haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 幼儿教育 > 少儿英语少儿英语

论儿童文学的翻译

发布时间:2013-09-29 09:31:18  

福建师范大学硕士学位论文论儿童文学的翻译姓名:吴雪珍申请学位级别:硕士专业:英语语言文学指导教师:林本椿

20060401

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

Abstract

~V]3entranslatingforchildrenisgetting

thedomesticstudy

beenexegingaonnlorcandmoreappealingtoscholarsinternationally,evenitisstilllaggingfarbehindonthoughforeignchildren’Sliteraturehasgreatinfluencethedevelopmentofchildren’SliteratureinChinasincethelate

?Qingperiod.

Ononehand,translationisacomplexsocialactivityaffectedbysocialandhistoricalfactors.Ontheotherhand,children’Sliteraturehaslongbeenundervaluedowingtothemisconceptionspeoplehavetowardschildren.Thestudyoftranslatingforchildrenhenceoccupies

asamuchlowerpositionintranslationstudies.However,translmingforchildrenisnot

translatorshouldbeeasyasitseems.Theanexpertonbothlanguagesandbefamiliarwimthecharacteristicsofchildren’Sliterature.In

employedasthispaperthenchildren—orientationandfimctionalistapproachesareprinciplesoftranslatingforchildren.AfteracomparativestudyofthreeChineseversionsofAlweiAdventuresin

specialattention:howtokeeptheWonderland,Ipointoutthefollowingaspectswhichneedlanguagesimplebutvivid,howtotranslateculture—bound

stresselementsandvisualelements,andthevalueofnon-completetranslation.Ithatthe

translatorshouldalwaysbeawarethattheSkoposoftranslationisforchildrenanddeterminesthewholetranslationprocess.

Keywords:Children’Sliterature;translating

approachesforchildren;child—orientation;functionalist

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

摘要

从晚清起,我国开始大量翻译儿童文学,这对我国儿童文学的发展产生了深远的影响。但是至今,儿童文学翻译的研究还没有得到应有的重视;而在国际上,学者们已经越来越多地关注儿童文学翻译的研究了。

一方面,翻译是一个十分复杂的社会行为,受社会和历史众多因素的影响。另一方面,由于长期以来人们对儿童的偏见,儿童文学不被重视,儿童文学翻译研究在翻译研究中更是处于边缘的地位。而实际上,儿童文学翻译绝非易事。译者不仅斋要熟练使用两种语言,还要熟悉儿童文学的特点。

关键词:儿童文学;儿童文学翻译:儿童本位;功能理论Ⅱ

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

Synopsis

Chinahasalargepopulationofchildrenbutitschildren’Sliteraturedoesnotenjoyaprominentplaceintheworld.Nonetheless,cIlildren’sliteraturecomingfromabroad.especiallyfromtheWesterncountries,hasplayedakeyroleinthedevelopmentofChinesemodernchildren’SliteratureandhasgreatinfluenceonChinesechildrenforalongtime.YetourstudyonthisfieldislaggingfarbehindthestudyinWesterncountries.Manytranslationsofchildren’Sliteraturearefarfromsatisfyingandthattranslatorsdonotseemtohavemadeathoroughandsystematicstudyontranslatingforchildren.ThatiswhyIintendtomakeastudyontranslatingforchildreninanattempttomakeupfortheinadequateresearchonit.Thus,thispapertakesaparticularperspectiveontranslatingforchildrenandfollowsthisthroughtoguidingprinciplesandpossiblestrategiesforitstranslation.

Tllisthesisisdividedintofivechapters.ChapterOne."UnderstandingChildren’Sliterature”,andTwo,“HistoryofTranslatingforChildreninChina”,provideabasisformypaperwhileChapterThree,“PrinciplesofTranslatingforChildren’’andFour,‘‘ACaseStudy”arethemainconcernsofmyresearch.Thelastchapter,ChapterFivefunctionsasbothconclusionandsuggestionsforfurtherstudy.

ChapterOne

Theopeningchapter,‘'UnderstandingChildren’SLiterature”,concernsitselfwiththedefmition.theinventionaswellasthecharacteristicsofchildren’Sliterature.Sincescholarsdefinechildren’Sliteraturefromdifferentangles,thereisnosingledefinitionthatsatisfiesa11.Takingthecharacteristicsofitsreader---childrenintoconsideration,Itendtodefinechildren’Sliterature豳anywrittenworksachildfindsinteresting.Thenthereisabriefhistoryofchildren’Sliterature.Itshowsthat‘‘children’Sliterature’’existsonlybecausepeopleareconvincedthatchildrenaredifferentfromadults-一differentenoughtoneedtheirownspecialtexts.

Whendealingwithtranslatingforchildren,itisnecessarytobeacquaintedwiththefeaturesofchildren’Sliterature:first,thepsychologicalandcognitivedevelopmentofchildren;then,thelinguisticfeaturesofchildren’Sliterature.

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

Adualaudienceofchildren’Sliteratureisanotherfactorneedstobeconsidered.Asmanychildren’Sbooks

are

ambivalentandhavehiddenpossibilities,anadultmaybe

interestedenoughtoreadthetext.ThentranslatingforwhomisofvitaliswhyIprefertOspeakliteratureinthispaper.

importance.That

ofchildren’s

translatingfor

children

instead

of

translation

ChapterTw0

ChapterTwo,‘‘HistoryofTranslatingforChildreninChina'’,gives

briefhistoryof

translating

all

forchildrenin

China,which

late

isdividedmainlyintofourperiods;followedby

and

analysisofthe

history.1.The

Qingearly-Republican

not

period:alotofforeign

children’Sbooksweretranslated.Yetina鸵,nse,theywere

adults’political

reasons

forchildren,butforthe

Was

and

utilitarianism.2.‰May4恤period:there

growing

conccwllforchildrenandchildren’Sliterature.Forthefirsttime,thepurposeoftranslating

children’SliteratureWasforthesakeofchildren.3.111etimefromtheendof1920stOthe

1950s:theformerUSSRexerted

greatinfluencesincethe

on

China'spoliticsandcultureaswell

upin1978:therestarted

aschildren’s

literature.4.Thetime

reformandopening

newtrendofintroducing

Westernchildren’Sliterature.

ChapterThree

Chapter

Three,“PrinciplesofTranslatingofprinciplesoftranslating

forChildren'’,provides

detailed

explanation

forchildren.First,IreviewJohnDewey’s

on

‘'children-orientation'’anditsgreatinfluence

literaturein

thecreation

and

translationofchildren’S

China.ThenIpointoutthelimitationofchildren-orientedtranslation,and竹

Vermeer’SSkopostheorie

to

tointegrateitwitll

be

soundprineipleoftranslatingfor

children.Thetranslatorshouldalwaysbeawarethatthepurposeoftranslatingisfor

children,and

thispurposedeterminesthewholetranslationprocess.

ChapterFour

Chapter

Four,“ACase

Study”,concentrates

on

the

strategies

employedin

ofAlicei

translatingforchildrenthroughAdventuresin

comparativestudyofthreeChinese

versions

Wonderland,alongwitIl

briefdiscussionabouttranslationvariation

an

whichisespeciallycommoninchildren’Sliterature.First.thereisAlicei

Adventures

in

introductionabout

tO

WonderlandanditsthreeChineseversions.According

Skopostheorie,theskoposoftheoveralltranslationactionistheprimeprinciplethat

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕七学位论文

determinesthetranslationprocess.So,ItrytoidentifytheSkoposofthethreeversions.

threeaspects:Thenthecomparativestudiesofthethreetranslationsaredesignedtocover

1.Linguisticaspects.Thelanguageinchildren’Sliteratureisrequiredtobesimplebutvivid.ThereareseveralsuggestedstrategiestOachievethiseffect,suchshortasrepetition,aspects.sentence,exclamation,onomatopoeia,and

asmetaphor.2.CultureCulture—boundelementssuchproperIlanlesandwordplaymayresultinbarriersfor

children,itisthetranslator’Sresponsibilitytoovercomethem.3.Visualelements.Visual

layoutareoftenlanguageisalanguage,too.Yetvisualelementssuchasillustrationsand

overlookedintheprocessoftranslation.BesidesthecompleteChineseversionswehavestudied.therearestillmanynon-completetranslationsofAlice§AdventuresinWonderland,whichareoftenregardedaslessvaluable.However,thetheoryoftranslationvariationtheoreticallyrecognizestheneedforsuchnon-completeversionstomeettheneedsofchildrenofdifferentagesorofdifferentliterarycompetence.

ChapterFive

ChapterFiveconcludes

givesthattranslatingforchildrenisof“talimportanceasliteraturenotonlytimtochildren,butalsohelpschildrenenjoythediversityofthe

aworld.Thetranslator’schildimageiscrucialfactorintheprocessoftranslatingfor

children.ThenImaketwosuggestionsforthefuturestudyinmiSfield:1.Shouldwereviseasuccessfulbutabitoutdatedtranslationtoconformtosociety’schangingview,

thannumerousrough

abecauseIthinkitisbetterretranslations.2.Weshouldstudythetranslationofchildren’Sliteratureinbroadercontext,thatis,inthecontextofpopular

consideration.Attheculture,takingtheinfluenceoftoys,TVshows,andmoviesere.into

endofthepaper,Ihopethatpeoplepaymoreattentiontotranslatingforchildren.V

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

中文文摘

中国是一个儿童大国,但并不是一个儿童文学大国。长久以来,外国儿童文学,尤其足西方儿童文学对我国现代儿童文学的发展起着重要的作用,对我国的少年儿章有重要的影响。但是我们在儿童文学翻译这一领域的研究却大大落后于西方国家。同时,很多儿童文学的译本存在相当不尽人意的地方。儿童文学翻译研究似乎被翻译家们遗忘而处于边缘地位。因此,

第一章简要并全方位介绍儿童文学的定义、产生以及儿童文学的特点。许多学者都从不同的角度对儿童文学做出定义,各抒己见。

第二章着重介绍我国翻译外国儿童文学的历史,分为四个阶段:1.清末民初:这个时期译介外国儿童文学盛极一时。但当时的译介在很大程度上不是以儿童的需求为出发点,而是为了成人的政治目的和功利主义的需要。2.五四时期:人们对儿童和儿童文学越来越重视,真正意义上的儿童文学翻译开始了。3.20年代末到50年代:这一时期苏联儿童文学对中国儿童文学有着广泛而深刻的影响。4.改革开放至今:

和总结。译介西方儿童文学再次形成热潮。最后作者对儿童文学翻译的历史做分析

第三章主要探讨儿童文学翻译原则问题。首先简要介绍了杜威“儿童本位论”对中国现代儿童文学发展和儿童文学翻译的重要影响。接着作者指出“儿童本位论”作为指导儿童文学翻译的原则的局限性,提出了把“儿童本位论”和功能翻译理论相结合用于指导儿童文学的翻译。翻译的过程中,译者要牢记翻译的目的是满足儿章的需求,这一翻译目的决定着整个翻译过程。

第四章通过对Alice§AdventuresinWonderland三个中译本的对比,分析儿耄文学翻译的方法。首先是对AlicelAdventures加Wonderland及三个中译本的介绍,分V1

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

析三个译本的目的。接着从三个方面进行译本的对比:1.如何保持语言的简单、生动,2.如何处理文化因素。3.如何对待视觉因素的翻译。此外,作者还提到非全译本。变译理论肯定了非全译本存在的意义,它可以满足不同年龄层、不同阅读能力的儿童的需要。

第五章先是对全文做出总结,重申翻译儿童文学的重要性,指出儿童文学翻译应该从儿童的需要出发。接着作者对儿童文学翻译的研究提出两点建议:一是与其存在许多不尽人意的重译本,还不如对过去的优秀译本进行适当的修改。二是儿童文学的研究应该置于一个更广阔的范围中,充分考虑时代信息和阅读媒介对儿童文学翻译的影响。最后,作者希望儿童文学的翻译能够得到越来越多的重视。

Introduction

Introduction

OnceIaskedmystudentsaboutwhatthechildren’Sbooksimpressthemmost,theaugwersvaryfromAesop'sFables,theGrimm勋膪s.Anderson§Tales,Alice"sAdventuresinWonderlandtothelatestpopularHarryPorwr.Fewofthemmentionedanydomesticchildren’Sbooks.Ifwelookbackatthehistoryofchildren’SliteratureinChino,itiseasytomakeaconclusionthatthedevelopmentofmodernChinesechildren’SliteratureparallelsthehistoryoftranslatingforchildreninChina.Inotherwords,children’Sliteraturecomingfromtheforeigncultures,especiallyWesternsourceculturesexertedastronginfluenceOilthedevelopmentoftheliteratureforchildreninChina.

