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语言迁移与英语学习

发布时间:2013-10-13 08:39:26  

语言迁移与英语学习
Language Transfer and English Learning

翻 译

欢迎光临 左 飚
zuobiao212@163.com

A bosom friend afar brings a distant land near.

海内存知己, 天涯若比邻。

Wishing you happiness every day!

语言迁移与英语学习
Three Parts
1. Language transfer (语言迁移) 2. Linguistic contrast(语言对比) 3. English learning (英语学习) 欢迎光临

翻 译

Part One
Language Transfer: Interference or Facilitation?

语言迁移: 干扰还是促进?

What Is Language Transfer?
Transfer is the influence resulting from the similarities and differences between the target language and any other language that has been previously acquired . Odlin (1989: 27) 迁移是由于目标语与已经习得的语言之 间的相似和差异而产生的 影响。 奥德林

Two Types of Transfer
? Negative Transfer ? Positive Transfer (负迁移) (正迁移) Errors arise from Errors decrease by analogy. analysis. 类推会产生错误。 分析能减少错误。
Keen awareness of the similarities and differences between the two languages can facilitate FL learning. 对两种语言相似与相异点的敏锐意识能促进外语学习。

Negative Transfer (负迁移): Interference (干扰)
Causes: ? analogical use of one‘s prior knowledge of the mother tongue 母语先知结构的类推运用 ? scanty knowledge of differences between the two languages 对两种语言的差异所知甚少 ? unconscious falling back on the mother tongue speech habit 不自觉地回归母语的言语习惯 Chinglish = English words + Chinese structure 汉语式英语 = 英语单词 + 汉语结构

Native Language Transfer Does Exist.
母语迁移现象确实存在
? The age of the learner: around 20 学习者的年龄:20上下 ? The learning context:Chinese 学习的语境:汉语

Examples of Negative Transfer
1、这位作家喜欢晚上写作。 The writer likes writing at light. (night) 他不怕死。 He does not hear to die. (fear)
Phonological transfer (语音迁移) The sound /n/ or /f/ does not exist in some Chinese dialects and /l/ or /h/ serves as a substitute. 在有些中国方言(如南京/闽南方言)中没有辅音/n/或 /f/,而用辅音/l/或/h/来替代。

Examples of Negative Transfer
2、他一天只吃两顿饭。 He only eat two meal a day. (eats) (meals) 我去年到北京去了三次。 I go to Beijing 3 time last year. (went) (times) Morphological transfer (词形迁移) Neither nouns nor verbs have inflections in Chinese. 在汉语中,名词和动词都没有形态变化。

Examples of Negative Transfer
3、据说上海有三千三百万人口。
Shanghai is said to have thirty-three million population. Shanghai is said to have a population of thirty-three million. Shanghai is said to have thirty-three million people.

Collocation transfer (搭配迁移) The noun renkou, the Chinese equivalent of ?population‘, can have a numerical pre-modi

fier. Population的汉语对应词“人口”在汉语中可以 用前置数词来修饰。

Examples of Negative Transfer
4、要采取措施缩小贫富差距。 Measures must be taken to narrow the gap between the poor and the rich. the rich and the poor Word order transfer (词序迁移) 东南西北 衣食住行 饥寒交迫 或迟或早 废寝忘食 田径项目 悲欢离合 水陆交通 生老病死

Examples of Negative Transfer
5、他建议我接受这个报价。 He suggested me to accept this offer . He suggested that I (should) accept this offer . He suggested my (me) accepting this offer .
Syntactical transfer (句型迁移) The verb jianyi, the Chinese equivalent of ?suggest‘, can be used in VOC pattern in Chinese. Suggest的汉语对应词“建议”在汉语中可以用 “动词+宾语+补语”的结构。

Examples of Negative Transfer
6. -- Your English is wonderful. -- Oh, no. My English is still poor. -- Your English is wonderful. -- Thank you, but I still have a long way to go before I really master it. Pragmatic transfer (语用迁移) The negative reply to a compliment is considered in Chinese as modest and courteous. 对赞扬的否定回答在汉语中被视为谦虚有礼貌。

