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Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

发布时间:2013-10-23 13:44:14  

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M1: Water and Sanitation in Regard to the Millennium Development Goals

K. Conradin (1&3)M. Kropac (2&4)

CreditsMaterialsincludedinthisCD-ROMcomprisematerialsfromvariousorganisations.ThematerialscompliedonthisCDarefreelyavailableattheinternet,followingtheopen-sourceconceptforcapacitybuildingandnon-profituse,providedproperacknowledgementofthesourceismade.ThepublicationofthesematerialsonthisCD-ROMdoesnotalteranyexistingcopyrights.MaterialpublishedonthisCDforthefirsttimefollowsthesameopen-sourceconceptforcapacitybuildingandnon-profituse,withallrightsremainingwiththeoriginalauthors/producingorganisations.

Thereforetheusershouldpleasealwaysgivecreditincitationstotheoriginalauthor,sourceandcopyrightholder.

WethankallindividualsandinstitutionsthathaveprovidedinformationforthisCD,especiallytheGermanAgencyforTechnicalCooperationGTZ,Ecosanres,EcosanNorway,theInternationalWaterandSanitationCentreIRC,theStockholmEnvironmentInstituteSEI,theWorldHealthOrganisationWHO,theHesperianFoundation,theSwedishInternationalDevelopmentCooperationAgencySIDA,theDepartmentofWaterandSanitationinDevelopingCountriesSANDECoftheSwissFederalInstituteofAquaticScienceandTechnology,SanitationbyCommunitiesSANIMAS,theStockholmInternationalWaterInstituteSIWI,theWaterSupply&SanitationCollaborativeCouncilWSSCC,theWorldWaterAssessmentProgrammeoftheUNESCO,theTearFund,Wateraid,andallothersthathavecontributedinsomewaytothiscurriculum.

Weapologizeinadvanceifreferencesaremissingorincorrect,andwelcomefeedbackiferrorsaredetected.

Weencourageallfeedbackonthecompositionandcontentofthiscurriculum.

K. ConradinK. Conradin

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?ecosan Curriculum -CreditsConcept and ecosan expertise:Johannes Heeb, Petter D. Jenssen, Ken GnanakanCompiling of Information: Katharina ConradinLayout:Katharina ConradinPhoto Credits:Mostly Johannes Heeb & Katharina Conradin, otherwise as per credit.Text Credits:As per source indication.Financial support:Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC)How to obtain the curriculum materialRelease:Feedback:1.0, March 2006, 1000 copiesFeedback regarding improvements, errors, experience of use etc. is welcome. Please notify the above email-addresses.Copyright of the individual sources lies with the authors

or producing organizations. Copying is allowed as long as references are properly acknowledged.Sources Copyright:

K. Conradin

Contents

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.The Water Circle The global water resources situationFreshwater useCompeting uses for FreshwaterIncrease freshwater demandWater Scarcity

?Global Situation?Reasons

?Consequences

7.Groundwater

?Reserves?Depletion

8.Water Pollution

9.Basic Water Needs

Water Resources –The global situation10,000,000 km3

119,000 km3net

91,000 km3

Over 5,000 km3

2,120 km3stored in underground aquifers.of rainfall falling on land after accounting for evaporation.in natural lakes. in man made storage facilities reservoirs. in rivers –constantly replaced from rainfall and melting snow, ice.

Water Circle -General

Source: (1)

The global water cycle is comprised of many small, local or regional water cycles, depending on the precipitation, the topography, soil characteristics and many other factors, which is illustrated by the figure below.The water cycle

? P. Jenssen

Water Cycle –Human InfluenceRise in sea level:

?Waterboundinsnowandice(glaciers,poles)ismeltingduetoglobalchangeandclimatewarming.Thisresultsinariseinthesealevelbetween15and90cmbytheIPCC(IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange).Thisthreatensmillionsofpeoplelivingonsmallislandsorclosetotheseashore.?Theriseinsealevelisincreasedasaresultofthermalexpansionoftheoceans–warmerwaterhasalargervolumethancolderwater.?Theeffectsincludeamongothers

?Increasedcoastalerosion,

?higherstorm-surgeflooding

?moreextensivecoastalinundation

?saltwaterintrusion

?increasedfloodrisk

?impactsonagricultureandaquaculturethroughdeclineinsoilandwaterquality.