AccordingtothestatisticsbulletinissuedbytheNationalBureauofStatisticsofChina,bytheendof2005,thetotalnumberofChildrenbetweentheagesof0to14hadcometomorethan265million,whichis115ofthegrosspopulationinChina.Thereisahugedemandofchildren’Sreadingmaterials.Children’Sliteratureentices,motivates,andinstructschildren.Ithasprofoundinfluenceonthedevelopmentofchildren’Slanguage,cognition,personalityandsociability.(Norton,1991:2-32).BerniceCullinansuggests,‘‘BooksCanplayasignificantroleinthelifeoftheyoungchildremButtheextenttowhichtheydodependsentirelyuponadults.’’(No.on,1991:2)UnderthecircumstancesthatOurmarketisfloodedwithforeignchildren’Sliterature,itcanbeunderstoodthatchildren’Sbookstranslatedbyadultsplayasignificantroleonchildren.Itisadults’responsibilitytochoosepropersourcetexts,makegoodtranslmionandete.Inthepastyears,studiesoftranslmionhavemadegreatprogress,however,thetranslmionofchildren’sliteratureisstillanunderdevelopedfieldthathasnotyetbeenadequatelystudiedinthedisciplineoftranslation.Ontheonehand,therearesomanychildren’SbooksimposedfromalmostallOVertheworld;ontheotherhand,鹊thepublishersareimpelledbythecommercialprofit,thequalityofthesetranslationsisworrying.Mostofthetranslatorsarebusytranslatingonebookafteranother,whilefewofthemconcernthemselveswitllthetranslmiontheoryofchildren’Sliterature.Ourstudyoftranslationsonchildren’SliteratureislaggingfarbehindthestudyinWesterncountries.IllMarch2002thefirstinternationalcongressontranslatingchildren’sliteraturewasheldinLasPalmas,

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

with25participantscomingfrom17countries,butnoneofthemcanlefromChina,even

moreappealing

tothestudyofAsia.(Meta,2003)AstranslatingtoscholarsforchildrenisclearlygettingmoreUSandinternationally,itishightimefortoattachimportance

translatingforchildren.2

ChapterOneUnderstandingChildren’sLiterature1.1TheDeftnitionofChildren’SLiterature

Whendealing、衍tlItranslatingforcllildren,itisnecessarytounderstandwhatchildren’Sliteratureis.Therea∞norigidorabsolutedefinitionsandtherearedifferent

opinionsamongtheexperts:

GoteKlingberg,theSwedishpedagogueandspecialistinchildren’Sliterature,describeschildren’Sliterature硒literatureproducedspecificallyforchildren,excludingallotherwritingandpicturesthatchildrenmayread.(Ottinen2000:60

TheSwedishchildren'sauthorLennartHellsing,ontheotherhand,defineschildren’Sliteraturefromasociologicalorpsychologicalangle:children'sliteratureisanythingthechildreadsorhears,anythingfromnewspapers,series,TVshows,andradiopresentationstowhatwecallbooks.(Ottinen2000:62)

HarveyDartonpreferstodefinechildren’Sbooks嬲worksproducedostensiblytogivechildrenspontaneouspleasure,andnotprimarilytoteachthem.(Nodelman1992:17)Thus,asRiittaOittinensays:“Seenfromavery埘deperspective,children'sliteraturecouldbeanythingthatachildfindsinteresting.”(Oittinen2000:62)Inthis驰Ilsc.evenafeather,apieceofpapermaybe‘'literature"forababyofafewmonthsifhe/shefindsitinteresting.

TheNewEncyclopediaBritannicadefineschildren’Sliterature鹤‘'thebodyofwrittenworksandaccompanyingillustrationsproducedinordertoentertainorinstructyoungpeople.”?

Inthispaper,lsharetheviewsofHarveyDartonandRiittaOittinenanddefinechildren’Sliteratureasanywrittenworksachildfindsimeresting.

1.2TheInventionofChildren’sLiterature

AccordingtoTheNewEncyclopediaBritannica,children’Sliteratureisacomparativelyrecentphenomenon,havingemergedasadistinctandindependentformonlyinthesecondhalfofthe18tlIcentury,whenpeoplewereconvincedthatchildrenweredifferentfromadults---differentenoughtoreadtheirownspecialtexts.Beforethat3

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

time,childrenwerewidelyregardedaSsimplydiminutiveorminiatureadults,andaliteratureshapedtotheiruniqueneedsandlevelofunderstandingwasnotthoughttobenecessary.

Whydidtheinventionofchildren’Sliteraturecomesolateinhistory?Themostimportantreasonis:thereWasnoehildhood.Therearechildren,ofcourse,butforalongtime,childhoodhasnotbeenconsideredanimportanttimeoflife,adistinctstageoflifeworthyofcarefulthoughtandattentionduetobotheconomicandsocialfactors.PhilippeAriessaysthatinmedievalEurope,assoonasthechildrencouldlivewithouttheconstantsolicitudeofhismother,hisnannyorhiscradle-rocker,hebelongedtoadultsociety.(Nodelman1992:18)Whensocietylookeduponchildren嬲littleadultswhomustrapidlystepintotherolesoftheparents,childrenhadlittletimeandneedtoreadbooksrelevanttoanonexistentchildhood.Onlywhenthesocialattitudetowardschildrenchangedandchildhoodbegantobeviewedasaspecialpartofthehumanlifecircle,literaturewrittenspeciallyforchildrencalneintoexistenceandbecameveryimportant.

Oneofthefirstprintedworksofchildren’SliteratureWastheMoravianeducatorComenius’耽world矿Picturesin1658.Itwasateachingdeviceaswellasthefirstpicturebookforchildren.Itembodiedanovelinsightthatchildren’Sreadingshouldbeofaspecialorderbecausechildrenarenotscaled—downadults.Inthe1740s,whenthemiddleclassinEuropeandNorthAmericabecamelargerandstrengtheneditssocialposition,thereWaSagrowingemphasisonfamilylife;morepeoplerealizedthatchildrenshouldbechildrenratherthansmalladults.IntothissocialclimatecanleJohnNewberywhoadvocatedamilderwayofeducatingchildrenandbegantopublishalineofbooksforchildren,likeAlittlePre砂PocketBook(1744)andHistoryofLittleGoodyTwo-shoes(1765).AlthoughmodemreaderswouldnotconsidertheseearlybooksforchildrenveryentertainingcomparedwithbookswrittentOamusetoday’Schildren,theymusthavebeenrevolutionaryforitstime.Fromthesehumblebeginningschildren’Sliteratureblossomedintlle19出centuryintoarichandcomplexgenreservingchildrenofallages,fromtoddlerstoadolescents.Inaword,thehistoryofchildren’sliteratureparallelsthehistoryofchildhood.InChina,theinventionofchildren’Sliteraturecameevenlater,andinonesense,itparallelsthehistoryoftranslatingforchildren,whichwe4。

£!翌!12竺望!!竺!竺!!!g£翌!!兰!::生!型竺

willdiSCUSSlater.

1.3CharacteristicsofChildren’sLiterature

Toproduceagoodtranslationforchildren,thetranslatorshouldbeawareofthecharacteristicsofehildren’Sliterature.

1.3.1CharacteristicsofChildren

ComparingtOliteraturewriRenforadults,children’Sliteraturetendstobemoredirectedtowarditsreaders.Itsuggeststhatchildren’Sliteratureisaspeciesofliteraturedefinedintermsofthereaderratherthantheauthor’SintentionsOrthetextsthemselves.(Ottinen2000:611LewisCarrollwroteAlice§AdventuresinWonderlandfortheamusementofhisfriend.ayounggirlnamedAlice;砌P腑耐inthe趼ff0们byKennethGrahamewasoriginallyintendedasbedtimestoriesforhisSOU.Inotherwords,theintendedreadersofchildren'sliteratureareusuallychildren.Thenitisnecessarytohaveknowledgeaboutthepsychologicaldevelopmentofchildren.

AccordingtotheSwisspsychologistJeanPiaget,childrenpassthroughanumberofstagesastheydevelopandmature.ThesestagesalwaysOCCurinthesameorder,andeachchildtendstoenterthematapproximatelythesamepointinhisorherlife.Aspopularlyunderstood,thestagesareasfollows:

1.Inthesensorimotorperiod,frombirthtoapproximatelytwoyearsofage,

childrenformsimple,nonverbalideasbymanipulatingobjects.2.Fromagetwotosixorseven,childrenareinthepreoperationalstage.

nleybegintousesymbols,batlacktheabilitytomiIll【aboutwhatthey’redoing;furthermore,theyar{eegocentric,thatis,unabletounderstandanypointofviewbuttheirown.

3.Fromagesixthroughtwelve,childrenareintheconcreteoperationalstage.

TheybegintounderstandsomeofthebasicconceptsthatunderlieOUrabilitytothinkabouttheworld,butonlyintermsofconcreteexamples.4.Itisnotuntiltheformaloperationalperiod,betweenagestwelveand

fifteen,thatchildrencanbegintothinkabstractly,toreasonaboutideasthatdon’trelatetotheirdirectexperiences.(Nodleman1992:31-32)5

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

Piaget’Stheorygivesrisetotheideathatchildrengraduallydevelopfromconcretethinkingtoabstractthinking.Evenif

concretemey“Ill【abstractlytheystilldependlargelytObeOilimages.Onthewhole,childrenaremol'elikelyattractedbypictures,shapes,colors,detaileddescriptionsete.

1.3.2CharacteristicsonLinguisticLevel

IIllinewiththepsychologicaldevelopmentsofchildren,twomajorcharacteristicsofchildren’Sliteratureintermsoflinguistics

1.3.2.1Readabilityaleforegroundedasfollows:

Allchildren’Sbooks

thewordsandarewrittenwimtheneedsoflessexperiencedreadersinmind.sentencestructuresshouldnotbetoocomplicated.

Examplel:Copses,dells,quarriesandallhiddenplaces,whichhadbeenmysteriousminesforexplorationinleafysummer,nOWexposedthemselvesandtheirSecretspathetically,andseemedtoaskhimtooverlooktheir

couldriotinrichmasqueradeasbefore.and仃ickshabbypovertyforawhile,tilltIleyandenticehimwiththeolddeceptions.(Grahame,TheW.indintheWillows)

l(a):矮树林,小山谷,采石场,以及夏季繁叶阴翳遮蔽的所有隐秘之处,往昔那些神秘探险宝地,现在全都暴露无疑,秘密惨不忍睹地大白天下;它们仿佛在请求,要他暂且宽恕它们的粗陋和寒碜,请他等到它们能像从前那样到盛大的化妆舞会上狂欢时,再来用老花招逗弄和迷惑他。(赵武平,2002:59)

1(b):那些灌木丛,小山谷,石坑以及一切隐秘的地方,在万物繁茂的夏天里还是需要探测的“秘密矿产”,而此刻却可怜巴巴地裸露无疑,似乎要让他暂时看看它们的贫瘠,不久它们又会如从前一样披上繁茂的假面具,用老掉牙的把戏来欺骗他。(乔向东,2002:36)

Comparingthesetwotranslatedversions,itiseasytonotethatversion1(a)isfullofbigwordslike:“繁叶阴翳”、“惨不忍睹”、“粗陋和寒碜”:whilethewordsinversionl@like“万物繁茂”、“可怜巴巴”soundmorecolloquialandeasiertobeunderstoodbychildren.Sothetranslatorofchildren’sliteratureshouldalwaysrememberthatthevocabularyofchildrenis

noratherlimited,ifthewordsofatextaretoodifficultforthem,theymayhaveinterestinit.6

£!型!1211竺!!篓塑!坐£墅!!坚翌:!生!堡堡坚

1.3.2.2Vividness

Generallyspeaking,thelanguageinchildren’sbooksissimple,howeveritmayleadtoamisunderstandingthatsentenceslike‘Peterlooked.Helookedoutofthewindow.Thewindowwasopen.’areeasyforchildrentoreadandthesentencesinchildren’Sliteratureshouldbelikethis.Lookingthroughsomeexcellentchildren’Sbooks,wefindtheusuallysimplewordsareorganizedintorhythmicpatternsthatarepleasinginthemselvesandaddlayersofmeaningstothewordstheyshape,forexample:

Example2:Wilburgrunted.Hegulpedandsucked,makingswishingandswooshingnoises,anxioustogeteverythingatonce.(White,Charlotte'sWeb)

2(a).威伯咕噜着,大口吸着、吞着;吞着、吸着。发出各种的贪吃声,急于把所有的东西同时咽下。(康馨,1979:72)

2㈣.威尔伯口踟晚盹叫着。它大口大口地吃,大口大口地喝,大口大口地吃,大口大口地喝,发出稀里哗啦、呼噜哗啦的声音,急着要一口气吃个精光。(任溶溶,2005:61)

WhenWhitedescribesWilbureatinghisslops,thesoundscommunicatethesensuousnessoftheexpcdenee.Thewordsinthesetwoversionsaresimpleenough,yetversion2(b)isbetteratdepictingthewayWilbureatsandsoundsmusical.

1.4TheStatusofChildren’Sliterature

Unlikecontemporaryadultbooks,children’Sliteratureisstillinaperipheralpositionwithintheliterarypolysystem.Itisparadoxicalandyetinevitablethatchildren'sliteratureshouldbestudiedbyadult.Consequently,adulthasagreatinfluenceORchildren’sliterature.

