1) in a way that is good or pleasing; (2) in good health; (3) a hole in the ground


where water, gas or oil can be found]

She is doing well at school. (1)

He was sick, but he is well now. (2)

We may see more oil wells in Alaska soon. (3)

west [the direction in which the sun goes down]

They live in a town 50 miles west of Chicago.

* one mile = 1.6 kilometers

wet [(1) covered with water or other liquid; (2) not dry]

It rained just enough to make the streets wet. (1)

My clothing got wet in the rain. (2)

what [(1) used to ask about something or to ask for information about ; (2) which or which kind]

What is this? (1)

He wants to know what you would like to drink. (2)

wheat [(1) a grain used to make bread; (2) the plant that produces the grain] We like bread made from whole wheat. (1)

The farmer grows wheat in most of his fields. (2)

wheel [a round structure that turns around a center]

The wheel on his bicycle came off.

when [(1) at what time; (2) at any time; (3) during or at the time]

When does the train leave? (1)

When will she come home? (2)

I studied hard when I was in school. (3)

where [(1) at, to or in what place; (2) place in which]

Where is his house? (1)

The house where he lives is in the old part of the city. (2)

which [used to ask about what one or what ones of a group of things or people] Which program do you like best? (1)

Which students will take the test? (2)

while [(1) a space of time; (2) at or during the same time]

Please come to my house for a while. (1)

It may not be a good idea to eat while you are driving. (2)

white [having the color like that of milk or snow]

She calls her cat Snowball because it is white.

who [(1) what or which person or persons that; (2) the person or persons]


Who wants to go? (1)

They are the ones who want to go. (2)

whole [(1) the complete amount; (2) all together; (3) not divided; (4) not cut into pieces]

He paid the whole cost of the dinner. (1)

The whole group is invited. (2)

The whole country celebrates Independence Day. (3)

The boy ate the whole cake. (4)

why [(1) for what cause or reason; (2) the reason for which]

Why did she do it? (1)

I do not know why she did it. (2)

wide [(1) having a great distance from one side to the other; (2) not limited] The flood covered a wide area along the river. (1)

The new store offered a wide choice of products. (2)

wife [a woman who is married]

His wife works at home.

wild [(1) living and growing in natural conditions and not organized or supervised by humans; (2) angry; (3) uncontrolled]

Many kinds of wild animals live in America's National Forests. (1)

The man was wild with anger. (2)

Police broke up the wild party. (3)

will [a word used with action words to show future action]

They will hold talks tomorrow.

willing [being ready or having a desire to]

They are willing to talk about the problem.

win [(1) to gain a victory; (2) to defeat another or others in a competition, election or battle]

Our school won first prize in the foreign language competition. (1)

The candidate with the most campaign money usually wins the election. (2)

wind [a strong movement of air]

In some areas, wind is used to produce electricity.

window [an opening in a wall to let in light and air, usually filled with glass] The glass is broken in many of the windows of the old house.

winter [the coldest time of year, between autumn and spring]

Winter lasts for a long time in the mountains.


wire [a long, thin piece of metal used to hang objects or to carry electricity or electronic communications from one place to another]

Most electric wires in our town are buried in the ground.

wise [(1) having much knowledge and understanding; (2) able to use knowledge and understanding to make good or correct decisions]

She is a wise woman. (1)

The President is a wise leader. (2)

wish [(1) to want; (2) to express a desire for]

I wish to have Japanese food tonight. (1)

She wishes that her friend will call her. (2)

with [(1) along or by the side of; (2) together; (3) using; (4) having]

She walked with her friend. (1)

She is here with me. (2)

He fixed it with a tool. (3)

They live in the house with the red door. (4)

withdraw [(1) to take or move out, away or back; (2) to remove]

He said he will withdraw from the presidential race. (1)

The company says it will withdraw the disputed product from stores. (2)

without [(1) with no; (2) not having or using; (3) free from; (4) not doing]

He grew up without a father. (1)

We were without electricity for four hours. (2)

They said goodbye without tears. (3)

He spoke without thinking. (4)

woman [an adult female human]

The woman with him was his mother.

wonder [(1) to ask oneself; (2) to question; (3) a feeling of surprise]

I wonder why she did that. (1)

She wonders if it is true. (2)

