? "Max" Weber (German pronunciation: [maks ?ve b?]) (1864 – ? 1920) was a German sociologist and political economist, who profoundly influenced social theory, social research, and the remit影响范围 of sociology itself.Weber's major works dealt with the rationalization理性化 。
? Weber is best known for his essay in economic sociology, The Protestant新 教的 Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, a work which also began his project in the sociology of religion. In this text, Weber stressed that particular characteristics of ascetic禁欲主义的 Protestantism influenced the development of capitalism, bureaucracy and the rational-legal state in the West.
? The essay examines the effects that Protestantism had upon the beginnings of capitalism, arguing that capitalism is not purely materialist唯物主义 in Karl Marx's sense, but rather originates in religious ideals.
? Weber was born in 1864, Germany, the eldest of seven children .His father was a wealthy and prominent 著名的politician政治 家in the National Liberal Party (Germany) and a civil servant公务员。His mother was a
Protestant and a Calvinist加尔文主义者, with strong moral ideas.His salon 沙龙received many
prominent scholars and public figures. Weber was strongly influenced by his mother's views and approach to life, but he did not claim to be religious himself.
? The young Weber and his brother Alfred, who also became a sociologist and economist, thrived兴盛 in this intellectual atmosphere. Weber's 1876 Christmas presents to his parents, when he was thirteen years old, were two historical essays entitled "About the course of German history, with special reference to 关于the positions of the emperor君主 and the pope" 。
? He had an extended knowledge of Goethe歌德, Spinoza斯宾诺莎, Kant, and Schopenhauer叔本华 before he began university studies. It seemed clear that Weber would pursue 追求 advanced studies in the social sciences.
? In 1882 Weber enrolled in the University of Heidelberg海德堡大学 as a law student. Along with his law coursework, young Weber attended lectures in economics and studied medieval history and theology. Intermittently一小段时间, he served with the German army 。
? In the autumn of 1884, Weber returned to his parents' home to study at the University of Berlin. For the next eight years of his life, interrupted only by a term at the University of G?ttingen and short periods of further military training, Weber stayed at his parents' house; first as a student, later as a junior barrister,专职律师 and finally as a professor at the University of Berlin. In 1886 Weber passed the examination for "Referendar"实习阶段律师考试
? Throughout the late 1880s, Weber continued his study of history. He earned his law doctorate in 1889 by writing a doctoral dissertation on legal history entitled The History
of Medieval Business Organisations.中世纪商业组织的历史Two years later, Weber completed his Habilitation教授资格考 试, and finished his bookThe Roman Agrarian农业 History and its Significance for Public and Private Law罗马的农业历史和其对公共法及私法的重要 性.Weber was now qualified to hold a German professorship.
? In the years between the completion of his dissertation and habilitation 教授资格, Weber took an interest in contemporary当 时的 social policy.
? In 1888 he joined the "Verein für Socialpolitik"社会政治联盟,the new professional association of German economists德国经济学家教授联合会 affiliated附属 于 with the historical school学派, who saw the role of economics primarily as the solving of the wide-ranging social problems of the age, and who pioneered large scale statistical studies of economic problems.
? He also involved himself in politics。In 1890 the "Verein"联盟 established a research program to examine the influx of foreign farm workers into eastern Germany as local labourers migrated to Germany's rapidly industrialising cities当时德国劳工逐渐迁 往快速工业化的德国城市，大量外国劳工 迁徙德国东部的农村地区.
? Weber was put in charge of the study, and wrote a large part of its results.The final report was widely acclaimed as an excellent piece of empirical research, and cemented Weber's reputation as an expert in agrarian economics.