Children’SliteratureisliteratureforchildremThisiSaseeminglyclearstatemenLhowever,ilisnotsoeasytoeall了itout.Therea∞workswriaenbychildrenthemselves,buttoalargeextent,children’Sliteraturehadtobeproducedbyadults.Adultswriteonthebasisoftheirimagesofchildrenandthechild’Simageinsociety.Besides,adultsapproveofcertainkindsofliteratureforchildren.However,thefavoritebooksofadultsandofchildrenmaybequitedifferem.Childrenthemselvesdonotdecideonhowtheirliteratureisdefined;neitherdotheydecideonwhatistranslated,published,orpurchasedforthem.7

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

Children’Sliteratureasawholeisbasedonadultdecisions.adultpointsofview,adultlikesanddislikes.Thisisapowerstruggle,theonewhoreadsisnottheonewhodecides.Adultsasteachers,reviewers,advertisers,booksellers,publishers,authors,illustrators,translators.andparentsarcallexertingpower.Onlyifabookisinterestingfromanadult’Spointofviewmayhe/shebuyorborrowitforhis/herchildren.Inthisway,Shavitwrites,eNenchildren’Sautllorsmainlywriteforadults.BarbaraWallbringsupthesameproblem:‘‘Ifbooksaletobepublished,marketedandbought,adultsfirstmustbeattracted,persuadedandconvinced.”(Oittinen2000:64)Thesamethinghappenstothetranslationofchildren’Sliterature.Thetranslatorsageusuallyadultsexceptonveryrareoccasionsmaychildren’Sliteraturebetranslatedbychildren.

1.5ADualAudieneeofChildren’sLiterature

Children’Sliteratureisasomewhatsubjectiveterm,becauseabookoriginally‘‘writtentOadults’’maybecomeastory"writtentochildreIl,”forexample.theclassicalChineseworkAJourneytotheWest(西游记)byWuCheng’enandtheEnglishnovelGulliveriTravelsbySwiftarepopularamongchildren.

Andachildren’Sbookmayalsobecomeabookforadult.TakeAlice'sAdventuresinWonderlandforexample,itexistsintwolevels,onedirectedtochildren,onetoadults.Forinstance.ifachildreadsthepoemparodiesofAlice'sAdventures加Wonderland,he/sheprobablypaysattentiontothenonsenseandcrazycomedy,perhapsrecognizingsomeofthepoemsasparodiesofsomeofthesongshe/sheknowsfromsch001.Agrown-uptUlleSintodifferent,morelogicallevelsinthestory.(Oittinen2000:64)

Then,translatingforwhomisofvitalimportancewhendealingwithchildren’SIiterature.Thetranslatorshouldbeawarethatthefuturereadersarechildrenwhowillreadorlistentothestories,childrenwhowillinterpretthestoriesintheirownway,henceheshouldputmoreemphasisonthe‘'readability'’ofthetargettextratherthansimplyaimingatconveying‘‘all'’oftheoriginalmessage,atfindingsomepositivistic“truth'’inthe“original”.(Ottinen2000:518

兰!型!:!兰!坚!墨!垡!!:!墅!!苎!坚鱼!兰!!!竺!虫£!!!!

ChapterTwoHistoryofTranslatingforChildrenin

China

FromthelateQingDynasty,thetranslationofchildren’Sliteraturebegantoplayasignificantroleinthebirthandgrowthofmodemchildren’SliteratureinChina.Toagreatextend,thehistoryofmodemchildren’SliteratureinChinaparallelsthehistoryoftranslatingforchildren.Inlearningaboutthevaluesofthepast,wemightfindwhatisimportantintranslatingforchildren.

2.1ABriefHistoryofTranslatingforChildreninChina2.1.1TheLateQingandEarly-RepublicanPeriod:aTransitionalPeriod

Chinahadexperiencedalonghistoryoffeudalism,undertheshackleof‘'threeguidesandfiveconstantvirtues”(三纲五常),achildWasseenasanadultinminiature,andWasnotrespectedasanindividual砒a11.Thus.therewerefewliteraryworksintendedforchildrenbutsometextswitlleducationalpurposeswhichwerepurelydidacticsuchasThree-LetterScripture(三字经).Childrencouldonlygetwhattheyreallyneededinfairytalesoftheancient,andcullfromsomeexcellentliteratureworksintendedforadultssuchasJourneytOtheWest(西游记).Children’Sliteraturewastheninastateofunconsciousness,nottomentiontheexistenceofanyforeignchildren’Sliterature.

ThelateQingandearly—Republicanperiodservedasatransitionalstageforthedevelopmentofchildren’sliterature.Inthesecondhalfofthe19mcentury,peoplewitnessedtheinvasionofwesternthoughtsandthereWastheexigencyofenlightenment.SomeintellectualsconcludedsomewhatnaivelythatfictioncouldplayadecisiveroleintheModernizationofChina,likeinEngland,theUnitedStatesandJapan.ButthefictiontheyadvocatedWasremarkablydifferentfromthetraditionalChinesefiction,whichWaschargedwith‘'propagatingsexandbanditry’andshouldbeeliminated.Thus,whenthepoliticalandsocialfunctionsoffictionwerepraisedtotheskies,andthetraditionalChinesefictioncouldn’taffordit,whatEven-Zoharnamedas“literaryvacuums'’turnedup.Undersuchcircumstances,translationwouldmaintainaprimaryposition.SothereWasawendoftranslatingfromtheWestandsomepopularforeignchildren’SworksweretranslatedintoChinese,forinstance,theItalianChildren’snovelCuoretranslatedbyBao9

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕十学何论文

Tianxiao;somefamousAesop'sfablesbyZhouGuisheng;thefamousDanishAndersen"sFairyTalesbyLiuBannong,SunYuxiu,andZhouShoujuan.However,ratherthanmeetingthedemandsofchildren,thepurposeoftranslatingthesebookswasoutoftheconsiderationofadults’politicalleasonsandutilitarianism,andtoinstillintotheyouthpatriotismanddemocraticthoughts,preparingpublicopinionsforbourgeoisrevolution.(蒋风,1986:14)Thispurposedeterminedthewayoftranslatingatthattime.Thetranslatorswerepermittedtomanipulatethetextinvariouswaysbychanging,enlarging,orabridgingitorbydeletingoraddingtoit.Andmoatofthe仃anslationswelerenderedinmetraditionalZhanghuistyle(章回体)andclassicalChinese,whichWasfarbeyondtheunderstandingofchildren.

2.1.2TheMay4仙Period:theBirthofModernChildren’SLiterature

TheMay4therawasinthefirstplacealleraofideologicalemancipation.TheauthorityofConfucianismandtraditionalethicssufferedafundamentalanddevastatingstrokeandnewWesternideaswereexalted.Theemancipationoftheindividual,fromtheoldpassivethinkingandfromtheself-sufficingandpaternalisticfamilyandclansystem,Wasoneofthedominantconceptionsatthetime.Along、丽tlltheemancipationofwomenfromtheirtraditionalsocialbondage,therewasagrowingconcernforchildrenandchildren’Sliterature.LuXungaveoutthefirstcryinChinaof‘‘savingchildren’’inhisnovelAMadmaniDiaryin1918.ItisgenerallyagreedthatmodemChineseChildren’SliteratureWasbornduringmeMay4仇period.Whenpeoplelejectedalltheoldfeudalreadingmaterialsforchildrenatonenight,butcouldnotaffordimmediatelynewappropriatebooksforyoungreaderseitheratonenight,translationthenbecamethemostnecessaryandtheonlypossiblemeanstoprovidetimelyspiritualfoodneededforChinesechildren.Mostofthewriters,whentheywerenotinfullpreparationforthecreationforchildren,actuallystartedwiththetranslationofforeignchildren’Sbooks.Itquickenedthedevelopmentofchildren’SliteratureinChinaatthattime,broadeningthewriter’Shorizonandinfluencingtheircreationinsomeaspects.(夏历2000:5)AndthepurposeoftranslatingWasnolongerforthesakeofprinciple,butforthesakeofchildren.Inotherwords,itWaschildren?oriented.PeopleretranslatedmanyworksthathadbeenmanipulatedfreelyinthelateQing,andtriedtobefaithfultotheoriginals.Forexample,0

£!翌兰:!竺坚!:竺1211翌竺!墨!!g!堕£望!!翌!!!£!!!!

theabove-mentionedCuoretranslated踮《馨儿就学记》byBaoTianxiaowasretranslatedas《爱的教育》byXiaMianzun;alotofAndersen’StaleswhichwereretoldbySunYuxiuandChenJialinwereretranslatedbyZhaoJingshen,XuTiaofu,GuJunzhen.

2.1.3FromTheEndof1920stothe1950s:TheInfluenceoftheFormerUSSR

SincetheSovietUnionisnolongerexisted,thechildren’SliteratureofformerUSSRisnowtakenplacebytheRussianchildren’sliterature,fortheconvenienceofdiscourse,whentalkingabouttheRussian-Sovietchildren’Sliteratureinthispaper,itinfactincludestheehildren’SliteratureoftheFormerUSSI乙

Fromtheendof1920stO1950s,theFormerUSSRexertedaprofoundinfluenceonChina’Spoliticsandculture.SodiditonChina’Sehildren’Sliterature.In1950s.ChinaWfl¥pursuingthepolicyoflearningfromtheSovietUnion.TranslatingRussian-sovietchildren’Sworkswasprevalent.Thetranslatedchildren’Sliteraturenotonlyhadagreatinfluenceonthespiritofthecontemporaryyoungpeople,butalsoguidedthedevelopmentofchildren’SliteratureinChina.

AfterthefoundingofthePeople’SRepublicofChina,thereWaSafeltwantforchildren’SliteraturethatWaSsuitableforrevolutionaryeducation.Theintroductionofchildren’SliteraturefromtheSovietUnionthusaddressedtosu.ohneed.Thisformedaspecialphenomenoninthedevelopmentofchildren’Sliteraturein1950s.Itsinfluencelastedtotheendof1970sexceptfortheperiodofCultureRevolution.WeiWji.theexpertonforeignchildren’sliteraturesaid:"NocountrycouldhavegreaterinfluenceonthedevelopmentofChina’Schildren’SliteraturethanRussia.”(王泉根2004:92)

However,children’Sliterature砒thistimehaditslimitations.ToomuchemphasisWasputontheeducationalfunctionofchildren’Sliterature,thatis,tofosterthecommunistideologyonchildren.Foralongtime.children’Sliteraturewasregarded船atoolforclaSsstruggleandpropaganda.Consequently,itmovedawayfromliterature.2.1.4TheTimeaftertheReformandOpeningtotheOutsideWorld

AftertheWorldWar11,especiallyafterthereformandopening-upin1978,people

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕十学位论文

realizedthat,forabetterdevelopmentofchildren’Sliterature,itisnecessarytolearnandabsorbfromthewholeworld.notjustfromRussia.ThenanewtrendemergedintroducingwesteTUchildren’Sliterature,whichwasnolongerlimitedtoWesternclassicfairytalesandfablesasintheMay4血era,northeRussian?Sovietchildren’Sliterature,butincludingtheworksofvariousthemesatdifferenttimeandfromdifferentcountries.fromBeatrixPotter’STheTaleofPeterRabbittoMadeleineL'Engle’SAWrinkleinn珊P.fromTheBorrowersbyMaryNortontotheseriesofHarryPotterbyJ.k.Rowling.Inaword,anyworkschildrenmightbeinterestedinwereintroduced.

2.2ReflectionsontheHistory

InthelightofthehistoryoftranslatingforchildreninChina,Iconcludeasfollows:1.Translationmethodisdeterminedbythepurposeoftranslating.Forexample,

thepurposeofthetranslationofchildren’SbooksinthelateQingistotally

differentfromthatintheMay矿era.Henceeventhesameworkwasdealt

witlldifferently,say,adult-orientedorchild-oriented.