The child's eyes were wide with wonder at the fireworks. (3)

wonderful [(1) causing wonder; (2) especially good]

Astronauts on the moon took some wonderful pictures of the Earth. (1)

It is a wonderful day. (2)

wood [the solid material of which trees are made]His stove burns wood.

word [one or more connected sounds that form a single part of a language]

The Word Book is a list of words used in VOA Special English radio programs.


work [(1) to use physical or mental effort to make or do something; (2) the effort used to make or to do something; (3) that which needs effort; (4) the job one does to earn money]

She works as an airline pilot. (1)

This old house requires a lot of work. (2)

You need a strong back to do farm work. (3)

What kind of work do you do? (4)

world [(1) the earth; (2) the people who live on the earth]

Communication satellites let us talk almost instantly to people in any part of the world.


Most of the world wants an end to nuclear weapons. (2)

worry [(1) to be concerned; (2) to continue thinking that something, possibly bad, can happen]

They worry that taxes are too high. (1)

Others worry that the government will not provide the services they need. (2)

worse [more bad than]

Air pollution is worse today than it was yesterday.

worth [value measured in money]

The new house is worth almost one million dollars.

wound [(1) to injure; (2) to hurt; (3) to cause physical damage to a person or animal;

(4) an injury to the body of a human or animal in which the skin is usually cut or broken]

The terrorist attack wounded twelve people. (1)

Her feelings were wounded by him. (2)

Many were wounded by glass from broken windows. (3)

Blood was pouring from the wound in his leg. (4)

wreck [(1) to damage greatly; (2) to destroy; (3) anything that has been badly damaged or broken]

The storm wrecked many houses in the town. (1)

The boy wrecked the family car. (2)

The house was a wreck after the wild party. (3)

wreckage [what remains of something severely damaged or destroyed]

Searchers found the wreckage of the airplane high on a mountain.

write [to use an instrument to make words appear on a surface, such as paper] Please write a note to me with your new address.

wrong [(1) not correct; (2) bad; (3) not legal; (4) opposite right]


His answer is wrong. (1)

He made the wrong decision. (2)

It is wrong to steal her money. (3)

She knew the difference between right and wrong. (4)


year [a period of time equal to twelve months]

We signed a work agreement for one year.

yellow [having the color like that of gold or the sun]

The skin of bananas is yellow.

yes [used to express agreement or to permit]

When he asked her to marry him, she said, "Yes."

yesterday [the day before today]

We talked yesterday about her problem.

yet [(1) at some time before now; (2) now; (3) at this time; (4) however] Have they arrived yet? (1)

Do not sit down yet. (2)

I cannot tell you about it yet. (3)

The sun was shining, yet it was cold. (4)

you [the person or persons being spoken to]

I am glad to see you.

young [(1) in the early years of life; (2) not old]

The young girl missed her mother. (1)

He seemed too young to know so much. (2)

zero [the number meaning none or nothing]

One minus one equals zero.

zoo [a place where animals are kept for the public to look at and study] We saw the new panda at the zoo.


a lot of [much or many]

We had a lot of rain.

carry out [to do; to put into effect]

Please carry out the plan.


pass a bill [approve]

Congress is expected to pass a bill to cut taxes.

take steps [to start to do something]

The government will take steps to halt inflation.


antibodies [special proteins, produced in the blood, that kill harmful bacteria] The body's defense system creates different antibodies for each disease it fights.

atom [a very small part of all things; the smallest part of an element that can join with parts of other elements]

All matter is made of atoms.

bacteria [living things that are one cell and can be seen only through a microscope; some cause disease]

Some bacteria cause disease.

cell [a small mass of living material that is part of all plants and animals]

All plants and animals are made of cells.

chromosome [a line of genes; most human cells contain 46 chromosomes] Chromosomes carry the genes that make each of us different.

compound [a substance containing two or more elements]

A compound contains two or more chemical elements.

dense [close together; thick]

Lead is a dense material.

electron [a small part of an atom that has an electrical force]

An electron is a small part of an atom.

element [one of more than 100 substances known to science that cannot be separated into other substances]

An element cannot be separated into other substances.

enzyme [a special kind of protein; it produces changes in other substances without being changed itself]

An enzyme can change other substances without being changed itself.

fetus [unborn young]