Two Types of Transfer
? Negative Transfer (负迁移) Errors arise from analogy. 类推会产生错误。 ? Positive Transfer (正迁移) Errors decrease by analysis. 分析能减少错误。

We could turn negative transfer (interference) into positive (facilitation) by making analysis on differences between the two languages and arouse the learner‘s awareness of avoiding or reducing errors from analogy. 我们可以通过分析两种语言的差异,提高学生避免 或减少类推错误的意识,把负迁移(干扰)转化为正迁 移(促进)。

Typical Syntactic Errors

典型病句

连串句
Loosely-linked Clauses
? The weather was fine, the party was held outdoors. (误) ? The weather was fine. The party was held outdoors. (正) ? The weather was fine, so the party was held outdoors. (正) ? As the weather was fine, the party was held outdoors. (正)

连串句
Loosely-linked Clauses
? Sometimes I come by train, sometimes I come by plane, usually I come by car. (误) ? Sometimes I come by train. Sometimes I come by plane. However, usually I come by car. (正) ? Sometimes I come by train, and sometimes I come by plane, but usually I come by car. (正) ? I come sometimes by train, and sometimes by plane, but usually by car. (正)

残缺句
Incomplete Sentences ? I was born in the country, but grew up, I wanted to go to live in town. (误) ? I was born in the country, but as I grew up, I wanted to go to live in town. (正) ? Those books on the desk. Have you seen? (误) ? Those books are on the desk. Have you seen them? (正)

悬垂句
Dangling Sentences

? At the age of eight, my mother taught me how to play the piano. (误

) ? My mother taught me how to play the piano when I was ten. (正) ? At the age of eight, I was taught how to play the piano by my mother. (正)

悬垂句
Dangling Sentences

? Standing at the top of this mountain, all other mountains looked small. (误) ? Standing at the top of this mountain, I felt that all other mountains looked small. (正) ? As I stood at the top of this mountain, all other mountains looked small. (正)

错位句
Sentences with dislocated elements
? In desperation I could figure out what an ordinary man would do. (误) ? I could figure out what an ordinary man in desperation would do. (正) ? On the track, I saw a group of students running. (误) ? I saw a group of students running on the track. (正)

型误句
Sentences of misused patterns
? The village head led us to build a wide road. (误) ? The village head led us in building a wide road. (正) ? She coached a student to prepare for English examinations. (误) ? She coached a student for English examinations. (正) ? She coached a student in preparing for English examinations. (正)

游移句
Inconsistent Sentences
? Prof. Wang left the auditorium after the lecture was finished. (欠佳) ? Prof. Wang left the auditorium after he finished his lecture. (较好) ? When we meet with difficulties, you should not lose confidence. (欠佳) ? We should not lose confidence when we meet with difficulties. (较好)

失衡句
Unbalanced Sentences
? ? ? ? He is hard-working but lacks experience. (欠佳) He is hard-working but inexperienced. (较好) He works hard, but lacks experience. (较好) We should judge a person not only by his words but also by what he does. (欠佳) ? We should judge a person not only by his words but also by his deeds. (较好) ? We should judge a person not only by what he says but also by what he does. (较好)

赘句
Verbose Sentences
? There is a river running through the city and dividing it into two parts. (欠佳) ? A river runs through the city and divides it into two parts. (较好) ? Let‘s return back to the main point of the discussion. (误) ? Let‘s return to the main point of the discussion. (正) ? Let‘s come back to the main point of the discussion. (正)

赘句
Verbose Sentences
? The reason why he is going to visit the city of Beijing again is because he wants to have a close look around the Forbidden City. (误) ? He is going to visit Beijing again because he wants to have a close look around the Forbidden City. (正) ? The reason for his visiting Beijing again is to have a close look around the Forbidden City. (正)