2.“AlltextSreflecttheperiodoftimeandculturewheretheywerewritten.’’

magfor)Sodoalltranslations.Translationisacomplexsocialactivity

takingplaceinsituationsthatarelimitedintime,anditisconditionedbythe

constraintsofthesituation.in-culture.AsShavitfinds:‘‘Translationof

children’Sliteraturetendstorelatethetexttoexistingmodelsinthetarget

system...becauseofthesystem'stendencytoacceptonlytheconventional

andthewell?known.Ifthemodeloftheoriginaltextdoesnotexistinthe

targetsystem,thetextischangedbydeletingorbyaddingsuchelementsas

willadjustittotheintegratingmodelofthetargetsystem.”(Shavit1986:

1151

3.‘‘Translationofchildren’Sliterature’’doesnotequalto‘'translatingfor

children'’.TheessentialdifferenceliesintheTLreader.Aswehavenoted

thatchildren’Sliteraturemayhaveadualaudience.Ifthetranslatordoesnot

takethecharacteristicsofchildrenintoconsiderationwhentranslating

children’Sbooks.itisn’tatranslationforchildren.12

Children’sliteratureshouldbeforthefunofchildren.andSOdoesthetranslationsforchildren.Manypeopleassumethatchildrenreadprimarilyinordertolearn,butanyonewholikestoreadknowsthatwedoSOprimarilybecauseitisgoodforUS,wetakepleasureinbowandwhat0111"readingmakestlSthink.Manyspecialistsinchildren’sliteratureclaimthatchildren’sbooksshouldnotbemanipulativeinthepedagogicsense.SodoesLennartHellsing。who,stressesthatallpedagogicartispoor,butthatallgoodartisintrinsicallypedagogic.Yetherecognizesthatchildren’sliteraturecanteachthechildlanguage,orientationtotimeandplace,andsocialorientation;itshouldalsoinfluencethechilddirectly--activateandallurethechildren’Screativepowersandstrengthenhis/heremotionalfife.(Oittinen2000:65)Besides.whenchildrenreadabook,he/shedoesnotcareaboutwhetheritisatranslationornot.Whathe/shec部髑aboutiswhetheritisinterestingenough.4.

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

ChapterThreePrinciplesofTranslatingForChildrenPrinciplesoftranslationatewhatthetranslatorsshouldfollowwhiletranslating.Onlywitlltheguideofcertainprinciplescanatranslatorresorttoproperstrategiesandthenofferasatisfactorytranslation.Inthefollowingparagraphs.1willfirstgiveabriefintroductionofchild—orientation,theseeminglyonlytheoryusedintranslatingforchildreninChina.Andthenthereisallintroductionoffunctionalistapproaches.3.1Chiid.orientation

Thetheoryofchild-orientationhasaprofoundinfluenceonchildren’SliteratureinChina.Itwasfirstin仃oducedtoChinabyJ0hnDewey,thefamousAmericanedueationistofpragmatismontheeveoftheMay4由movementin1919.Child-orientationstressesonthecentralpositionofchildrenineducation.Itisagreatchallengetothetraditionalattitudetowardschildren.Fromthenon,LuXunandmanyotherfamousintellectualsbegantoapplythetheoryofchild—odemmiontothechildren’Sliterature,thatis,toshowrespecttothefeaturesofcharacteristicsofchildrenandchildren’Sliterature.ZhouZuorenassertedthatthereWasnoothercriterionforchildren’Sliteratureexceptforchild—orientation.ZhengZhenduoalsoclaimedthatchildren’Sliteraturewaschild-orientedandshouldbewhatchildrencanandliketoread.(王泉根198%25)Child—orientationWasalsoappliedtotranslatingforchildren.ZhengZhenduosaiditWasratherdifficulttotranslatechildren’Sliteratureforthelanguageusedshouldbebotllplainandvivid,andthetranslationshouldbeaestheticallypleasingasawhole.Headvocatedthatliterarytranslationshouldmaintainthemeaningandstyleoftheoriginal,meanwhile,hesaidthemethodofretellingmightaswellbeusedforabetterunderstandingofchildrenifitWasabitdifficultforchildren.(蒋风1986:52)Eventoday,Zheng’Sviewisrepresentativeamongtranslatorsofchildren’Sliterature.RenRongrong,whohasdevotedhimselftotranslatingforchildren,sharesthesameopinion.Hesaidthetranslationshouldatfirstbeeasyforchildrentounderstand,andshouldhavebeautifullanguageandlingeringaftertaste.Hepreferstousespokenlanguageintranslation.(涂志刚2004)

Althoughtherearemanytranslatorswhospecializeintranslatingforchildren,and14

竺!当翌!坐!!壁!!121竺坚旦登!塑堡竺竺!!竺

therearenumeroustranslatedversionsinChina,ourstudyontranslatingforchildrenislaggingfarbehind.Child?orientationseemstobetheonlyprinciplewehave.Yet

liketointegratechild?orientedtranslationitselfisnotsystematicenough.1would

aschild—orientationwith'Vermeer’sSkopostheorieprinciplesfortranslatingforchildren

becausewhentranslatingforchildren,thetranslatorhasspecialpurposes.3.2FunctionalistApproaches

3.2.1TheBackgroundandDevelopmentofFunctionalistApproaches

Beforetheinventionoffunctionalapproachestotranslation,mostofthetranslationtheoriesareequivalence-based.Theyfocusonthesourcetext,andemphasizethatthefeaturesoftheSOarcetextmust

equivalenttOthesourcebepreservedinthetargettext,andthetargettextmustbetext.Forexample,Cafforddefinestranslationas‘thereplacementoftextualmaterialinonelanguage(SL)byequivalentmaterialinanotherlanguage(,rL)’.(Catford1965:2)However,in

recognizethattheremaybe

pragmaticdifferencesbetweentheprocessoftranslating,Sometheoristshavehadtoeasesofnon-equivalenceintranslationcausedbytheandtargetsource

acultures.Theyfeltthattheprocessoftranslatingshould

oneinvolvebothfaithfulreproductionofformalsource-textqualitiesintosituationandanadjustmentthetargetaudienceinanother.Inthissituation,

conceptssuchasattitudesaregradually

beingmorechanging,theequivalenceandfaithfulnessareandmorequestioned.Departingfromthetraditionalequivalence—basedtheory,

athefunctionalisttranslationapproachesopenupnewperspectivetotranslationstudies

orbyapproachingtranslationinfocusingthefunctionfunctionsoftextsandtranslations.

Thedevelopmentofmodemfunctionalismintranslationstudieshasgonethroughthree

Reissstages:Katharina

Skopostheofieandfunctionalisttranslationcriticism.HansJ.Vermeer’Sanditsextensions,JustaHolz-Manttari’Stheoryoftranslationalaction.3.2.2Skopotheorie

Vermeer’sSkopotheorieplays

identifiesthefunctionof

strategyaamajorroleinthedevelopmentofthistrend.HetranslationasthemaincriterionfordeterminingtranslationandpostulatedhisSkopotheofie.Hechallengesthetraditionalviewthatthetranslator’SprimarytaskistOtransferthemeaningofthesourcetextbyrecognizing15

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

translatiOilsinwhichthefunctionofthetargettextdiffersfromthatofthesourcetext.PursuanttotheSkopotheorie.thetranslator'smaintaskistoproduceanewtextthatsatisfiestheculturalexpectationsofthetargetreceiversforatextwimthatparticularfunction.VermeerputsforwardthreebasicrulesofSkopetheofie,namelySkoposrule,coherenceruleandfidelityrule.AndNord’Sloyaltyprincipleisasupplementtothem.3.2.2.1SkoposRule

SkoposisaGreekwordfor‘purpose’whichusuallyreferstothepurposeofthetargettext.InSkopotheorie,thetop-rankiugruleforanywauslationisthe‘Skoposrule’,whichmeansthatatranslationalaaionisdeterminedbyitsSkopos;thatis‘theendjustifiesthemeallS’.(Nord2001:29)VermeerexplMnstheSkoposruleasfollow:

Eachtextisproducedforagivenpurposeandshouldservethispurpose.TheSkoposrulethusreadsasfollows:translate/imerpret/spealdwriteinawaythatenablesyourtext/translationtofunctioninthesituationinwhichitisusedandwiththepeoplewhowanttouseitandpreciselyinthewaytheywantittofunction.fNord2001:29)

ItsuggeststhattheSkoposofaparticulartranslationtaskmayrequirea‘free’ora‘faithful’translation,oranythingbetweenthesetwoextremes,dependingonthepurposeforwhichthetranslationisneeded.ThusitiSintendedtosolvetheeternaldilemmasoffreeVSfaim凡ltranslation,dynamicVSformalequivanlence.goodinterpretersVSslavishtranslators.andsono.Thereceiver,orrathertheaddressee,isthemainfacmrdeterminingthetarget-textSkopos,andtheinitatororthepersonplayingtheroleofinitiatoractuallydecidesonthetranslationSkopos.(Nord2001:29—30)

Forinstance,asweknow,GulliveriTravelsbySwiftisrichinirony,itsmainpurposeistoshowcertainshortcomingsin18thcenturyEnglishsociety.Whenthepublisherisintendedtotranslateitforchildren,thetranslationusuallyincludesonlythefirsttwobooksinsteadofallfourbookswitllthepurposetOtransferthetextfromitsoriginalform船asatireintoafantasyoradventurestory.

3.2.2.2CohereneeRule

AnotherimportantruleofSkopostheorieisthe‘coherencerole’,itspecifiesthatatranslationshouldbeacceptableinasensethatitiscoherentwiththereceiver’Ssituation.(Nord2001:32)16

Thestatusofsoncetextismuchlowerinfunetionalismthaninthetraditionaltranslationtheories,itisjUStanofferofinformationformulatedbyatranslatorinatargetcultureandlanguageaboutallofferofinformationformulatedbysomeoneelseintheSOurCecultureandlanguage.Thetranslatorselectscertainitemsfromthesource—languageofferofinformationandprocessestheminordertOformanewofferofinformationinthetargetlanguage,fromwhichthetarget-cultureaddresseescaninturnselectwhattheyconsidertObemeaningfulintheirownsituation.Thetextthetranslatorproducesshouldbemeaningfultotarget-culturereceivers.InVermeer’Sterms,thetargettextshouldconformtothestandardof‘intertextualcoherence’.(Nord2001:32)

Whenapplyingcoherenceruletotranslatingforchildren,itmeansthatthetranslationshouldbeatleastreadabletochilren.

3.2.2.3FideiityRule

Sinceatranslationisanofferofinformationaboutaprecedingofferofinformation,itisexpectedtoboar.somekindofrelationship、ⅣitIlthecorrespondingsollrcetext.Vermeercallsthisrelationship‘intertextualcoherence’or‘fidelity’.Tllisispostulatedasafurtherprinciple,referredtoasthe‘fidelityrule’.mimportantpoimisthatintertextualcoherenceshouldexistbetweensourceandtargettext,whiletheformittakesdependsbothonthetranslator’sinterpretationofthe翻ourcetextandonthetranslationSkopos.(Nord2001:32)

ItisnecessarytoboarinmindthatinSkopostheorie,intertextualcoherenceisconsideredsubordinatetointratextualcoherence,andbotharesubordinatetotheSkoposrule.IftheSkoposrequiresachangeoffunction,thestandardwillnolongerbeintertextualcoherencewitllthesourcetextbutadequacyorappropriatenesswithregardtotheSkopos.AndiftheSkoposdemandsintratextualincoherence,thestandardofintratextualcoherenceisNOlongervalid.(Nord2001:33)

3.2.2.4LoyaltyPrinciple

ChristianNord,inherefforttodefendthefunctionalapproachesagainstpotentialaccusationofbeingcarriedtotheextreme,introducedthe‘‘functionplusloyalty'’modelintofunctionalismasacompromise、ⅣitlIradicalfunctionalism.

Atdifferenttimesandindifferentpartsoftheworldpeoplehavehaddifferent17

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

conceptsofwhatagoodtranslationisorshouldbe.Thesenotionssometimesvaryaccordingtothetexttypeinquestionordependontheself-esteemoftbereceivingculturewithregardtotheSOUI'Ceculture.刚ord2001:124)ToNord,loyaltymeanstheresponsibilitytranslatorshavetowardtheirpartnersintransitionalinteraction.Forexample,ifthetargetcultureexpectsatransaltioninaliteralreproductionoftheoriginal.Translatorscannotsimplytranslateinanon-literalwaywithouttellingthetargetaudiencewhattheyhavedoneandwhy.Itisthetranslator’Stasktomediatebetweenthetwocultures,andmediationcannotmeanimposingone’sculture-specificconceptonmembersofanotherculturecommunity.Loyaltyalsomeansthatthetarget-textpurposeshouldbecompatiblewiththeoriginalauthor’sintentions.Byputingforwardtheloyaltyprinciple,Nordformsher‘functionplusloyalty’model.Functionreferstothefactorsthatmakeatargettextworkintheintendedwayinthetargetsituation.Loyaltyreferstotheinterpersonalrelationshipbetweenthetranslator,thesource-textsender,thetarget-textaddresseesandtheinitiator.(Nord2001:126)

IfWehavea“functionalist'’pointofviewoftranslationandifwe“llkofchildrenasour“superaddressees”,wemusttaketheirexperiences,abilities,andexpectationsintoconsideration.HowWedoitinpracticedependsonthechildimagewehaveandonwhatweknowaboutthechildrenofourtime.Ontheonehand,if‘'Ourchildren’’arewiseandresponsive,wedonotexplaintothemaSmuchaSwewouldif‘‘Ourchildren'’weredullandignorant;ontheotherhand,childrenhavelivedforashortertimethanadultsanddonothavethesa//le‘'worldknowledge'’鹤adults.whichisonereaSonwetendtoexplainmoreforchildrenthanforgrown?ups.(OiRien2000:34)ThisistakingtheexpectationsofOurfuturereadersintoconsideration;thisisloyalty.18

兰!型!:!!!:垒曼竺!墅!:

ChapterFourACaseStudy

Inthepreviouschapters,thefeaturesofchildren’Sliteratureandthehighlightsoftranslatingforchildrenaswellasprinciplesoftranslationareexpounded.AndthischapterwillconcentrateonthestrategiesemployedintranslatingforchildrenthroughacomparativestudyofthreeChineseversionsofAliceAdventures加Wonderland.Andthenthereisabriefintroductionoftranslationvariationwhichisespeciallycommoninchildren’Sliterature.