Adopted from: (11, 5)

Water Cycle –Human Influence Different distribution patterns:

?Differentdistributionpatternslikelyduetoglobalclimatechange.

?Regionsnowunderwaterstresscangetmorerainfall–butalsothatwaterscarcitycanevenbeincreased.Viceversa,regionswithsufficientrainfallcangetdrieraswell.

?Itislikelythatsingleoccurrencesaremoreintensive(droughts&floods).Increase in storage capacity:

?Therehasbeena7foldincreaseinglobalstoragecapacitysince1950.(artificiallakes,largedamprojectsetc.)(12).Thishassevereconsequencesondownstreamecosystems.

-Drinkingwater:Bytakinganaverageof3ldrinkingwaterFreshwater –Use

WBCSD

WBCSD

perday,thetotalvolumeusedpercapita/yearisonlyIrrigation:roughlyIn1mmany3countries,agriculturaluse(foodproduction)makesupformostofthetotalhumanwaterusage.Theproductionofanimalcaloriesneeds8timesmorewaterthanthatofvegetablecalories.EnergyProduction:Thelargestsingleuseofwaterbyindustryisforcoolinginthermalpowergeneration.Processwater:Papermills,textilefirmsetc.Largewatervolumestobetreated.Mediumforwastedisposal:Figuresvary,butaccordingtotheWHOonlybetween0%and35%ofthewastewaterscreatedgetsomekindoftreatment.Mostwastewatersarejustinducedintonearbywaterbodies.

Waterforproducts:asaningredientSource: (1)

Freshwater –Increasing Pressure on Source: (12)

Freshwater –Increasing Pressure on Source: (12)

Freshwater –Use

?Nearcongruencebetweenthereregionswherethemajorityofthehunger-pronecountriesarelocatedandthearidzonewithsavannahtypeclimate.Freshwater –Use ?recurrentdroughtyears

?highevaporativedemand?Seasonalrainfallwithintermittentdryspellsmakingtherainfallunreliable

?oftenvulnerablesoilswithlowpermeabilityandlowwaterholdingcapacity?Additionally,theareaofirrigatedlandmorethandoubledinthetwentiethcentury(5).

?Thefreshwateruseisgoingtoincreasedrasticallyoverthenextcoupleofdecadesinordertoproduceenoughfood.

?Thus,thereisanurgentneedforagriculturalandwaterpolicies

?rainwatermanagement

?rainfallinfiltration

?waterharvestingsystems(2)

Freshwater –Increased Demand

Source: (2)Percentage increase in consumptive water use for food production by 2015 compared to today

?Inbasicallyalldevelopingcountries,thefreshwateruseforfoodproductionwillincreasestrongly.Thiscanmainlybeattributedtopopulationgrowth–morepeoplerequiremorefood,i.e.agriculturalproducts.Meatproductionneedssignificantlymorewaterthantheproductionofvegetables.

0 –0.2: Low water stress0.2 –0.4: Medium water stress> 0.4 Severe water stressIn2000,themajorityofthesixteenmegacitieswerefoundalongthecoasts,withinregionsexperiencingmildtoseverewaterstress(particularlyinAsia).Themapusesaconventionalmeasureofwaterstress,theratiooftotalannualwaterwithdrawals(1995)dividedbytheestimatedtotalwateravailability(average1961-1990).Source: (29)Water Scarcity –Global Situation

Water Scarcity –General

largeclimaticvariabilitysuffermost(6).?Waterscarcityisarelativeconcept(socialconstruct,productofaffluence,expectationsandcustomarybehaviour,oraresultofclimatechange)(3).?Scarcityoftenhasitsrootsinwatershortage.Drought-affectedregionswith?Waterusehasbeengrowingatmorethantwicetherateofthepopulationincreaseduringthelastcentury.(6).

?By2025,1.8billionpeoplewillliveincountriesorregionswithabsolutewaterscarcityand2/3oftheworldpopulationcouldbeunderstressconditions(UN)

(6).