Part Two

A Contrast Between English and Chinese 英汉对比

Difference Between
Comparative Study and Contrastive Study
Comparative Study lays emphasis on the similarities between languages and applies the di

achronic method of research. 比较研究着重寻找 语言间的相似点,运用 历时的研究方法。 Contrastive Study lays emphasis on the differences between languages and applies the synchronic method of research. 对比研究着重寻找 语言间的不同点,运用 共时的研究方法。

语义型与形态型

Please translate the following:
不要人云亦云。 Don‘t say what others have said. 这件事,你做也好,他做也罢,我看谁都做不好。 Whether you do the matter or he does it, I‘m afraid neither will do it well. 支农惠农政策不断加强。 Policies were constantly strengthened to support and benefit agriculture. 必须采取措施在石油资源耗尽之前开发新能源。 Measures must be taken to develop new energy resources before petroleum resources are used up.

Please translate the following:
你再不起床,我要掀被子了。 If you should refuse to get up, I would pull off your quilt. 你死了,我去当和尚。 If you should die, I would go and be a monk.

Please compare the underlined words:
不要人云亦云。 Don‘t say what others have said. 这件事,你做也好, Whether you do it or he does it, I‘m 他做也罢,我看谁 afraid neither will do it well. 都做不好。 Tense (时态) Policies were constantly strengthened to benefit agriculture. 惠农政策不断加强。 必须采取措施开发新 Measures must be taken to develop new energy resources. 能源。

Voice (语 态)

If you should refuse to get up, I would 你再不起床,我要掀 pull off your quilt. 被子了。 If you should die, I would go and be a 你死了,我去当和尚。 monk.

Mood (语气)

Chinese
Lacking inflection in the strict sense 缺少严格意义的 形态变化 老师们、同学们 认真的态度、 认真地学习

English
Retaining some inflections 保留一些形态变化 v.(动词): tense, aspect, voice, mood n.(名词): number, case, gender pron.(代词): person, gender, case, number adj.(形容词): degree ad.(副词) : degree

他去我不去。 I won‘t go so long as he does. 人无远虑, If one has no long-term considerations, 必有近忧。 he will find trouble at his doorstep.
(Condition 条件)

病来如山倒, Sickness comes like an avalanche, 病去如抽丝。 but goes like reeling silk.
(Contrast, Opposition 对照、转折)

我来他已去。 He had left when I arrived.
(Time Order 时间先后)

他人老心 不老。

Although he has aged physically, he remains young at heart.
(Concession 让步)

Contrast Between English and Chinese
Chinese 语义型语言
(以意统形) Meaning-focused with emphasis on implicit coherence (隐性连贯)

English

形态型语言
(以形驭意) Form-focused with emphasis on explicit cohesion (显性联接)

翻 Another Major Difference 译
Look at the sentence structures of the two languages from another perspective.

欢迎光临

Look at the sentence structu

res of the two languages from another perspective:
* 我的小孙子他很调皮。

My little grandson is very naughty.
* 那辆破车,你早该把它淘汰了。 You should have thrown away the clunker. The clunker should have been thrown away. * 英语这门语言,学会它可不容易。

It is by no means easy to learn the English language.

Compare the sentence structures of the two languages :
? 我的小孙子他很调 ? My little grandson is very 皮。 naughty.
? 那辆破车,你早该 ? You should have thrown 把它淘汰了。 away the clunker. ? 英语这门语言,学 ? It is by no means easy to 会它可不容易。 learn the English language.
Chinese Structure: Topic-Comment 话题-评论 English Structure: Subject-Predicate 主语-谓语

Contrast Between English and Chinese
Chinese
Topic-prominent Language

English
Subject-prominent Language

话题突出型语言
Topic-Comment Sentence Structure (话题-评论结构)

主语突出型语言
Subject-Predicate Sentence Structure (主语-谓语结构)

波浪型与树枝型

Chinese: wave-like discourse structure

(汉语的波式语段结构)
汉语的语段结构犹如 大海的波浪,流泻自由, 似分似合,可断可连,主 谓难辨,形散神聚。 开始我和母亲是不 让父亲抽烟的,得了绝 症后,想开了,抽吧, 拣好的买,想抽就抽。