4.1AboutAlice'sAdventuresinWonderlandanditsThreeChineseVersions

Alice'sAdventuresinWonderlandwaswrittenbyLewisCarrollin1862(publishedint865)forhisfriendAliceLiddeU.Shewas,atthetime,tenyearsold.Thebookdepictsagirl,namedAlice,whoexperiencesallabsurddreaminwhichshefallsdeepintoarabbit-holeandmeetsaseriesofstrangethings,peopleandanimals.Itisthefirststorydesignedforchildrenwithoutatraceofalessonormoralinitandastorywrittenpurelytogivepleasuretochildren.Carroll’Swayofcreatingnonsenseandhumorandplayingwordsandimagesmakesthebookfullofpuns,poemparodies,andwittyremarl【s,butfirstandforemost,theyarefulloflaughter.

TherearefarmorethanthreeChineseversionsofAlice§Adventures加Wonderland.Ichoosethethreecompleteversionsconsideringthattheywereproducedindifferenttimes.Thefirstversionentitled《阿丽丝漫游奇境记》,whichisactuallythefirstChinesetranslationoftheAliceBook,WastranslatedbyZhaoYuanrenin1921.ThesecondwastranslatedbyChenFu’anas《阿丽思漫游奇境记》in1981.Andthe111irdwasdonebyLiHanzhaoentitled《爱丽丝漫游奇境》in2002.

4.2AComparativeStudyoftheThreeVersions

4.2.1The’

Target—textSkopos

InthelightoftheSkopostheorie,theSkoposoftheoveralltranslationactionistheprimeprinciplethatdeterminesthetranslationprocess.Thereforebeforegoinganyfurther,19

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕七学位论文

wehavetoidentifytheSkoposofthethreeversions.

InZhao’Spointofview,Alice§AdventuresinWonderlandisaninterestingbookintendedforchildren.HistranslationtheniStoamuseitsreaders.Hetriedtotranslateasfaithfullyaspossibleandtokeepthehumoroftheoriginalinplainwords.Yetitisnecessarytopointoutthatitwasdonein1921,thetimewhenvernacularChinesewasgraduallytakingtheplaceofclassicChinese.SohesaidthatthetranslationprocessWasalsoanexperimentofthe印plicationofvernacularChinesetoliterature.ThankstoZhao’SgoodcommandofvernacularChineseandhisstudiousattempt,histranslationofpunsandwordplay,which.seemuntranslatable,turnsouttObeSOexcellentthatitisstillfully。.appreciatedtoday.

IntheprefaceofChen’Sversion,theeditorsays,“Children’Sbookasitis,italsogainsgreatpopularityamongadults'’,“SinceitisallEnglish—Chineseversion,thetranslationshouldbe鹊faithfultotheoriginal邪possible。thereareannotationstoassistthereaderswiththeircomprehension.”(陈复庵1981:preface)AccordingtoSkopostheofie,atranslationalactionallowsavarityofSkopoi,whichmayberelatedtoeachotherinahierarchicalorder.ThetranslatorshouldbeabletojustifytheirchoiceofaparticularSkoposinagiventranslationalsituation.(Nord2001:29)Thenwemayinferthatthe‘particularSkopos’ofChenistorenderanEnglish-ChineseversionforEnglishlearnersandthesubordinateskoposistointroduceCarroll’SAlicebooktoChinesereaders.

AlthoughthereisnoprefaceinLi’Sversion,weknowfromthewordsonthefrontandbackcoversthatAliceiAdventuresinWonderlandiSidentified嬲oneofthemostfamous筋rytalesandafantasticaltalesuitableforchildren.SoLi’Sversionisalsoforchildren..

Inaword,ZhaoandLiweTetranslatingforchildrenwhileChenWasnot.Thusbycomparingthesethreeversions.wewillseewhatarethesuggestedstrategiesoftranslatingforchildren.

4.2.2Language

Thelanguageinachildren’Sbookshouldbesimpleenoughtounderstand.naturalenoughtoreadandmusicalenoughtopleaseitsreaders.Therearemanysuggested

strategiestocreatecertainreadabilityandvividnesssuchas"repetition,shortsentence,exclamation,onomatopoeia,metaphoretc.Thefollowingareexamplesonthese.

a.Repetition

Exampleh“Inthatcase,”saidtheDodosolemnly,risingtoitsfeet。“Imovethatthemeetingadjourn,fortheimmediateadoptionofmoreenergeticremedies-——”(Carroll,P.33)

Zhao:那个渡渡鸟听了,就正正经经地站起来道,“既然如此,我就动议散会,再速筹更切实妥善之弥补方策——。”(p.31)

Chen:“既然这样,”渡渡鸟庄严地站起来说道,“我提议休会,以便立即采取更有效的补救措施——”(p.33)

L.:“既然如此,我建议休会,并立即采取更加有效的措施。”渡渡鸟站起来严肃地说。(p.33)

Inthissentence.Carrollusedtheword“solemnly"toshowthattheDodoistryingtobehaveinaconfidentwaytomaketheothersobeyhim.SoZhao’Stranslationas“正正经经”(arepetitionof“正经’,)isbetterthanLi’s“严肃”.And“庄严”byChenistooformal.Infact,repetitionisagoodmethodtogetcertaineffect.Forexample,afairytaleoftenbeginswith“很久很久以前……”

b.Shortsentence

Example2:However,thisbottleWaSnotmarked“poison,'’SOAliceventuredtotasteit,and,f=indingitverynice(ithad,infact,asortofmixedflavorofcherry—tart,custard,pine—apple,roastturkey,toffy,andhotbutteredtoast),sheverysoonfinisheditoff.(Carroll,P.21)

Zhao:然而这一回瓶子上并没有“毒药”的字样在上,所以阿丽思就大着胆尝他一尝,那味几到很好吃(有点象樱桃饼,又有点象鸡蛋糕,有点象菠萝蜜,又有点象烤火鸡,有点象冰淇淋,又有点象芝麻酱),所以一会儿工夫就唏哩呼噜地喝完了。(p.13)

Chen:不过这只瓶上并没有写着“有毒”的字样,所以阿丽思冒险尝了一口,觉得味道很好(它有樱桃馅饼、牛奶蛋糕、菠萝、烤火鸡、奶糖和热黄油面包混在一起的那种香味),于是很快就把它喝光了。(p.11)

“:然而这瓶子上没有。毒药”的字样,于是爱丽丝大胆地尝了尝,味道很好,2l

福建师范大学吴霄珍硕士学位论文

它混合着樱桃馅饼、奶油蛋糕、菠萝、烤火鸡、牛奶糖和热奶油面包的味道。爱丽丝一口气就把一整瓶喝光了。(p.10)

For“venturetotasteit'’,Zhaotranslateditas“大着胆尝他一尝”,itbetterconveysanimpressionofAlice’Scuriosity,forchildrenhaveanaturalcuriosityabouttheworldaroundthem.AndChen…S冒险”failstoconveythisimpression,itwastranslatedliterally.WhenAlicefoundthatittasteddelicious,ChenandLitranslatedtheflavoras“有……混在一起的那种香味”and“混合着……的味道”astheytook“asortofmixedflavorof...’’literally,employingalongsentenceliketheoriginaldid,itturnstobeprolongedandtediousbecausechildrenprefershortsentences.WhileZhaocutitintoshortonesas“有点象……,又有点象……,有点象……,又有点象……,有点象……,又有点象……”,whenyoureadit,youCanevenimaginehowdeliciousitwasforAlice,SOshefinisheditoffverysoon.

e.Exclamation

Example3:“Well!”thoughtAlicetoherself.‘‘Aftersuchafall嬲this.Ishallthinknothingoftumblingdown-stairs!Howbravethey’11allthinkmeathome!Why,1wouldn’tsayanythingaboutit,eveniflfelloffthetopofthehouse!”(p.17)

Zhao:“呵!”阿丽思自己想道,“我摔过了这么一大回跤。那再从梯子上滚下去可算不得什么事啦!家里他们一定看我胆子真好大啦!哼,哪怕我从房顶上掉下来,我也会一句都不提的!”(p.7)

Chen:“嘿,”她想到,“摔过这么大一跤,以后要是从楼梯上滚下去,就算不了什么啦!家里人会觉得我多勇敢啊!哼,哪怕是从屋顶上掉下来,我也会一声不吭哩I,,Q.5)

Li:“好啊,”爱丽丝想,“我摔过了这么一大跤,以后再从楼梯上滚下来那可就不算回事啦!家里的人肯定都会说我胆子变大了,哼,哪怕我从屋顶上掉下来,我也会一声不吭!”(p.4)

Theoriginalismadeofseveralexclamations.Intheabovethreeversions,allthetranslatorsaddedwordslike“呵、啦、哼、嘿、哩”,followingthefeaturesoftheChineselanguage,toshowtheimageofAlicewhoWastakingtoherselfinaproudway.

d.Onomatopoeia

Example4:Justthensheheardsomethingsplashingaboutinthepoolalittlewayoff,

andsheSWalTlnearertomakeoutwhatitwas…(p.2s)

Zhao:正在那时她听见不远有个什么东西在那池里浦叉浦叉地溅水,她就游近到那边去瞧瞧是什么……(p.23)

Chert:正在这时候,她听见池子里不远的地方有什么东西在划水,她游近一些,想看清楚是什么东西。(p.25)

Li:就在这时,她听到不远的地方有东西在划水,于是就向前游去,想看个究竟。(p.25)

Inthisexample,Zhaoadded“浦叉浦叉”tothesentence,ChenandLitranslateditfaithfullyas“有什么东西在划水”,“有东西在划水”.AsWeallknow,onommopoeiareferstotheformationofwordsinimitationofthesoundofallanimaloranaction.Onomatopoeiamakesthesentencemorevivid.Forexample,childrenprefer“唏哩呼噜地喝完”than“喝完”(inexample2).SoZhan’StranslationisbetterthanChenandLi’S.Infact.Zhaomadethemostofonomatopoeiathroughouthistranslation,like“鸟唏唏地笑”,“骨来力风格格地笑”,“阿丽丝呜呜咽咽地哭”,“素甲鱼唏唏嘘嘘地哭”,“毕二爷唧唧哩哩地说话”……

e.Metaphor

Example5:Anenormouspuppywaslookingdownatherwithlargeroundeyes.andfeeblystretchingoutonepaw,tryingtotouchher.(p.46)

Zhao:一只个儿挺大的小狗睁着两只灯笼大的圆眼睛对着她,轻轻地伸出一只爪子出来好象要挨到她似的。(p.51)

Chen:一只很大的小狗正睁着圆滚的大眼睛朝下看着她,并且轻轻伸出一只爪子,想碰碰她。(p.57)

Li:一只大得出奇的叭儿狗,正瞪着又圆又大的眼睛看着她,还轻轻地伸出一只爪子,要抓她。(p.60)

‘‘Puppy'’referstoayoungdog.‘‘enormous”meaiisverylargeinsize.Thenhowlargeisthedog?Aseverythinginwonderlandisabnormal:acaterpillarcansmokealonghookah;ababyturnsintoapigetc.SoZhao’S“个儿挺大”andChcn…S很大”arenotlargeenoughtobeodd.Besides,fromtheillustrationbyTeunielweknowthepuppyismanytimeslargerthanAlicebecausesheshrank,SOLi's“大得出奇”ismorefaithfultotheoriginal.Zhao’Stranslation“小狗睁着两只灯笼大的圆眼睛”isvividbyhisuseof23

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕七学停论文

metaphor,itgiveschildrenaveryconcreteideaabouthowlargetheeyesfifethoughitisabitexaggerating,itisbetterthanChenandLi’Stranslation.Sometaphorisanotherusefulskillinchildren’Sliterature,inawayofdescribingsomethingbycomparingittosomethingelsechildrenalefamiliarwith.

4.2。3Culture—boundElements

Accordingtofunctionalism,translationtakesplaceinspecificsituationsinvolvingdifferentcultures.Thetranslator'staskistotransfer‘anofferofinformation’inthesourcecultureandlanguageinto‘anofferofinformation’inthetargetcultureandlanguage.AstherefltredifferencesinbehaviorcausingcultureCOnnictsorcommunicationbreakdownsbetweentwopartsincontact,thetranslatorshouldbeveryawareofthesedifferencesintranslatingprocessandberesponsibleforovercomingthesebarriersforthetargetaddressees.(Nord2001:23—24)Itisimportantthatthecontextofthesourcetextbepreservedandrespectedinthetargettext,andthatthevariouschangesandadaptationsbeconsistent埘ththecontext.AliceiAdventuresinWonderlandisaquintessentiallyBritishstory.Culture—boundelements.suchaspropernanlesandwordplays,notonlyplacethestoryinaspecificcultureandperiodoftime,butalsoimplycertainvaluesandcreateanambience.Theseelementsalsohavealleffectonhowthereaderidentifieswiththestoryandcharacters.(Hagfors2003:115)Thus,itisimportanttofindthemostappro’primestrategiestotranslatesuchelements.