?Inmostcountries,agriculturedominatesthedemandforwater(irrigation).

(6).

?Poorcommunitiestendtosufferthegreatesthealthburdenfrominadequatewatersuppliesandasresultofill-healthareunabletomoveoutofacycleofpovertyanddisease.(6).

There are several reasons for water scarcity1.Excessivewithdrawalfromsurfacewaters:

2.TheAralSeaintheformerSovietUnion,whohasshrunktolessthanhalfofifsoriginalsize,duetothediversionofthemaincontributingrivers.Water scarcity -Reasons19571984199320002001

Source: (4).

Water Scarcity -Salinisation?Salinisationisageneraltermforallprocesses

whichaccumulatesaltsin

soil.Ittakesplacemainly

inaridclimates.

?highevaporation

?insufficientrainfall,

water(fromrainfallor

irrigation)

Waterascents,dissolved

saltsareprecipitatedand

accumulateatthesoil

surface.???Source: (34)

Water scarcity -Reasons

?Thereareseveralreasonsforwaterscarcity

2.Excessivewithdrawalofwaterfromundergroundaquifers:Alongmanycoastsoftheworld,excessivefreshwaterabstractionhasallowedseawatertoenteraquiferstherebymakingthewatersosalinethatitisunfitforhumanuse(seefollowingslidesongroundwaterdepletion)(5).

3.?interfacebetweenfreshwaterandbrackishwaterwillmoveinland.4.

Water Scarcity –Salt Water Intrusion into Salt attack: Seawater is increasingly infiltrating the drained well fields north of ChennaiGroundwater

Source: (32)

Distance from the sea coast in m

Theredlinesmarkthedistancefromtheseatowhichsaltwaterhadintrudedintherespectiveyears:Inlessthan30years,theseawaterhasintrudedinwardsforalmost20m(32).

Water scarcity –Reasons & Consequences?There are several reasons for water scarcity

3.Pollutionoffreshwaterresources:

?Limitedabsorbingcapacity

?Waterqualitydegradation=oneofthemaincausesofwaterscarcity.

4.Inefficientuseoffreshwater:Poorirrigationpractices,leakageinwaterdeliverysystems,inefficientusebyindustryandexcessiveconsumption(6).

5.Consequencesinclude:

?Inabilitytosustainecosystems

degradationof'natural'systems.integrity.Furtherdisturbanceand

?Conflictpotential:Additionally,manywaterresourcesaresharedbytwoormorecountries?possiblewaterconflicts(6).

Groundwater -ReservesSource: (1)?Groundwateristhemainsourceoffreshwateronearth.?Undergroundwaterreservoirsoftencreatedunderdifferentclimaticconditionsinprehistorictimes(fossilgroundwater).?Thesereservoirscannowalsobelocatedinaridorsemi-aridareas?todayinsufficientrecharge.Accessible Freshwater= only 1/3 of the total 2.5 % !

Anaquiferisarocklayerthatcontainswaterandreleasesitinappreciableamounts.Therockcontainswater-filledporespaces,and,whenthespacesareconnected,thewaterisabletoflowthroughthematrixoftherock.Anaquiferalsomaybecalledawater-bearingstratum,lens,orzone.Thereareconfinedandunconfinedaquifers(14).Groundwater –Aquifers

Source: (31)

Groundwater -Depletion ?Groundwaterdepletion:?Excessiveuse?loweringofgroundwatertable?Delhi:-20msince1960(9).?SimilarinMexicoCity,Bangkok,Manila,Beijing,MadrasandShanghai??severeconsequences:dugwellswithoutwater(1).?Technicalinnovationsandaccesstothemalsoindevelopingcountriesaswellhavemadeitpossibletodrilldeeperanddeeperborewellsandtousestrongerandmoreefficientpumps(5).

Groundwater Depletion can also be caused by

?Deforestation:

?Deforestation?soildegradationandlossofinfiltrationcapacity?higherrunoff.

?Lowerevapotranspiration?loweratmospherichumidityandmoistureconvergence?reducedcloudformationanrainfall(16).Groundwater –Depletion

Groundwater Contamination:

?Ittakeslongerforgroundwaterthansurfacewatertobecontaminated.