Chinese: wave-like discourse structure (汉语的波式语段结构)
开始我和母亲是不让父亲抽烟的,得了绝 症后,想开了,抽吧,拣好的买,想抽就抽。
At first Mother and I wouldn‘t let Father smoke. After ( ) contracted the fatal disease, ( ) thought differently. ( ) Just ( smoke, ( ) buy the best cigarettes, ( ) smoke whenever ( ) liked to.
At first Mother and I wouldn‘t let Father smoke. After ( Father ) contracted the fatal disease, (we ) thought differently. (We would) Just (let him) smoke, (and we would) buy the best cigarettes, (and let him) smoke whenever (he) liked to. )

H. W. Fowler (1858 – 1933) :
Rhythmic speech or writing is like waves of the sea, moving onward with alternating rise and fall, connected yet separated, like but different, suggestive of some law, too complex for analysis or statement, controlling the relations between wave and wave, waves and sea, phrase and phrase, phrases and speech.

H. W. Fowler (1858 – 1933) :
节奏感强的语言或文字(指汉语), 浪峰、浪谷似分似合,彼此相像,又各不 相同;隐含着某些规律,但却过于复杂, 难以分析或表述;这些规律规范着波浪与 波浪、波浪与大海、词组与词组、词组与 语段之间的各种关系。

Chinese: wave-like discourse structure

(汉语的波式语段结构)
王力(1984)指出, “就句子的结构而论,西 洋语言是法治的,中国语 言是人治的。” 吕叔湘(1979)说, “汉语口语里有特多流 水句,一个小句接一个 小句,

很多地方可断可 连。”

English: tree-like sentence structure (英语的树式句子结构)
英语的句子结构 好似一棵大树,树干、 树枝、分枝、树叶互 相连接,结构紧密, 形式规范。主谓必须 一致,构成树干;定 语、状语等其余成分 均为枝叶,由连接词 语与树干相连,形成 一棵完整的大树。

English: tree-like sentence structure (英语的树式句子结构)

Trunk line: S + V + (O) Branches and sub-branches : Adverbials and attributes

English: tree-like sentence structure (英语的树式句子结构)
As a nation of gifted people who comprise about one-fourth of the total population of the earth, China plays in world affairs a role that can only grow more important in the years ahead. -- Jimmy Carter

Trunk line: S + V + (O) Branches and sub-branches : Adverbials and attributes

Contrast Between English and Chinese
Chinese
wave-like discourse structure (波式结构) with different sections rise and fall freely like waves without regular rules

English
tree-like sentence structure (树式结构)with different parts connected closely like branches and subbranches to the trunk line

语序固定与语序灵活的差异

Chinese Order of Linguistic Elements 汉语语序(1)
Relatively fixed (相对固定) Order of time (时间先后顺序)
? ? ? ? Words: 古今、先后、早晚、始终、老少、生死 Idioms: 冬去春来、一呼百应、风平浪静 Phrases: 进城卖菜、离家出走、去教室看书 Sentences: 我们在美国读书的时候,结识了一位 木匠。有一天,木匠开车接我们去他家,路上所 谈,尽是木匠的事,深得其乐……

Chinese Order of Linguistic Elements 汉语语序(2)
Order of space (空间大小顺序)
? ? ? ? Words: 大小、宽窄、粗细、长短、厚薄、胖瘦 Idioms: 大同小异、长话短说、厚古薄今 Addresses: 中国上海闵行区江川路690号 Sentences: 一到上海,我们首先想到浦东这片改 革、开放的热土。于是我们驾车来到陆家嘴金融 开发区,那节次鳞比、神态各异的摩天大楼令人 眼花缭乱。我们决定先登上东方明珠广播电视 塔……

Chinese Order of Linguistic Elements 汉语语序(3)
Order of importance (重轻顺序)
? Words: 天地、日月、国家、君臣、优劣、强弱 ? Idioms: 国破家亡、天久地长、优胜劣汰、恃强凌 弱、一人得道,鸡犬升天 ? Phrases: 红色的圆木桌、圆形的红木桌、木制的 红圆桌 ? Sentences: 我用这把刀切肉。 这把刀我用来切肉。 切肉我用这把刀。