4.2.3.1ProperNames

Asiswellknown,LewisCarroll,aliasCharlesDodgson,wroteAliceinWonderlandin1862forhislittlefriendAliceLiddeil,10,andhertwosistersLorinaCharlotte,13,andEdithLiddell,8yearsold.ThemostrevolutionarynatureofthisstoryisthatitWfl¥designedforchildrenwithoutatraceoflessonormoralinit,butwaswrittenpurelytogivepleasuretochildren.111eauthor'sintentionwasjusttoentertainhisaudience.Wecallseethatfromthechoiceofpropernamesbytheauthon

InAlice§Adventuresinwonderland,wefindfourformsofpropernames:

a.NamesexplicitlyreferringtOtherealworldofauthorandoriginaladdressees,like

Alice,hernurseMaryA肌,herschoolmatesAdaandMabel.24

b.Namesimplicitlyalludingtotherealworldofauthorandoriginaladdresseesby

meansofwordplay,likeDodo,Duck,LorryandEaglet.C.Namesalludingtoidiomaticexpressions,likeHatter,MarchHareandCheshireCat.d.Namesreferringtofictitiouscharacters,likeWhiterabbit,theMouse,theDuchess.

IntheeaseofAlice伽Wonderland,theauthorchosethenameswitIlsomekindofauctorialintentionbehind,thisintentionisobvioustothesource?receiversastheywereexplicitlyorimplicitlytakenfromthegirls’realsituation,andthismusthadamusedthemverymuch.Butforthetargetreaders,thesecharactersarefictitious.Inthefollowingpassages,wewillseethetranslationsofthesepropernamesinthetheeChineseversionst0findoutwhethertheauthor’SintentionCanbemaintainedintranslation.扎Namesexplicitlyreferringtotherealworldofauthorandoriginaladdressees

The‘‘realworld’’isEnglandinthesecondhalfofthe19tIIcentury.Inthestory,wefmdseveralnamesofpersonsbelongingtothe‘'realworld'’oftheauthoranditsaudience,orwecansaysource—readersuchasAlice,hernul'seMaryAnn,herschoolmatesAdaandMabel.However,forthereceiverofthetarget-text,Alice,MaryAnn,AdaandMabelwillbefictitiouscharacters.Buttherewillbenocomprehensionproblem,sincethecharactersareintroducedincontextswheretheiridentityismadeclear.Nevertheless,theappellativefunctionofbeingamusedwhenthesoRrce-receiversreadaboutthemselvesandtheirownsituationdoesnotworkforthetarget-reader.

Orig.ZhaoChenLiAlice阿丽思阿丽思爱丽丝MaryAnn玛理安玛丽.安玛丽安Ada爱达艾达爱达Mable媚步儿梅白尔玛贝尔Generallyspeaking,therearetwoprinciplestofollowwhentranslatingpropernames:

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕七学位论文

oneisphonetictranslation,andtheotherisliteraltranslation.Whentranslatingnamesofrealpeople,theformerispreferable,whilethelatterisusedwhenthereissomemeaningbehindthenames.Theexamplesshowthatallthetranslatorsusedtransliterationwithregardstothesenamesinspiteofslightlydifference.“爱丽丝”,“玛丽安”,“艾达”,“玛贝尔”alepreferableinmostmodemversions.However,“媚步儿”byZhaois砒盯interesting.Ontheonehand。itistranslatedphonetically;ontheotherhand,itis

’amusingassoonasyoureadit.

b.NamesimplicitlyalludingtotherealpersonaroundtheauthorandoriginaladdresseesbymeRILSofwordplay

ApartfromcertainpropernanlesinAliceinWonderlandthatalludetorealpersonsinadirectway,wefindRalliesalludingtorealpersonsinallindirectwaybywordplay.LetstakeDodo,Duck,Elsie,TillieandLaeieforexample.

Orig.ZhaoChenLi

Dodo渡渡鸟渡渡鸟渡渡鸟

Duck鸭子鸭子鸭子

Elsie霭而细埃尔西埃尔西

Laeie腊细莱西莱斯

Tillie铁梨蒂利蒂尔莉

ThenameDodocomesfromtheEnglishidiomaticexpression“鼬dead嬲aDodo”.“渡渡鸟”istheequivalenceinChinese。childrenwillhavenoproblemofunderstandingitwhentheadultsexplaintothemthatitisakindofbirdwhichisextinctnow.However,ithasanothermeaning:itisallallusiontoLewisCarroll’Sslightlystutteringwayofpronouncinghisownname:Do-Do?Dodgson.(Attheageofseventeen,theauthorsufferedaseverattackofwhoopingcough,theafter-effectisaslightlystatler.)TheDuck

referstotheauthor’sfriend,thereverendRobisonDuckworth,whoWaSOiltheboatingtripwithCarrollandthegirls.“渡渡鸟”and‘‘甲自子”failtoconveythesemessages。yettherearen0betterways.

111ethreelittlesisterslivinginthetreaclewell,Elise,LacieandTillie,refertoLiddellsistersrespectively:ElisestandsforLorinaCharlotteCL.C.”!),LacieisananagramofAlice.andTilliereferstoEditll’SnicknameMatilda.TheyarealltranslatedphoneticallywhileZhao…S霭而细”,“腊细”,and“铁梨”soundquiteawkwardtoday.ItisworthmentioningthatZhaodidthetranslationmorethan80yearsago.itwasatimewhenpeopleusedtheChineseromanizationsystemasamajorapproachtotheproblem.c.Namesalludingtoidiomaticexpressions

LiketheDodo.theHatterandtheMarchHarealludetoidiomatiCexpression“asmadasaHatter"’and“asmadaSaMarchHare”,whichhavenodirectequivalentsinChinese.TheCheshireCatalludestoidiomaticexpression‘'togrinlikeaCheshirecat'’,whichcomesfromaparticularbrandofCheshirecheesewhiehhadapictureofagrinningcatonthepackage.

Orig.ZhaoChenLi

Hatter帽匠帽匠帽匠

MarchHare三月兔三月兔三月兔

CheshireCat歙县帽柴郡猫柴郡猫

ItisinterestingtonotethatallthetranslatorsdealtwiththeHatterandtheMarchHarewithfreetranslationandtheCheshireCatphonetically.TheclosestequivalenceofthemadhatterandthemadmarchhareinChineseisdog,asinChinese,wesay“疯狗”(asmadasadog),butitwouldbeOUtofplaceconsideringloyaltytothesonl'cetext.Sincethehatterisdepictedasaratherweirdfigureinthecontext,andtheideathatahareismadforamateinMarchmaybeevokedinsomereaders,thetargetreader’S

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕+学位论文

understandingoftheHatterwillnotbetOOfarawayfromthesm.1rcereader.Moreover,aharehasbecomethesymbolof‘'madness”intheeyberjokesnowadays.“帽匠”and“三月兔”seemtObeappropriatetranslationswhile“制帽人’'soundsabitgenteel,ForCheshireCat,thingsaredifferent.Whenitistranslatedphonetically,itsconnotationofgrinninglost.Therearetwosolutions.Oneisthewayalltheabove-mentionedtranslatorsdid.Theotheristotranslateitsconnotation,e.g.“笑笑猫”.Thereare砒leasttworeasonsofmypreferenceof“笑笑猫”insteadof“柴郡猫”.Firstly,“柴郡猫”createsforeignnessandculturaldistanceforchildrenreaderastheideaof“柴郡”isaplaceinEnglandmightbeoutofthehorizonofexpectationsofchildrenreaders.Secondly,“笑笑猫”willhavethesamefunctiontothetargetreader雒CheshireCathavetothesoBreereader.Inaddition,“笑笑猫”isintertextualcoherentandinperfectaccordwithTenniel’Sillustration(thedepictionofagrinningcat).

d.Namesreferringtofictitiouscharacters

Mostofthefictitiouseharaetershavenonffillesintheconventionalsenseoftheword.Characters,mostlyanimalsorfantasycreatures,areusuallyintroducedbyadescriptionwhichisafterwardsusedasapropernamejustbywritingit谢macapitalletter.Forexample.atthebeginningofchapter1weread:“SosheWasconsideringinherownmind(aswellaSshecould,forthehotdaymadeherfeelverysleepyandstupid,)whetherthepleasureofmarkingadaisy-chainwouldbeworththetroubleofgettingupandpickingthedaisies,whensuddenlyawhiterabbitwithpinkeyesrallclosebyher.’’Andthenextparagraphfollows:‘‘Therewasnothingsoveryremarkableinthat;ordidAlicethinkitSOverymuchoutofthewaytoheartheRabbitsaytoitself,‘Ohdear[Ohdear[Ishallbetoolate!”’However,capitalizationcannotbeusedinChineseasamealLstomarkthem豁propernames.Theonlyworkablewayistotranslateliterally,usinggenericnounsasspecificnames,whichisconlnloninchildren’Stales.Othersexamplesare:theMouse,theCaterpillar,theGryphon...

4.2.3.2Wordplay

Playsonwordsarecontrived‘mistakes’whicharepossibletomakethankstothearbitrarynamreoflinguisticsymbols.DuetOthisarbitrariness,awordorwordssimilarinformorsoundmayrepresentverydifferentmeanings.However,thesamearbitrarinessof

linguisticsymbolsthatmakewordplaypossibleconstitutesaveryseriousobstaclewhenattemptingtOtranslatewordplayintoanotherlanguage.EspeciallyifthetwolanguagesinvolvedareunrelatedtOeachother,likeEnglishandChinese.Weissbrodsuggeststhreeliterarytactics(orcombinationsofthem)tOtranslatewordplay:

1.Employingallstylisticlevelsandhistoricalstrataaccessibleinthetarget

language,eveniftheyhavenoparallelinthesourcetext;

2.ChangingoneormoreofthemeaningsoftheoriginalwordplaySOthatthey

Callbecondensedagainintoonewordorwordssimilarinformorsound;

3.Changingthetypeofwordplayoritslocationinthetext.(Weissbred1996:221)

ThewittywordplayaboundinAliceiAdventuresinWonderlandplaysallimportantroleinattractingyoungreaders.Wordplayischaracteristicofchildren’sliteraturethroughtheages.itfillstheMotherGoosenurseryrhymesofthe18nlcentu_xy鹊wellastheDr.Seussstoriesofthetwentieth.Aocordingtosonicresearchers,playingwithwordsisanimportantstageinthelinguisticdevelopmentofyoungchildren.Thusthetendencytonsewordplaysisananswertoatrueneedofchildren.Andit’SworthallthehardworktranslatorsputintOreservetheplaysOnwords.Thefollowingareexamplesabouthewtotranslatedwordplay.

Example1:‘'CurionserandCuriouser!”criedAlice(sheWaSSOmuchsurprised.thatforthemomentshequiteforgothewtospeakgoodEnglish).O.23)

Zhao:“越变越希汉了,越变越切怪了!(因为阿丽思自己诧异到那么个样子,连话都说不好了);(p.17).

Chen:“越来越古奇,越来越古奇啦!”阿丽思嚷道(她是那么吃惊,一时连正经的英国话都说不好了),(p.17)

Li:爱丽丝喊道,“奇怪啊奇怪,”她惊讶得不得了,以至于霎时竟说不出话了,(p.17)

AlthoughAlicemadeagrammaticalmistakebyusing‘‘CuriouserandCuriouser!’’(childrenoftenhavesuchmistakes),thereaderwillhavenoproblemunderstandingwhatshereallymeant(moreandmorecurious).Zhaoprovidedasatisfyingtranslationbydeliberatelyconstructingthemismatchesof“希汉”and“切怪”tomaintainthesanle

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

effectoftheoriginal.andiseasytobeunderstood(thecorrectexpressionsofwhichare“稀罕”and“奇怪’').ThusthetargetreadersareabletoappreciatetheoriginalflavorandgiggleatAlice’Smistake.Chen’Stranslationas“古奇”soundsabitawkwardandhasaunconvincingassociation、ⅣitIltheoriginal.Likeptthefluencyofthesentenceattheexpenseofthewordplay,SOtheeffectthatAlicewassoastonishedthatshemurnnlr¥inmismatchedexpressionslost,andhis“以至于霎时竟说不出话了”isnotfaithfultotheoriginal.

.,

Example2:“OfCK}Brsenot,”saidtheMockTurtle.“Why,ifafishcametOme,andtoldmehewasgoingajourney,Ishouldsay‘Withwhatporpoise?”