A human embryo becomes a fetus after eight weeks.

fission [a splitting; in atomic fission, the nucleus of an atom is split to produce nuclear



Nuclear fission splits atoms to produce energy.

fusion [a joining together; in atomic fusion, atomic particles are joined together to produce nuclear energy]

Nuclear fusion joins atoms to produce energy.

genes [parts of cells that control the growth and development of living things; genes from the mother and father are passed to the child; genes contain nucleic acid] Genes in the cell control the growth and development of living things.

genetic engineering [the science of changing the genes of a living thing]

Genetic engineering changes the genes of a living organism.

gravity [the force that pulls things toward the center]

Gravity is the force that pulls things toward the center.

image [a reproduction of the appearance of a person or thing]

An image is a picture of someone or something.

laser [an instrument that makes a thin, powerful light]

A laser makes a thin, powerful beam of light.

magnet [a piece of iron or other material that has a pulling force; this pulling force is called magnetism]

A magnet pulls on objects of iron or steel.

molecule [the smallest amount of a chemical substance that can exist]

A molecule is the smallest part of a chemical substance.

nerve [a thin piece of tissue that sends information through the body to and from the brain]

Nerves carry information between the brain and the other parts of the body.

nucleic acid [a molecule that holds the genetic information necessary for life; there are two kinds of nucleic acid: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid)]

A molecule of nucleic acid holds the genetic information necessary for life.

nucleus [the center part of an atom or cell]

The nucleus is the center part of an atom or cell.

nutrient [a food or substance that makes plants, humans or animals grow]

Food is a nutrient that makes humans and animals grow.

organ [a part of the body that has a special purpose, such as the heart or brain]


The heart and the brain are organs.

organism [a living thing, often so small it can be seen only through a microscope] An organism is a living plant or animal of any size.

particle [a very small piece of matter]

A particle is a very small piece of matter.

proteins [substances responsible for the growth of tissue and for fixing damaged tissue]

Proteins fix damaged tissue and help tissue grow.

robot [a machine that moves and performs tasks]

A robot is a machine that moves and does work.

tissue [living material; a group of cells that are similar in appearance and do the same thing]

Tissue is a group of living cells.

virus [a kind of organism that causes disease]

A virus is a tiny organism that invades cells and causes disease.

x-rays [a kind of radiation that can pass through most solid materials, often used in medicine]

X-ray radiation is used to make images of bones and tissue for medical purposes.


hydrogen: H

helium: He

carbon: C

nitrogen: N

oxygen: O

sodium: Na

magnesium: Mg

aluminum: Al

silicon: Si

phosphorus: P

sulfur: S

chlorine: Cl

potassium: K

calcium: Ca

titanium: Ti

iron: 鉄 Fe

nickel: Ni


copper: 銅 Cu

zinc: Zn

silver: 銀 Ag

tin: Sn

iodine: I

platinum: Pt

gold: 金 Au

mercury: 水銀 Hg

lead: 鉛 Pb

radon: Rn

radium: Ra

uranium: U

plutonium: Pu


























The breast produces mother's milk to feed a baby.



The heart pumps blood through the body.


The intestines are tubes through which food passes after it is broken down in the stomach. Part of the intestines also remove solid wastes from the body.


The kidneys clean wastes from the body.


The liver makes some proteins and enzymes. It also removes poisons from the blood.


The lungs take in and expel air from the body.


The prostate is a part of the male reproductive system.


The stomach breaks down food for the body to use.


The uterus is a part of the female reproductive system where a fetus develops.






chicken pox:


cystic fibrosis:

dengue fever:

diabetes: 糖尿病



hepatitis: 肝炎


leukemia: 白血病

multiple sclerosis:

muscular dystrophy:





Parkinson's: polio:

pneumonia: 肺炎 rheumatic fever: river blindness: syphilis: 梅毒 tetanus: 破傷風 tuberculosis: 結核 typhoid fever:

yellow fever: 黄熱病 whooping cough:


North Pole: 北極 South Pole: 南極 Moon: 月 Sun: 太陽 Mercury: 水星 Venus: 金星 Earth: 地球 Mars: 火星 Jupiter: 木星 Saturn: 土星 Uranus: 天王星 Neptune: 海王星 Pluto: 冥王星


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