?Butoncegroundwaterhasbecomecontaminated,itisverydifficulttocleanitagain,sincetheturnoverrateisextremelyslow(17).

Water PollutionSIWI?Thecurrentdealingwithwastewaterisfatal:Putshortly,itmeansmixingdifferentcontaminantsandwastestreams,relyingondilutionandcausingdegradation(10).?Themostfrequentsourcesofpollutionarehumanwaste,industrialwastesandchemicals,andagriculturalpesticidesandfertilizers.Keyformsofpollutioninclude?faecalcoliforms,?industrialorganicsubstances,?acidifyingsubstancesfromminingaquifersandatmosphericemissions?heavymetalsfromindustry,?ammonia,nitrateandphosphatepollutionfromagriculture,?pesticideresidues(agriculture),?sedimentsfromhuman-inducederosiontorivers,lakesandreservoirs?salinisation(5).

Water Pollution –The River Pollution

?BuildupofpollutantsinawaterbodywithSyndromesexchange.

?limitedwaterTheoutcomeofallinteractionsbywhichwatergetspollutedhasbeendescribedasriversyndromes:

?salinisation

?chemicalcontamination,encompassingoxygendepletion,metalsandagrochemicals

?acidificationinvolvingdecreaseofpH

?eutrophication

?microbialcontaminationrelatedtohighfaecalcoliandrelatedpathogens

?radionuclidecontamination

Source: (13)

SIWI

++ The River Pollution Syndromes

Slow

economic

development

Fast economic

development

Source: (13)

Inregionswithsloweconomicdevelopment,organicandfaecalpollutionrosewithpopulationgrowth.Morerecentissuesareeutrophicationandchemicalpollution.

InfastdevelopingregionsinpartsofAfrica,SouthAmericaandAsia,however,thewaterpollutionissuesalmostcoincideintime,severelycomplicatingeffortsofwaterpollutionabatement.

Water Pollution?“India's rivers, especially the smaller ones, have all turned

into toxic streams. And even the big ones like the Ganga are far from pure. The assault on India's rivers -from

population growth, agricultural modernization, urbanization and industrialization -is enormous and growing by the day…. Most Indian cities get a large part of their drinking water from rivers. This entire life stands threatened.”Source: (33)

M. Kropac

Water Basics: Basic Water Needs

Source: (13)

50litresofwaterperdayperpersonistherecommendedminimumforhouseholduse(basicwaterrequirements)including

?drinkingwaterforsurvival(min:5l/person/day,includingcookingwater)?waterforhumanhygiene,

?waterforsanitationservices

?modesthouseholdneedsforpreparingfood

Upto70timesasmuchcanbeneededtomeettheconsumptivewateruseforproducingaprojectedhumandietforonepersonbasedonakcalconsumptionof3000kcal/day,dependingonthecomposition(11).

?productionofmeatcaloriesneedsatleast8timesmorewaterthanthatofvegetablecalories(1).

Water Basics: Basic Water Needs

Source: (1)

The adjacent chart shows the wide variation in average per capita domestic consumption from different nations.

K. Conradin (1&3)M. Kropac (2&4)

Katharina Conradin, seecon international

Dr. Johannes Heeb, International Ecological Engineering Society

& seecon international

Prof. Dr. Petter Jenssen, Department of Mathematical Sciences and

Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences

Dr. Ken Gnanakan, ACTS Bangalore, India? 2006seeconInternational gmbhACTSAgriculture -Crafts -

Trades -

Studies

++ Glossary: Access to an improved water

++ Glossary: Access to improved sanitation

++ Glossary: Water Scarcity

++ Glossary: Evapotranspiration

++ Glossary: Megacities

++ Glossary: Eutrophication

++ Glossary: Green Revolution

++ Glossary: Aquifer

++ Abbreviations?MDGMillennium Development Goals?

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?PCBPolychlorinated Biphenyls (Chemical Substance)UNUnited NationsUNEPUnited Nations Environment ProgrammeUNESCOUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationWBCSDWorld Business Council for Sustainable DevelopmentWHOWorld Health OrganizationWWAPUN World Water Assessment Programme

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