“Don’tyoumean‘purpose’?"saidAlice.0.105)

Zhao:那素甲鱼道,“自然不会走。你想,假如有个黄蟹来找我,对我说它要旅行上哪儿去,我第一句就要问它,‘你有什么鲤鱼?”

阿丽思道,“你要说的不是理由呢?”

Chen:“当然罗,”假海龟说,“嗯,要是有一条鱼来找我,说它要出门去,我就会说‘海豚在哪JL?”

“你的意思是说‘目的是哪儿’hE?”阿丽思说。Q.167)

Li:“当然是,”假海龟说,“如果有条鱼外出旅行,来告诉我,我就会问‘带哪条海豚去啊?”

“你说‘孩耄’是什么意思?”爱丽丝问。O.161)

InEnglish,‘porpoise’and‘purpose’soundsimilarbuthavedifferentmeanings.Chentranslatedthemliterallyas“海豚”and“目的”,hesacrificedthepun.ZhaoandLiusedthefirsttacticsuggestedbyWeissbrod.Zhaochanged‘'porpoise”into“鲤鱼”whichsoundssimilar奶tll“理由”,andLichanged“purpose”into“孩童”whichsoundssimilarwith“海豚”.BothofthemtranslatedthefunctionoftheoriginalwhileChen’stranslationisdeceptiveequivalence.(徐德荣2004:35)

Example3.“Buttheywereinthewell"’AlicesaidtOtheDoemouse.notchoosingtonoticethislastremark.

“Ofcoursetheywere,"saidtheDormouse:‘'wellin.”(p.77)

Zhao:阿丽思故意当没听见这末了一句话,她又对那惰儿鼠问道,“但是她们自己己经在井里头嘞,怎么还吸得出来呢?”

那惰儿鼠道,“自然她们在井里头…尽尽里头。”(p.97)

Chen:“可是她们足在井里头呀,”阿丽思对睡鼠说,她不想理睬最后那句话。

“她们当然是在井里头,”睡鼠说,“在尽里头。”(p.117)

Li:“可是她们自己是住在井里呀!”爱丽丝对睡鼠说,根本没有理睬最后一句话。

“当然她们是在井垦拉,”睡鼠说,“而且还在很罩面昵。”(p.111)

“Well’’iswordplaywhichexploitsthehomonymyoftheadverb“well’’andthenoun“well”inEnglish,althoughthereisnosuchequivalenceinChinese,“井”and“尽”almostsoundthesame,theywereusedbyZhaoandChen.Litriedtotranslatefreely,althoughitiseasiertobeunderstoodbychildren,theflavoroftheorig.maldisappear.

Example4.‘'Theywerelearningtodraw…andtheydrewallmannerofthings-一everythingthatbeginswimanM?--',…‘'thatbc百璐、杭nlanM,such嬲mouse-traps,andthemoon,andmemory,andmuchness-一-youknowyousaythingsare‘muchofamuch—ness'---didyoueverseesuchathingasadrawingofamuchness!’’(p.77)

Zhao:。她们在那儿学吸……她们吸许多样东西…样样东西只要是。晖’字声音的~”……“样样东西只要是吗字声音的,警如猫几,明月,梦,满满儿一你不是常说满满儿的吗一你可曾看见过满满儿的儿子是什么样子?”(p.97)

Chen:“她们在学习汲取……她们汲取各种各样的东西一凡是M开头的一切东西一”……“M开头的东西,比如耗子夹、月亮、记忆、还有多半一你不是常说,东西‘多半相同‘~你有没有尖刀过多半的画像这样的东西?”0.117)

Li:“她们学画画……她们什么东西都画,每件东西都是用‘老’字开头的。”……“用‘老‘字开头的东西,例如老鼠笼子,老头儿,还有老多。你常说老多东西,可是你怎么画出这个‘老多’来?”Q.111)

Carrollactivatedtwocompletelydifferentmeaningsofdrawing(waterfromawell,andpictures),itisahappycoincidencethat“吸”h船twomeaningstoo(吸某种液体,吸收某种知识).Zhao’stranslationof‘'draw"isthenthebestone.Whendealingwith‘'everythingthatbeginswithanM,,.ChenputitintoChineseliterallyandevenkept“M”,itfailstoconveythehumoroftheoriginal.Zhaochanged‘‘M’’to“喝”successfully,because‘‘lJ'M’and“鸣'’soundsimilarandarebothassociated、Ⅳiththewordspellingor

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

pronunciation.ThentheDormouselistmanywordsbeginwith…Mjalthoughtherearesomedifferences,thewordslistskillfullybyZhaoallbeginwiththesound“Ⅱ母”'whichisinperfectcoherence晰tIltheoriginal,suchas‘'moon"and“明月”.“Muchness”isawordcannotbeusedaloneexceptinthephrase‘'muchofamuchness”whichmear够tobeverysimilar.ThecorrespondingwordsinZhao’Sversionare“满满儿”and“满满儿的几子”,althoughslightlydifferentfromtheoriginal,Zhaoremainedtheplayfulness.Li’Stranslationreadssmoothly,butcomparedwimZhao’sversion,itgoesawayfromtheoriginal.

Inaword,translatingwordplayisratherdifficult,EvenCarrollhimselfhadrealizedthat."FriendshereseemtothiIlkthatthebookisuntranslatable…thepunsandsongsbeingthechiefobstacles.”(Weissbrod1996:224).However,Zhao’SwonderfultranslationtellsUSthatitisnotanimpossiblemission.Translationinvolvesnotonlylinguisticcompetence.butalsothecompetencetodeal、^,imintertexuality,psychologyandthenarrative.

4.2.4TranslationofVisualElements

Oittinensaysthattranslatingbooksforchildrenisinterpretingboththeverbalandthevisual.(Oittinen2000:100)Thevisualappearancehereincludesnotonlytheillustrationsbutalsotheprint,theshapeandstyleoflettersandheadings,andthebook’Sentirelayout.Theverbalandthevisualarepartsofawhole.Visualdetailsgiverhythmtothestory.Theyarebothmarkersfortheeyeandinfluencethereaderemotionally.SoOiuinensaysthattocreateatranslationwherepartscontributetOthewhole,thetranslatormusttakeallthevisualelementsintoconsideration.(Oittinen2000:102)4…24lIllustration

Whenpickingupabook,peopleofanyagetendtobeattractedbythepicturesbeforereadingthewords.Picturesinchildren’Sbooksareevenmoreimportant.Carrollbeganhisstorywith‘‘Alicewasbeginningtogetveryfiredofsittingbyhersisteronthebankandofhavingnothingtodo:onceortwiceshehadpeepedintothebookhersisterWaSreading,butithadnopicturesorconversationsinit,‘andwhatistheUSeofabook,’thoughtAlice,‘withoutpicturesofconversations?’Ifthebookdidhavepicturesappealing

toAlice,noneofthisAlicestorymighthavehappened.

Sinceitspublicmion,AliceiAdventures砌Wonderlandhasbeenillustratedoverandoveragain.Amongthem,JohnTeuniel’SillustrationhashadastronginfluenceonoarimageofAlice.asitWasthefirsttobepublished.SoTenniel’SillustrationappearsonmostoftheChineseversionsalthoughsomeofthemuseseveralpicturesinsteadofallofthem,suchastheonetranslatedbyZhuHonggun(朱洪国,1984).Buttheyfailedtomentionthenameoftheillustratorveryoften.

However,illustrationinthesOl,lrce—textmightcauseproblemsinthetarget—text.AtypicalexampleisthewebinCharlotte'sWeb.Asweknow,thewebsmadebyCharlotteplayallimportantroleinthestory:thewords‘‘SOMEPIG’’and‘‘TERRIFIC”shewavedonthewebsavedWilbur.AndthereareparagraphsdepictinghowCharlottewasworkingonthoselettersoneafteranother.IfthewordsinthepicturesaretranslatedintoChinese,therewillbedisaceordbetweenthewordsandpictures.Iftheyareunchanged,thereshouldbenotesonthesewordsforyoungreaders.However,childrendon’tlikenotes.ThefollowingalecorrespondingillustrationsinPenRongrongandKanXin’StranslationsofCharlotte'sWeb.RenRongrongchosetotranslatetheillstrationsandadjustthewordswhileKanXinke‘pttheillustrationsunchangedandaddednotes.Thatistosay,illustrationmayalsobedomesticatedandforeignized.

蟒ML英文字的意罂足“好猪”

Page75inKang’SversionPage64inPen’Sversion

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

练髑上荚文字曲意怒憝“杰趣。

Page90inKang’SversionPage76inRen’Sversion4.2.4.2LayoutandTypography

Likealltheotherdetails.1ayoutandtypographyarganaspectofthetextandpartofthetotaleffect.Itmayinfluencethecontentofthestoryandinfluencethereadersemotionally.Besides,theauthorhaseveryreasontodoSO.Forexample,Inchapter3ofAlice§Adventure:tinWonderland,whentheMouseistellinghis“longandsad'’storytoAlice,sheismakingthestoryupinherownn血Id,andthestoryisarrangedintosuchafunnywayjustlike‘‘alongtailwithbends”.SowhentheMouseacousodherofnotattending,shesaid:“…youhadgott0thefif}Ilbend,Ithink?”Withoutseeingtheshapeofthestory,itisdifficultforthereadertounderstandwhatAlicemeans.11leversiontranslatedbyZhaoYuanrenandChenFu’anmanagedtotranslateitfaithfully,preservingthecurvedshapeofthetale.However,intheversiontranslatedbyLiHanzhao,thebendingstory011longerexists,itisdismantledintodialogues.Itmaybeeasiertounderstand,butitcausesaproblem:whenAlicementions"thefiflllbend",whichLiHanzhaotranslated髂“第五个弯”seemstohavenothingtodowiththecontextofhistranslation.

4.3TranslationVariation

Besidestheabove.mentionedthreeChineseversionsofAlice§Adventures加Wonderland,therearemanyothers.Somearecompletetranslationsandsomearenot.

Translationstudytendstofocusesonthosecompletetranslations.Andthosenon—completeonesareoftenregardedassecondary,nonoriginal,henceoflessvalues.Infact,shortenedorotherwiseeditedversions盯cverycommoninchildren’Sliterature.AccordingtoHongZhonglian,translationvariationisatranslationalactivityinwhichatranslatorderivestherelevantcontentoftheoriginalbyusingthewayssuchasamplification,deletion,edition,commentary,condensation,combination,transformationtomeettheneedsofspecificreadersunderaspecificsituation.(黄忠廉2002:19)Thetheoryoftranslationvariationisofgreatimportancefortranslatingforchildren.Ittheoreticallyrecognizestheneedforsuchnon-completeversionsforchildren.Forexample,anon—completetranslationofAlice§AdventuresinWonderlandmaybeabetterchoicethanacompleteoneforachildof6or7whenwetakehis/herliterarycompetenceintoconsideration.AnditisalsoinaccordancewimVermeer’SSkoposrulewhichsays.thetranslationpurposejustifiesthetranslationprocedures.(Nord2000:124)35

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕十学位论文

ChapterFiveConclusion

5.IImplicationsoftheStudy

Overviewingthedevelopmentofchildren’Sliterature,wefindthattheessentialfeatureofchildren’sliteratureisforchildren,forthefunofchildn;n—tobeexact.However,literaturemeansmorethanjustfun.Followingarabbitdownarabbitholeorwalkingthroughawardrobeintoamythicalkingdomnotonlysoundslikefuntochildren,butalsonurturesandexpandstheimagination.Whenchildrenlookatbeautifulpicturesandimaginethemselvesinnewplaces,timeisenriched;whenchildrendiscoverenjoymentinbooks,theydevelopfavorableattitudestowardthemthatusuallyextendintoalifetimeofappreciation.Thevicariousexperiencesofliteratureresultinpersonaldevelopment鹪wellaspleasure.ChildrenCanlearnfromliteraturehowotherpeoplehandletheirproblems.CharactersinbooksCanhelpchildrendealwithsimilarproblems.aswellastmderstandingotherpeople’Sfeelings.Bookssetindifferentculturesandtimeshelpchildrenenjoythediversityoftheworld.Thereforechildrenshouldhavetherighttoenjoystoriesbothathomeandabroad.

Translatingchildren’Sliteraturefallswithinthescopeofliterarytranslation.Yetchallengesariseduetothespecificnatureofitsreadership.Translatingforchildrenmeanstranslatingforacertainaudienceandrespectingthisaudiencethroughtakingtheaudience’Swillandabilitiesintoconsideration.Thetranslator’schildimageisacrucialfactor.ThehistoryhastoldUSthatonlywhenchildrenarerespectedasindividualswithspecialneedsofliteraturecouldthetranslatormakeanappropriatetranslation.Inthispaper,Iattempttoreviewandidentify.someuniquefeaturesofchildren’Sliteratureandhighlighttheaspectsneedspecialattentioninthelightofchild-orientationandfunctionalistapproaches.