Chinese Order of Linguistic Elements 汉语语序(4)
Order of logic <cause-effect, conditionresult> (逻辑顺序:因果,条件-结果) ? 志同道合,友谊才会持久。 ? 名不正则言不顺,言不顺则事不成。 ? 天下雨,运动会延期了。 ? 他爱睡懒觉,考

试难过关。

English Order of Linguistic Elements 英语语序
Relatively flexible order (语序相对灵活) resulting from the use of inflections and connectives

Phrases:
an important event an event of importance the Russian people, the people of Russia, the people living in Russia, the people who live in Russia

English Order of Linguistic Elements 英语语序
Relatively flexible order (语序相对灵活) resulting from the use of flections and connectives

Sentences:
志同道合,友谊才会持久。
Friendship will last only if it is based on a common goal. Only if friendship is based on a common goal, it will last.

天下雨,运动会延期了。 The sports meet was postponed because of rain. Because of rain, the sports meet was postponed.

Please compare:
We saw many signs of occupation while strolling along a street past a major concentration of the huts not far away from the Central Avenue. 我们看到很多住人的迹象, 当漫步街头走过一个很大 的棚户集中地,离中央大 道不远。 我们漫步街头,在中央大 道附近发现了一个很大的 棚户区,有很多迹象表明 茅棚里还住了人。

Pay attention to Chinese order of time and space.

Contrast Between English and Chinese
Chinese
Order of linguistic elements: relatively fixed like bamboomaking (制竹) (语序相对固定)

English
Order of linguistic elements: relatively flexible like blockbuilding (积木) (语序相对灵活)

狮子型与孔雀型

Chinese: left-extending, heavy-headed like a lion
树 一棵树 一棵大树 一棵枝繁叶茂的大树 校园里一棵枝繁叶茂的大树 海事大学校园里一棵枝繁叶茂的大树 临港新城海事大学校园里一棵枝繁叶茂的大树 ……

Limited left-extending structure
青岛是一座气候宜人、风景秀丽、 建筑风格多样、令人流连忘返的海滨城 市。 青岛是一座海滨城市,这里气候宜 人,风景秀丽,建筑风格多样,令人流 连忘返。

English: right-extending heavy-tailed like a peacock
This is the cat. This is the cat that killed the rat. This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt. This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house. This is the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that was built by Jack. …

Contrast Between English and Chinese
Chinese
Chinese: left-extending, heavy-headed like a lion (limitedly so)

English
English: right-extending heavy-tailed like a peacock (almost unlimitedly so)

狮子型语言

孔雀型语言

流动与固定

English: fixed point of sight (视点固定)
―I can lick you.‖ ―No, you can‘t.‖ ―Yes, I can.‖ ―No, you can‘t.‖ ―I can.‖ ―you can‘t.‖ ―Can!‖ ―Can‘t!‖

―我会揍你的。” “不,你不会。” “是的,我会的。” “不,你不会的。” “我会的。” “你不会的。” “会!” “不会!”

Chinese: moving point of sight (视点流动)
―I can lick you.‖ ―No, you can‘t.‖ ―Yes, I can.‖ ―No, you can‘t.‖ ―I can.‖ ―you can‘t.‖ ―Can!‖ ―Can‘t!‖ 我要揍你。 你敢! 敢又怎么样? 那你就试试吧! 试试?哼,你等着瞧! 等着瞧?我才不怕呢! 不怕,好,那你休想逃走。 谁逃了?来呀,你揍啊!