5.2SuggestionsforFurtherStudy

Translationnevertakesplaceinisolationbutinaparticularsituation.Itisinfluencedbysocialandhistoricalfactors.Astimegoesby,normsoftranslationchange,thesociety’Schildimagechanges,translationshouldchange,too.ZhaoYuanren’stranslation

ChapterFiveConclusion

ofAlice'sAdventuresinWonderlandisgenerallyregardedasoneofthemostsuccessfulChineseversions,yetitwasdonemorethan80yearsago,someexpressionssoundold—fashionedforchildrentoday.Forexample.inAliceAdventures所Wonderland,LewisCarrolldistortednUlTlerouspopularpoemsandSongsinsuchawaythathisreaderscallbothrecognizetheoriginalandhavefunreadingthenewversions.Withouttheknowledgeoftheoriginal.adirect仃aIlslationshouldnotbeofmuchvalueforthereaderstOperceivethehumor.InChapter7,AMadTea-Part舅,theHattersangaSongparodiedfromJaneTaylor’s“TheStar'’.AsinZhao’StimethereWasnoChineseversionforthispoem,childrentodayCanfindnotraceofthelaughableimimtionoftheoriginalinhistranslation.However,theChineseVe培ionofthepoemisnowapopularnurseryrhymeamongchildreninChina,itseemsthathistranslationofthissongshouldberevised.Therefore,thefirstsuggestionImakeis:shouldwerevisetheoutdatedelementsofasuccessfultranslationtOmakeitconformtoSociety’schanging、,iews.becauseIminkitisbetterthannumerousroughretranslations.

Anothersuggestionisthatthestudyoftranslatingforchildrenshouldnotbelimitedinthescopeofliterarycontextbutinthecontextofpopularculture.Wearenowinamultimediaera,Toys,TVshows,movies,videogamesandcartoonsalethemostimmediatebackgroundofmanychildren’Sresponsetoliteraturemthemodelsofimaginativeplayandstorytellingtheyaremostlikelytobefamiliarwitll.Becausetheseproductsofpopularculturehaveapowerfulinfluenceonchildren’Sexpectationsandattitudesaboutliteratureaswellaslifeingeneral,theyalsodeserveparticularattentionintheprocessoftranslatingforchildren.

Attheendofthepaper,Ihopethatpeoplewillpaymoreattentiontotranslatingforchildrenandtherewillbemoreappropriate仃anslationsofforeignchildren’Sliterature.

塑堡I师蔓奎羔墨要竺堡主堂垡笙苎

Bibliography

IBaker,Mona.Inotherwords:ACourseBookonTranslation.Beijing/London:ForeignLanguage

TeachingandResearchPress/Rutledge,2000

2Cafford,J.C.ALinguisticTheoryofTranslation.London:OxfordUniversityPress,19653DarjaMazi—leskovar.DomesticationandForeignizationinTramlationgAmericanProsefor

SlovenianChildren.Meta,20030):250-265

4Hagfors,Irma.AJourneytoAnotherTimeandPlace:HowoBritishFictorianChildren§Classic

WasTranslatedInPostwarFinland.

http://www.eng.helsinki.fi/hes/Translation/journeytoanothertimel.htm

5Kibbee,DouglasA.WhenChildren§LiteratureTranscend8itsGenre:TranslatingAlice加

Wonderland.Meto,2003(3):307-321

6wrier,Lia.HarrypotterforChildren,TeenagersandAdults.Meta,2003(3):5一14

7MilenaDolezelova-Velingerova.TheChineseNovelattheTurnoftheCentury.Toronto:

UniversityofTorontoPress,1980

8Martin,Alice.ATranslator§HewoftranslationNorms.

http://www.eng.helsinki.fi/hes/Translation/a—tr—anslator.htm‘9Nodelman,Perry.ThePleasuresofChildren"sLiterature.NewYork&London:Longman

PublishingGroup,1992

10Nord,Christiane.TranslatingAsaPurposefulActivity:FunctionalistApproachesExplained.

Shanghai:ShanghaiForeignLanguageEducationPress,2001

IINorton.DonnaE.ThroughtheEyesofAChild.Toronto:MacmillanPublishingCompany,199112Oittinen,Ritti&Translatingforchildren.NewYork&London:GarlandPublishinglnc,2000.13Oittinen,Rittia.WheretheWildThingsAre.Meta,2003(3):128—141

14SandraL.Beckett.WhenModernLittleRedRidingHoodsCrossBorders...orDon}.Meta,2003

(3):15-30

15Shavit,Zohar.PoeticsofChildrenILiterature.Athens:UniversityofGeorgiaPress,198616Venuti.Lawrence:RethinkingTranslation:DiscourseSubjectivityIdeology.London&NewYork:

Routledge,1992

17TheNewEncyclopediaBritannicaVolume3,15“edition.Chicago:EncyclopediaBritannia,lne.

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕十学位论文

1985

18Tse-Tsung,Chow.TheMayFourthMovement:IntellectualRevolutioninModernChina.Stanford:

StanfordUniversityPress,1967

19Weissbrod,Rachel."CuriouserandCuriouser’:HebrewTranslationofWordplayinAlice

AdventuresinWonderland.TheTranslator,Volume2,Number2(1996):219-234

Yamazaki,Akiko.Whychangenames?Onthetranslationofchildren'sbooks.Children§LiteratureinEducation,V01.33,No.1,March2002:53-62

陈宏淑.儿童图画故事书翻译原则探讨与应用.【私立辅仁大学硕士论文】,2003

资料来源:http://www.52erLeom/xl/lunwen/1w0007.asp

陈霞.论童话英汉翻译中的儿童本位原则一兼评《阿丽思漫游奇境记》中译本.【四川师范丈学硕士论文】,2004

陈予君.中国当代儿童文学史.济南:明天出版社,1991

丁玟瑛.儿童文学的翻译与文化传递,第七届{JL童文学与儿童语言》学术讨论论文集,2003韩进.百年中国儿童文学.江苏教育学院学报(社会科学版),2003(9):71—76

胡从经.晚清儿童文学钩沉.上海:少年儿童出版社。1982

黄晓佳.‘哈克贝利?芬历险记》文体翻译的功能主义分析.广东外语外贸大学学报,2004(1o):25-28

黄忠廉.变译理论.北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,2002

蒋风.儿童文学丛淡.湖南人民出版社。1975

30蒋风.中国现代儿童文学史.石家庄:河北少年儿童出版社,1986

3l金隰.等效翻译探索.北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,1997

32李丽.清末民初(1898--1919)儿童文学翻译鸟瞰.三峡大学学报(人文社会科学版),2005

(1):103-106

33刘景琳.儿童文学的翻译:儿童本位的翻译观——兼论‘爱丽丝》的汉译.【山东大学硕士论

文】,2002

34刘重德.文学翻译十讲.北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,1991

35秦弓.“五四”时期的安徒生童话翻译.涪陵师范学院学报,2004(7):1-5

36秦弓.五四时期的儿童文学翻译(上).徐州师范大学学报(哲学社会科学版)。2004(9):41..4637任溶溶.我要一辈子为儿童翻译.当代文学翻译卣家谈.北京:北京大学出版社,1989:207.2102l23242526272829

福建师范大学吴雩珍硕七学位论文

38潭云飞.浅谈儿童文学翻译.【湖南师范大学硕七论文】,2005

39汤锐.比较儿童文学初探.武汉:湖北少年儿童出版社,1990

40滕云.寻觅童年一新时期儿童文学的一束思瓤北京:中国少年儿童出版社,199341涂志刚.任溶溶:为孩子翻译.

资料来源http://www.spph.com.cn/books/bkview.asp?bkid=62589&cid=122165

舵王宏志.重释“信达雅”,二十世纪中国翻译研究.上海:东方出版中心。1999

∞王建开.五四以来我国英美文学作品泽介史(1919.1949).上海:上海外语教育出版社。2003“王泉根.现代儿童文学的先驱.上海:上海文艺出版社,1987

帖王泉根.新时期儿童文学研究.石家庄:河北少年儿童出版社,2004

铂夏历.。五四”时期文学的翻译.【华中师范大学硕士学位硕士论文】,2000

钉徐德荣.儿童文学翻译刍议.中国翻译,2004(6):33.36

鹕严维明.谈谈儿童文学作品的翻译一新译《汤姆?索耶历险记》点滴体会.中国翻译,1998(5):

52-55

49眼中有孩子,心中有未来一’90上海儿童文学研讨会论文集.上海:少年儿童出版社,199150张锦贻.儿童文学的体裁及其特征.呼和浩特:内蒙古人民出版社。1983

5l张香还.中国儿童文学史(现代部分).杭州:浙江少年儿童出版社,1988

52张之伟.中国现代儿童文学史稿.上海:华东师范大学出版社。1993

53中华人民共和国2005年国民经济和丰十会发展统计公报

资料来源http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjgb/ndtigb/Qgndtifzb/t20060227402307796.htrn

References:

1LewisCarroll.Alice§AdventuresinWonderland&ThroughtheLookingGlassIllustratedbyJohn

Tenniel.NewYork:AirmontPublishingCompany,1965

2陈复庵译.阿丽思漫游奇境记.北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,1981

3赵元任译.阿丽思漫游奇境记附:阿丽思漫游镜中世界.北京:商务印抟馆出版社,19884李汉昭译.爱丽丝漫游奇境.哈尔滨:哈尔滨出版社,2002

5朱洪国译.艾丽丝漫游奇境记.成都:四川少年儿童出版社,1984

6康馨译.夏洛的网.北京:人民文学出版杜。1979

7任溶溶译.夏洛的网.上海:上海译文出版社,2005

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

攻读学位期间承担的科研任务与主要成果

1《英国作家斯威夫特作品(格列佛游记)三种译本的比较》,新疆石油教育学院学报,2005年第1期,ISSN1008.9071.CN65.1190/G4

2《翻译与时代一谈翻译中的归化与异化》,福建广播电视大学学报,2005年第2期,ISSN1008.7346.CN35.1200/G44l

塑堡婴翌奎兰墨重竺堡主兰堡丝苎

Acknowledgement

1wouldliketoextendmysincerethankstomysupervisor,ProfessorLinBenchun.Withouthisvaluableadviceandincessantencouragement,thecompletionofthepresentthesiswouldhavenotbeenpossible.

Ianlalsothankfult0myclassmatesHuangLi,HuangXuexia,WuZhongqiandmyfriendGuoTengfortheirgeneroushelp.

Lastbutnotleast,myheartygratitudegoestomyhusbandLinYah.Withouthisencouragementitwouldhavebeenimpossibleformetofinishitontime.

福建师范大学吴雪珍硕士学位论文

个人简历

姓名:吴雪珍

性别:女

民族:汉族

出生年月:1978年9月

籍贯:福建寿宁

大学毕业时间:2000年6月

院校:福建师范大学外国语学院专业:英语教育

学位:文学士

研究生入学时间:2003年9月

就读院校和学院:福建师范大学研究生院所学专业:英语语言文学

研究方向:翻译理论与实践

指导老师:林本椿教授

毕业时间:2006年7月

工作经历:2000.2003福州广播电视大学

福建师范大学学位论文使用授权声明

本人昱雪珍学号2QQ圣21墨专业墓适适宣塞堂所呈交的论文(论儿童文学的翻译)是我个人在导师指导下进行的研究工作及取得的研究成果。尽我所知,除了文中特别加以标注和致谢的地方外,论文中不包含其他人已经发表或撰写过的研究成果。本人了解福建师范大学有关保留、使用学位论文的规定,即:学校有权保留送交的学位论文并允许论文被查阅和借阅;学校可以公布论文的全部或部分内容;学校可以采用影印、缩印或其他复制手段保存论文。

(保密的论文在解密后应遵守此规定)

学位论文亲者签名二醚指导教师签名二皇堇选签名目期!厶.!

论儿童文学的翻译

作者:

学位授予单位:吴雪珍福建师范大学

1. 于素芳 功能翻译理论与儿童文学翻译[学位论文]2008

2. 应承霏 英语儿童文学的汉译策略[学位论文]2007

3. 刘媛 交际翻译理论与具体运算阶段的儿童文学翻译——析《阿丽思漫游奇境记》中译本[学位论文]2008

4. 何静 儿童文学翻译中的审美过程[学位论文]2004

5. 朱运枚 操纵理论和儿童文学中译——以《快乐王子集》的译本为个案[学位论文]2010

6. 黄艳群 儿童文学翻译中译者的主体性研究——对三部儿童文学的英汉译本研究[学位论文]2008

7. 胡波 儿童文学翻译中的创造性叛逆——赵译《阿丽思漫游奇境记》研究[学位论文]2009

8. 袁毅.Yuan Yi 浅论儿童文学的翻译[期刊论文]-广东外语外贸大学学报2006,17(4)

9. 张鲁艳 从接受美学的角度看儿童文学的英汉翻译[学位论文]2006

10. 刘佳 儿童文学翻译的多元标准[学位论文]2006

网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com