Please compare:
―I can lick you.‖ ―No, you can‘t.‖ ―Yes, I can.‖ ―No, you can‘t.‖ ―I can.‖ ―you can‘t.‖ ―Can!‖ ―Can‘t!‖ 我要揍你。 你敢! 敢又怎么样? 那你就试试吧! 试试?哼,你等着瞧! 等着瞧?我才不怕呢! 不怕,好,那你休想逃走。 谁逃了?来呀,你揍啊!

can can’t

can can’t

can can’t

can can’t

揍 敢 试 瞧 逃 怕

Please compare:
? ―Tom didn‘t go to school today, did he?‖ asked the mother. ? ―No, he didn‘t,‖ Mary said. ? ―汤姆今天没去上 学,是吗?”母 亲问。 ? “不,他没去。” 玛丽说。 ? “是的,他没 去。”玛丽说。

Contrast Between English and Chinese

Chinese
moving point of sight

English
fixed point of sight

(视点流动)

(视点固定)

Six Major Differences Between English and Chinese
英汉六大差异

Contrast Between English and Chinese
Chinese
Meaning-focused with emphasis on implicit coherence (隐性连贯) Paratactic

English
Form-focused with emphasis on explicit cohesion (显性联接) Hypotactic

语义型语言
(以意统形)

形态型语言
(以形驭意)

Contrast Between English and Chinese
Chinese
Topic-Comment Sentence Structure (话题-评论结构)

English
Subject-Predicate Sentence Structure (主语-谓语结构)

Topic-prominent Subject-prominent Language Language 话题突出型语言 主语突出型语言

Contrast Between English and Chinese
Chinese
wave-like discourse structure (波式结构) with different sections rise and fall freely like waves without regular rules

English
tree-like sentence structure (树式结构)with different parts connected closely like branches and subbranches to the trunk line

Contrast Between English and Chinese
Chinese
Order of linguistic elements: relatively fixed like bamboomaking (制竹) (语序相对固定)

English
Order of linguistic elements: relatively flexible like blockbuilding (积木) (语序相对灵活)

Contrast Between English and Chinese
Chinese
Chinese: left-extending, heavy-headed like a lion

English
English: right-extending heavy-tailed like a peacock

狮子型语言

孔雀型语言

Contrast Between English and Chinese

Chinese
moving point of sight

English
fixed point of sight

(视点流动)

(视点固定)

Part Three

English Learning
英语学习

Three Constituents of English Study 英语学习的三个组成部分
? Acquisition of knowledge (获得知识)
phonology(语音), grammar(语法), lexic

ology(词汇)

Accumulation (积累) Mastery(贯通) ? Development of skills (培养技能)
listening(听), speaking(说), reading(读), writing(写), translating(译)

Practice(操练) Proficiency(熟练) ? Settlement of problems(解决问题)
Syntactic(句子), pragmatic(语用), cultural(文化) errors

Awareness(意识)

Adaptability(应变)

Three Factors in Effective English Study (学好英语的三要素)
? Intellectual factor (智力因素)
observation(观察力), attention(注意力), memory (记忆力), reasoning(推理力), imitation(模仿力), imagination(想象力)

? Affective factor (情感因素)
motive(动机), interest(兴趣), emotion(感情), will (意志), character(性格)

? Behavior factor(行为因素)
haphazard(无计划) / planned(有计划); intermittent(断断续续) / persistent(坚持不懈)

陆谷孙话说英语学习
压力与兴趣 有趣、乐趣与志趣

输入与输出

钟道隆的“逆向”英语学习法
向后转与向前看 十目一行与一目十行
―如果毅力不转化为兴趣, 还不如不学。”

陶洁谈英语学习
听说读写,阅读是关键。

背诵 —— 地道
―学习语言没有捷径可走, 非下苦功不可。”

胡壮麟谈英语学习
学习与习得
Learning and Acquisition

兴趣 – 决心 – 持之以恒 – 见效

何其莘谈英语学习
大量阅读,用英语思维。

快速浏览,注意不唇读。
―难易适中,每页不超过 8个生词,。”

姚乃强谈英语学习

先死后活,死去活来。 ―死”指多模仿,多练习; ―活”指熟能生巧,灵活运用。

―眼勤手快,翻烂一本词 典,磨出手指老茧。”

左飚的学习体会
记忆靠重复,掌握靠运用。 有意记忆与无意记忆 目标要高,基础要牢。 视译法 – 口语与口译

谢谢大家!
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